Ability to Pay

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Level of offense Definition of ability to pay Timeline Burden of proof Method of determination Mandatory Remedies if unable to pay
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.7(1)-(2) Petition for hearing

1. At any time during the period of probation, parole, or incarceration, the offender or the office or individual who prepared the offender’s restitution plan may petition the court on

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any matter related to the plan of restitution or restitution plan of payment and the court shall grant a hearing if on the face of the petition it appears that a hearing is warranted.

2. After a petition has been filed, the court, at any time prior to the expiration of the offender’s sentence, provided the required notice has been given pursuant to subsection 3, may modify the plan of restitution or the restitution plan of payment, or both, and may extend the period of time for the completion of restitution.

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N/A

Not provided for Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing No

Modification of the restitution plan or payment plan

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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.7 Ability to pay fine presumed.

1. A defendant is presumed to be able to pay a fine. However, if the defendant proves to the satisfaction of the court that the defendant cannot pay the fine, the

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defendant shall not be sentenced to confinement for the failure to pay the fine.

2. A defendant who proves that the defendant cannot pay the fine may, at the discretion of the court, be ordered to perform community service pursuant to section 909.3A.

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Not provided for

Not provided for Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Not provided for No

Community service instead of a fine (additionally, not being imprisoned for failure to pay)

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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.2(2)(a) Restitution or community service

When the offender is not reasonably able to pay all or a part of the crime victim compensation program reimbursement, public agency restitution, court costs including correctional fees approved pursuant

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to section 356.7, court-appointed attorney fees ordered pursuant to section 815.9, including the expense of a public defender, contribution to a local anticrime organization, or medical assistance program restitution, the court may require the offender in lieu of that portion of the crime victim compensation program reimbursement, public agency restitution, court costs including correctional fees approved pursuant to section 356.7, court-appointed attorney fees ordered pursuant to section 815.9, including the expense of a public defender, contribution to a local anticrime organization, or medical assistance program restitution for which the offender is not reasonably able to pay, to perform a needed public service for a governmental agency or for a private nonprofit agency which provides a service to the youth, elderly, or poor of the community.

All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Determined by judge without hearing No

Perform a needed public service for a governmental agency or for a private nonprofit agency which provides a service to the youth, elderly, or poor of the community.

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Iowa Iowa Code § 692A.110(1) Registration fees and civil penalty for offenders

 

A sex offender shall pay an annual fee in the amount of twenty-five dollars to the sheriff of the county of principal residence, beginning with the first required in-person appearance

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at the sheriff’s office after July 1, 2009. If the sex offender has more than one principal residence in this state, the offender shall pay the annual fee in the county where the offender is first required to appear in person after July 1, 2009. The sheriff shall accept the registration. If, at the time of registration, the sex offender is unable to pay the fee, the sheriff may allow the offender time to pay the fee, permit the payment of the fee in installments, or may waive payment of the fee.

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Not provided for

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

Waive payment, allow for payment in installments, or give more time to pay.

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Iowa Iowa Code § 321J.2(3)(c)(2) Operating while under the influence of alcohol or a drug or while having an alcohol concentration of .08 or more (OWI)

As an alternative to a portion or all of the fine, the court may order the person to perform unpaid community service. However, the court shall not order the person

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to perform unpaid community service in lieu of a civil penalty or victim restitution. Surcharges and fees shall also be assessed pursuant to chapter 911.

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N/A

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

Community service

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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.4(2)(d),(3) Condition of probation--payment plan

2. When the offender is committed to a county jail, or to an alternate facility, the office or individual charged with supervision of the offender shall prepare a restitution plan of

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payment taking into consideration the offender’s income, physical and mental health, age, education, employment and family circumstances. d. When there is a significant change in the offender’s income or circumstances, the office or individual which has supervision of the plan of payment shall submit a modified restitution plan of payment to the court.

3. a. When there is a transfer of supervision from one office or individual charged with supervision of the offender to another, the sending office or individual shall forward to the receiving office or individual all necessary information regarding the balance owed against the original amount of restitution ordered and the balance of public service required. b. When the offender’s circumstances and income have significantly changed, the receiving office or individual shall submit a new plan of payment to the sentencing court for approval or modification based on the considerations enumerated in this section.

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Significant change in the defendant's circumstances or income.

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Modified payment plan

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Iowa Iowa Code § 905.14(3) Fees for probation and parole

The department of corrections may adopt rules for the administration of this section. If adopted, the rules shall include a provision for waiving the collection of fees for persons determined

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to be unable to pay.

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Not provided for

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

Waiving the fee at enforcement.

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Iowa Iowa Code § 815.9(6) Indigency determined — penalty

If the person receiving legal assistance is acquitted in a criminal case or is a party in a case other than a criminal case, the court shall order the payment

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of all or a portion of the total costs and fees incurred for legal assistance, to the extent the person is reasonably able to pay, after an inquiry which includes notice and reasonable opportunity to be heard.

