Ability to Pay

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Level of offense Definition of ability to pay Timeline Burden of proof Method of determination Mandatory Remedies if unable to pay
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 19.2-355 Petition of defendant
(a) In determining whether the defendant is unable to pay such fine forthwith, the court may require such defendant to file a petition, under oath, with the court, upon a
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form provided by the court, setting forth the financial condition of the defendant. (b) Such form shall be a questionnaire, and shall include, but shall not be limited to: the name and residence of the defendant; his occupation, if any; his family status and the number of persons dependent upon him; his monthly income; whether or not his dependents are employed and, if so, their approximate monthly income; his banking accounts, if any; real estate owned by the defendant, or any interest he may have in real estate; income produced therefrom; any independent income accruing to the defendant; tangible and intangible personal property owned by the defendant, or in which he may have an interest; and a statement listing the approximate indebtedness of the defendant to other persons. Such form shall also include a payment plan of the defendant, if the court should exercise its discretion in permitting the payment of such fine and costs in installments or other conditions to be fixed by the court.
All Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

permitting the payment of such fine and costs in installments or other conditions to be fixed by the court

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 19.2-358(C) Show cause hearing on default
B. Following the order to show cause or following a capias issued for a defendant's failure to comply with a court order to appear issued pursuant to subsection A of
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§ 19.2-354, unless the defendant shows that his default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the sentence of the court, or not attributable to a failure on his part to make a good faith effort to obtain the necessary funds for payment, or unless the defendant shows that any failure to appear was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court, the court may order the defendant confined as for a contempt for a term not to exceed sixty days or impose a fine not to exceed $500. The court may provide in its order that payment or satisfaction of the amounts in default at any time will entitle the defendant to his release from such confinement or, after entering the order, may at any time reduce the sentence for good cause shown, including payment or satisfaction of such amounts. C. If it appears that the default is excusable under the standards set forth in subsection B hereof, the court may enter an order allowing the defendant additional time for payment, reducing the amount due or of each installment, or remitting the unpaid portion in whole or in part.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Determined by judge after hearing No

additional time for payment, reducing the amount due or of each installment, or remitting the unpaid portion in whole or in part

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 19.2-363 Authority of Governor to grant relief from fines and penalties in case of deceased defendant
provided, that when the party against whom the fine or penalty has been imposed and judgment rendered therefor has departed this life leaving a spouse or children surviving, the Governor
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may remit such fine or penalty upon the certificate of the judge of the circuit court of the county or city wherein such fine or penalty was imposed and judgment rendered, that to enforce the same against the estate, real or personal, of the decedent, would impose hardship upon the spouse or children
All

would impose hardship upon the spouse or children

At defendant's request at enforcement Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing No

remittance

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 19.2-299.2(C) Local alcohol safety action program - ability to pay
If the referral is to the local alcohol safety action program, the program may charge a fee for the education and intervention component, or both, not to exceed $300, based
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upon the defendant's ability to pay.
All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Not specified

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-150.1 Substance abuse treatment as condition of parole - exemptions
Any person who is granted parole and who is required to receive substance abuse treatment as a condition of parole shall contribute towards the cost of such treatment based upon
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his ability to pay, as established pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Board of Corrections. The regulations shall provide that (i) any fees collected for such treatment shall be paid directly to the service provider and (ii) any person may be exempt from the payment of such fees on the grounds of unreasonable hardship.
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unreasonable hardship

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Administrative decision Yes

exemption from payment of fees

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-57.3(D) Education/treatment program sliding scale fee structure
The court shall require the person entering such education or treatment program or services under the provisions of this section to pay all or part of the costs of the
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program or services, including the costs of any assessment, evaluation, testing, education and treatment, based upon the person's ability to pay. Such programs or services shall offer a sliding-scale fee structure or other mechanism to assist participants who are unable to pay the full costs of the required programs or services.
All Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

sliding scale fee structure

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-251 Program costs - ability to pay
The court shall require the person entering such program under the provisions of this section to pay all or part of the costs of the program, including the costs of
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the screening, assessment, testing, and treatment, based upon the accused's ability to pay unless the person is determined by the court to be indigent.
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Indigence

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Other Yes

exemption from payment of fees

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-251.01(A) Education fee - based upon ability to pay
The services agency or program may require the person entering such program or services under the provisions of this section to pay a fee for the education and treatment component,
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or both, based upon the defendant's ability to pay.
Felony Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Not specified

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-258.1(H) Program costs - indigency
The court shall require the person entering such program under the provisions of this section to pay all or part of the costs of the program, including the costs of
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the screening, evaluation, testing and education, based upon the person's ability to pay unless the person is determined by the court to be indigent.
All

Indigence

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Other Yes

exemption from payment of fees

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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-271.1(B) Waiver of fee - indigency Upon a positive finding that the defendant is indigent, the court may reduce or waive the fee. All

Indigence

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

waiver of fee

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Washington DC DC ST § 16-711 (b) Restitution or reparation
(b) When restitution or reparation is ordered, the court shall take into consideration the number of victims, the actual damage of each victim, the resources of the defendant, the defendant's
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ability to earn, any obligation of the defendant to support dependents, and other matters as pertain to the defendant's ability to make restitution or reparation.
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"… the court shall take into consideration… resources of the defendant, the defendant's ability to earn, any obligation of the defendant to support dependents…"

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing Yes Not provided for
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Washington DC DC ST § 11-2604 (f) Payment for representation
(f) If a person for whom counsel is appointed under this section appeals to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, such person may do so without prepayment of fees
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and costs or security therefor and without filing the affidavit required by section 1915(a) of title 28, United States Code.
All Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Other Yes

May proceed without prepayment of fees

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Washington DC DC ST § 23-106 Witnesses for defense; fees
The court shall order at any time that a subpoena be issued for service upon a named witness on behalf of a defendant if the defendant makes an application for
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such an order and makes a satisfactory showing that he is financially unable to pay the fees of the witness and that the presence of the witness is necessary to an adequate defense. If the court orders the subpoena to be issued the costs incurred by the process and the fees of the witness so subpoenaed shall be paid in the same manner in which similar costs and fees are paid in case of a witness subpoenaed in behalf of the prosecuting authority.
All Not provided for At defendant's request before imposition of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Not provided for Yes

Subpoena and witness fees will be paid by government

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Washington DC DC ST § 11-2605 Services other than counsel
Counsel for a person who is financially unable to obtain investigative, expert, or other services necessary for an adequate defense may request them in an ex parte application. Upon finding,
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after appropriate inquiry in an ex parte proceeding, that the services are necessary and that the person is financially unable to obtain them, the court shall authorize counsel to obtain the services.
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financially unable to obtain necessary services

At defendant's request before imposition of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Determined by judge after hearing No

Cost paid for

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Washington DC D.C. Super. Ct. R. Crim. P. 113 (b) Witness fees
Payment from public funds. No witness entitled to any payment under paragraph (a) shall be paid from public funds except upon certification
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of the witness that the witness was compelled by subpoena to attend as a witness on behalf of a defendant unable to pay or was present pursuant to the direction of the Court or prosecutor, in a specified pending criminal case and that the witness did attend. Such certification shall be endorsed by the Court or by the counsel of record issuing the subpoena or direction and shall be submitted to the Clerk of the Court for certification. The Executive Officer upon submission of the endorsed and verified certification shall make payment by cash or check
All Not provided for Not provided for Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Not provided for No

Cost paid for