Ability to Pay

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Level of offense Definition of ability to pay Timeline Burden of proof Method of determination Mandatory Remedies if unable to pay
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 45-6-101(2) Criminal Mischief
Upon good cause shown by the convicted person, the court may modify any previous order specifying the amount and manner of restitution. Full payment of the amount of restitution ordered
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must be made prior to the release of state jurisdiction over the person convicted
All Not provided for At defendant's request at enforcement Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Not provided for No

Modify previous order specifying the amount and manner of restitution.

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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-111 Presentence investigation--when required
The defendant shall pay to the department of corrections a $50 fee at the time that the report is completed, unless the court determines that the defendant is not able
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to pay the fee within a reasonable time.
All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Waive or reduce fee

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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-111 Presentence investigation--when required
The psychosexual evaluation must be made available to the county attorney's office, the defense attorney, the probation and parole officer, and the sentencing judge. All costs related to the evaluation
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must be paid by the defendant. If the defendant is determined by the district court to be indigent, all costs related to the evaluation are the responsibility of the district court and must be paid by the county or the state, or both, under Title 3, chapter 5, part 9. The district court may order subsequent psychosexual evaluations at the request of the county attorney. The requestor of any subsequent psychosexual evaluations is responsible for the cost of the evaluation.
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Indigency

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Waive or reduce fee

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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 771.3(6)(a) Cost imposed as part of sentence of probation
(6) If the court imposes costs under subsection (2) as part of a sentence of probation, all of the following apply: (a) The court shall not require a probationer to
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pay costs under subsection (2) unless the probationer is or will be able to pay them during the term of probation. In determining the amount and method of payment of costs under subsection (2), the court shall take into account the probationer's financial resources and the nature of the burden that payment of costs will impose, with due regard to his or her other obligations.
All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Not specified

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Washington DC DC ST § 11-2604 (f) Payment for representation
(f) If a person for whom counsel is appointed under this section appeals to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, such person may do so without prepayment of fees
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and costs or security therefor and without filing the affidavit required by section 1915(a) of title 28, United States Code.
All Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Other Yes

May proceed without prepayment of fees

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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2284 Probation or parole; revocation; conditions
If the defendant is placed on probation or paroled, the court may revoke probation, and the Board of Parole may revoke parole if the defendant fails to comply with the
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restitution order. In determining whether to revoke probation or parole, the court or Board of Parole shall consider the defendant's earning ability and financial resources, the willfulness of the defendant's failure to pay, and any special circumstances affecting the defendant's ability to pay. Probation or parole may not be revoked unless noncompliance with the restitution order is attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order or a failure to make a good faith effort to comply with the order.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

N/A

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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-08(4)(b) Hearing prior to ordering restitution, reparation, or reimbursement of indigent defense costs and expenses--Conditions--Collection of restitution for insufficient funds checks--Continuing appropriation
A defendant who is required to reimburse indigent defense costs and expenses as a condition of probation and who is not willfully in default in that reimbursement may at any
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time petition the court that imposed the condition to waive reimbursement of all or any portion of the costs and expenses. If the court is satisfied that reimbursement of the amount due will impose undue hardship on the defendant or the defendant's immediate family, the court may waive reimbursement of all or any portion of the amount due or modify the method of payment.
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the amount due will impose undue hardship on the defendant or the defendant's immediate family

At defendant's request at enforcement Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Determined by judge after hearing No

waived

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Pennsylvania 18 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 1106 Restitution for injuries to person or property
At the time of sentencing the court shall specify the amount and method of restitution. In determining the amount and method of restitution, the court: (i) Shall consider the extent
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of injury suffered by the victim, the victim's request for restitution as presented to the district attorney in accordance with paragraph (4) and such other matters as it deems appropriate. (ii) May order restitution in a lump sum, by monthly installments or according to such other schedule as it deems just. (iii) Shall not order incarceration of a defendant for failure to pay restitution if the failure results from the offender's inability to pay.
All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

payment plan

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Nevada Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 213.1076 (2) Fee to defray costs of supervision; regulations; waiver
2.  The Chief may waive the fee to defray the cost of supervision, in whole or in part, if the Chief determines that payment of the fee would create an economic
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hardship on the parolee, probationer or person supervised by the Division through residential confinement.
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economic hardship