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"reasonably able to pay"

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Not provided for

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Iowa Iowa Code § 815.9(1) Indigency determined — penalty

1. For purposes of this chapter, chapters 13B, 229A, 232, 665, 812, 814, and 822, and section 811.1A, and the rules of criminal procedure, a person is indigent if the person is

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entitled to an attorney appointed by the court as follows:

a. A person is entitled to an attorney appointed by the court to represent the person if the person has an income level at or below one hundred twenty-five percent of the United States poverty level as defined by the most recently revised poverty income guidelines published by the United States department of health and human services, unless the court determines that the person is able to pay for the cost of an attorney to represent the person on the pending case. In making the determination of a person’s ability to pay for the cost of an attorney, the court shall consider not only the person’s income, but also the availability of any assets subject to execution, including but not limited to cash, stocks, bonds, and any other property which may be applied to the satisfaction of judgments, and the seriousness of the charge or nature of the case.

b. A person with an income level greater than one hundred twenty-five percent, but at or below two hundred percent, of the most recently revised poverty income guidelines published by the United States department of health and human services shall not be entitled to an attorney appointed by the court, unless the court makes a written finding that not appointing counsel on the pending case would cause the person substantial hardship. In determining whether substantial hardship would result, the court shall consider not only the person’s income, but also the availability of any assets subject to execution, including but not limited to cash, stocks, bonds, and any other property which may be applied to the satisfaction of judgments, and the seriousness of the charge or nature of the case.

c. A person with an income level greater than two hundred percent of the most recently revised poverty income guidelines published by the United States department of health and human services shall not be entitled to an attorney appointed by the court, unless the person is charged with a felony and the court makes a written finding that not appointing counsel would cause the person substantial hardship. In determining whether substantial hardship would result, the court shall consider not only the person’s income, but also the availability of any assets subject to execution, including but not limited to cash, stocks, bonds, and any other property which may be applied to the satisfaction of judgments, and the seriousness of the charge or nature of the case.

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Indigent - person has an income level at or below one hundred twenty-five percent of the United States poverty level as defined by the most recently revised poverty income guidelines published

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by the United States department of health and human services.

Ability to pay - the court shall consider not only the person’s income, but also the availability of any assets subject to execution, including but not limited to cash, stocks, bonds, and any other property which may be applied to the satisfaction of judgments, and the seriousness of the charge or nature of the case.

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge without hearing No

Entitled to a court-appointed attorney.

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Iowa Iowa Code § 815.9(5) Indigency determined — penalty

If the person receiving legal assistance is convicted in a criminal case, the total costs and fees incurred for legal assistance shall be ordered paid when the reports submitted pursuant

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to subsection 4 are received by the court, and the court shall order the payment of such amounts as restitution, to the extent to which the person is reasonably able to pay, or order the performance of community service in lieu of such payments, in accordance with chapter 910.

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"reasonably able to pay"

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Community service in lieu of payment

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Iowa Iowa Code § 815.14 Fee for public defender

The expense of the public defender required to be reimbursed is subject to a determination of the extent to which the person is reasonably able to pay, as provided for

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in section 815.9 and chapter 910.

All

Not provided for

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

Not provided for

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Iowa Iowa Code § 822.5 Postconviction Procedure: Payment of costs

If the applicant is unable to pay court costs and stenographic and printing expenses, these costs and expenses shall be made available to the applicant in the trial court, and

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on review. Unless the applicant is confined in a state institution and is seeking relief under section 822.2, subsection 1, paragraphs “e” and “f”, the costs and expenses of legal representation shall also be made available to the applicant in the preparation of the application, in the trial court, and on review if the applicant is unable to pay. However, nothing in this section shall be interpreted to require payment of expenses of legal representation, including stenographic, printing, or other legal services or consultation, when the applicant is self-represented or is utilizing the services of an inmate.

All

Not provided for

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Non-payment

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 533.030(2)(l) Conditions of probation and conditional discharge; restitution to victim

(2) When imposing a sentence of probation or conditional discharge, the court may, in addition to any other reasonable condition, require that the defendant:

(l) Submit to periodic testing for the

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use of controlled substances or alcohol, if the defendant's record indicates a controlled substance or alcohol problem, and to pay a reasonable fee, as determined by the court, which fee shall not exceed the actual cost of the test and analysis and shall be paid directly to the agency or agencies responsible for testing and analysis as compensation for the cost of the testing and analysis, as specified by written order of the court, performed under this subsection. For good cause shown, the testing fee may be waived by the court;

All

Not provided for

Not provided for Not provided for Determined by judge without hearing No

Fee waived

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 533.030(2)(m) Conditions of probation and conditional discharge; restitution to victim

(2) When imposing a sentence of probation or conditional discharge, the court may, in addition to any other reasonable condition, require that the defendant:

(m) Use an alcohol monitoring device, as

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defined in KRS 431.068. All costs associated with the device, including administrative and operating costs, shall be paid by the defendant.  If the court determines that the defendant is indigent, and a person, county, or other organization has not agreed to pay the costs for the defendant in an attempt to reduce incarceration expenses and increase public safety, the court shall consider other conditions of probation or conditional discharge provided for in this section;

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Indigency

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Alternative method of probation or conditional discharge imposed

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 534.030(2) Fines for felonies

(2) In determining the amount and method of paying a fine for commission of a felony, the court shall consider, among others, the following factors: (a) The defendant's ability to

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pay the amount of the fine; (b) The hardship likely to be imposed on the defendant's dependents by the amount of the fine and the time and method of paying it; (c) The impact the amount of the fine will have on the defendant's ability to make reparation or restitution to the victim; and (d) The amount of the defendant's gain, if any, derived from the commission of the offense.

Felony Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge without hearing Yes

Not specified

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 534.045(1)-(3) Assessment of reimbursement fee against jail prisoners; collection; fee determination; relevant evidence; modification

(1) Pursuant to a conviction of a misdemeanor, including traffic offenses, where a person is sentenced to incarceration in the county jail, the District Court may assess a reimbursement fee

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to help defray the expenses of the prisoner's room and board. The reimbursement fee shall not exceed twenty-five percent (25%) of the prisoner's gross daily wages or forty dollars ($40) per day, whichever is less. All moneys shall be paid directly to the jailer.

(2) In determining whether a reimbursement fee as described in subsection (1) of this section is to be assessed, and in establishing the amount of the fee, the court shall consider evidence relevant to the prisoner's ability to pay the fee . . . 

(3) After considering all relevant evidence to the issue of the prisoner's ability to pay, the court shall enter as part of its judgment the amount of the reimbursement fee, if any, that shall be paid by the prisoner during his period of incarceration in the county jail. The fee shall bear a reasonable relationship to the person's income. Upon petition by the prisoner affected by the order, the amount may be modified to reflect any changes in the financial status of the prisoner. In any appeal that might be taken from the conviction, the amount of the reimbursement fee may be challenged.

All Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Not specified

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 510.320(2)-(3),(6) Human immunodeficiency virus testing for defendants accused of certain sexual offenses; results; counseling when test positive; cost; effect of appeal

(2) A defendant charged with an offense pursuant to this chapter which has sexual intercourse or deviate sexual intercourse as an element, or has sexual contact as an element when

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the circumstances of the case demonstrate a possibility of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, shall upon initial court appearance on the charge, be informed by the judge of the availability of human immunodeficiency virus testing. The judge shall also notify the victim of the offense, or parent or guardian of the victim, that the defendant has been so notified.

(3) When a defendant has been convicted of any offense in subsection (2) of this section, other provisions of law to the contrary notwithstanding, the sentencing court, regardless of any prior human immunodeficiency virus test, shall order the defendant to undergo a human immunodeficiency virus test, under the direction of the Cabinet for Health and Family Services...

(6) The cost of testing under this section shall be paid by the defendant tested, unless the court has determined the defendant to be indigent.

All

Indigency

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge without hearing Yes

Not specified

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 31.211(1)
Determination of ability to pay partial fee for representation and services at arraignment; collection of unpaid partial fee by civil judgment; partial fee credited to local office or department; funds
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placed in special trust and agency account

At arraignment, the court shall conduct a nonadversarial hearing to determine whether a person who has requested a public defender is able to pay a partial fee for legal representation,

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the other necessary services and facilities of representation, and court costs. The court shall order payment in an amount determined by the court and may order that the payment be made in a lump sum or by installment payments to recover money for representation provided under this chapter. This partial fee determination shall be made at each stage of the proceedings.

All

Not provided for

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing Yes

If the court finds that an individual is unable to pay (is "needy") the court shall waive all costs, see Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 31.110

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 24A.175 Court costs for criminal cases in District Court; payment required; exceptions; treatment of minor defendant

The taxation of court costs against a defendant, upon conviction in a case, including persons sentenced to state traffic school as provided under KRS 186.574, shall be mandatory and shall not

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be subject to probation, suspension, proration, deduction, or other form of nonimposition in the terms of a plea bargain or otherwise, unless the court finds that the defendant is a poor person as defined by KRS 453.190(2) and that he or she is unable to pay court costs and will be unable to pay the court costs in the foreseeable future.

All

Not provided for

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Not specified

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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 24A.178(3) Additional fee for sex crime, stalking, or related inchoate offenses

The court may waive all or any portion of the fee required by this section if the court finds that a person subject to the surcharge is indigent or financially

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unable to pay all or any portion of the surcharge. The court may waive only the portion of the surcharge that the court finds the person is financially unable to pay.

All

"Indigent or financially unable to pay"

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

Waiver of fee