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

reduction or waiver of fee

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Nevada Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 176.139 (7) Presentence investigation and report: Psychosexual evaluation of certain sex offenders required; standards and methods for conducting evaluation; access to records; rights of confidentiality and privileges deemed waived; costs
If a psychosexual evaluation is conducted pursuant to this section, the court shall: (a) Order the defendant, to the extent of the defendant’s financial ability, to
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pay for the cost of the psychosexual evaluation; or (b) If the defendant was less than 18 years of age when the sexual offense was committed and the defendant was certified and convicted as an adult, order the parents or guardians of the defendant, to the extent of their financial ability, to pay for the cost of the psychosexual evaluation. For the purposes of this paragraph, the court has jurisdiction over the parents or guardians of the defendant to the extent that is necessary to carry out the provisions of this paragraph.
All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes Not provided for
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California Cal. Gov. Code § 29550(d)(2) Funds - Criminal Justice Administrative Fees: Imposition of fee

The court shall, as a condition of probation, order the convicted person, based on his or her ability to pay, to reimburse the county for the criminal justice administration fee, including

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applicable overhead costs.

Other Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No Not provided for
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Alabama Ala. Code 1975 §15-27-12 Expungement of records: Payment in full required

No order of expungement shall be granted unless all terms and conditions, including court ordered restitution, are satisfied and paid in full, including interest, to any victim, or the Alabama

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Crime Victim’s Compensation Commission, as well as court costs, fines, or statutory fees ordered by the sentencing court to have been paid, absent a finding of indigency by the court.

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Indigency

Not provided for Not provided for Administrative decision No

Not provided for

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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 12.55.045(g),(j),(k) Restitution and Compensation

(g) The court may not, in ordering the amount of restitution, consider the defendant’s ability to pay restitution; (j)  A defendant who is convicted of an offense for which restitution may be

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ordered shall submit financial information as ordered by the court. The Alaska Court System shall prepare a form, in consultation with the Department of Law, for the submission of the information; the form must include a warning that submission of incomplete or inaccurate information is punishable as unsworn falsification in the second degree under AS 11.56.210. A defendant who is convicted of (1) a felony shall submit the form to the probation office within 30 days after conviction, and the probation officer shall attach the form to the presentence report, or (2) a misdemeanor shall file the form with the defendant’s response or opposition to the restitution amount. The defendant shall provide a copy of the completed form to the prosecuting authority;  (k)  The court, on its own motion or at the request of the prosecuting authority or probation officer, may order a defendant on probation who has been ordered to pay restitution to submit financial information to the court using the form specified in (j) of this section. The defendant shall file the completed form with the court within five days after the court’s order. The defendant shall provide a copy of the completed form to the prosecuting authority and the person’s probation officer, if any.

All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No Not provided for
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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 18.85.155(a) Payment by Municipality

When a municipality prosecutes a person who has been determined by the court to be indigent under AS 18.85.120 for a violation of a municipal ordinance that is a serious crime, the

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municipality shall pay for the services of the attorney appointed by the court to defend the indigent person.

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"Indigent under AS 18.85.120"

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

The municipality shall pay for the services of the attorney appointed by the court to defend the indigent person.

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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 33.30.028(b) Responsibility for Costs of Medical Care

The commissioner shall require prisoners who are without resources under (a) of this section to pay the costs of medical, psychological, and psychiatric care provided to them by the department.

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At a minimum, the prisoner shall be required to pay a portion of the costs based upon the prisoner’s ability to pay.

All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Administrative decision No

Required to pay a portion of the costs.

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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 12.55.100(f) Conditions of Probation

 

While on probation and as a special condition of probation for an offense where the aggravating factor provided in AS 12.55.155(c)(29) has been proven or admitted, the court shall require that the

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defendant submit to electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring under this subsection must provide for monitoring of the defendant’s location and movements by Global Positioning System technology. The court shall require a defendant serving a period of probation with electronic monitoring as provided under this subsection to pay all or a portion of the costs of the electronic monitoring, but only if the defendant has sufficient financial resources to pay the costs or a portion of the costs. A defendant subject to electronic monitoring under this subsection is not entitled to a credit for time served in a correctional facility while the defendant is on probation. In this subsection, “correctional facility” has the meaning given in AS 33.30.901.

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"Sufficient financial resources to pay the costs or a portion of the costs."

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No Not provided for
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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 09.19.010 Limitation on Exemption From Filing Fees

(c)  Based on the submission under (b) of this section, the court may grant an exemption from part of the applicable filing fees if the court finds that exceptional circumstances

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prevent the prisoner from paying full filing fees. Imprisonment and indigency do not constitute exceptional circumstances if the prisoner has available income or resources that can be applied to the filing fee; (d)  If the court orders an exemption under (c) of this section, the court shall determine the amount of the exemption and set a filing fee to be paid by the prisoner. In setting the fee, the court, at a minimum, shall require the prisoner to pay filing fees equal to 20 percent of the larger of the average monthly deposits made to the prisoner’s account described in (b)(2) of this section, or the average balance in that account, not to exceed the amount of the full filing fee required under applicable court rules.

All

"Exceptional circumstances prevent the prisoner from paying full filing fees"

At defendant's request before imposition of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Administrative decision No

Fee is recalculated based on prisoner's resources.

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Arkansas A.C.A. § 5-2-331 Cost of Mental Health Services, Examination, and Treatment of Defendant

Rules establishing reasonable charges for the cost of treatment or other mental health services under this section shall provide for waiving or postponing the collection of the charges based on:

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(A)  Clinical considerations; (B)  The defendant's inability to pay; or (C)  A court determination that the defendant is wholly or partly indigent and qualifies for the appointment of an attorney under § 16-87-213.

All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Administrative decision No Not provided for
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Arkansas A.C.A. § 16-13-704 Installment Payments -- Definition

(a) (1)  If the court concludes that the defendant has the ability to pay the fine, but that requiring the defendant to make immediate payment in full would cause a severe and

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undue hardship for the defendant and the defendant's dependents, the court may authorize payment of the fine by means of installment payments in accordance with this subchapter;  (d)  "Ability to pay" means that the resources of the defendant, including all available income and resources, are sufficient to pay the fine and provide the defendant and his or her dependents with a reasonable subsistence compatible with health and decency.

All

"The resources of the defendant, including all available income and resources, are sufficient to pay the fine and provide the defendant and his or her dependents with a reasonable subsistence

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compatible with health and decency."

Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No Not provided for
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Colorado C.R.S. 16-18.5-104(1);(3) Initial Collections Investigation - Payment Schedule

(1)  Orders for restitution shall be due and payable at the time that the order of conviction is entered. Unless the defendant is sentenced to the custody of the executive director

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of the department of corrections, if at the time that the court enters an order for restitution pursuant to section 18-1.3-603, C.R.S., the defendant alleges that he or she cannot pay the full amount of restitution, the court shall direct that the defendant report immediately to the collections investigator.... (3)(a) Upon referral of a defendant pursuant to subsection (2) of this section, the collections investigator shall conduct an investigation into the financial ability of the defendant to pay the restitution ordered by the court. Such investigation may consist of but is not limited to: (I)  Submission of written financial affidavits or disclosures of the defendant's personal, household, and business income, assets, and liabilities; (II)  Submission to an oral examination of the defendant's financial circumstances; (III)  Submission of books, papers, documents, or other tangible things related to the defendant's financial circumstances including but not limited to: (A)  Payroll stubs; (B)  Financial institution account statements; (C)  Stock certificates; (D)  Deeds, titles, or other evidence of ownership; (E)  State and federal tax records; and (F)  Insurance policies and statements; (IV)  Research and verification of all oral and written statements made by the defendant. (b)  In the case of a juvenile defendant, the collections investigator may conduct the investigation into the juvenile's parents' or legal guardian's financial circumstances as well as the juvenile's. (c)  For purposes of conducting the investigation required by this subsection (3), the collections investigator shall have access to data maintained by other state agencies including but not limited to wage data, employment data, and income tax data. The judicial department and any other departments are authorized to enter into agreements for the sharing of such data. (d)  Notwithstanding the provisions of article 72 of title 24, C.R.S., documents and information obtained by the collections investigators pursuant to this subsection (3) shall not be public records, but shall be open to public inspection only upon an order of the court based on a finding of good cause. Documents and information obtained by the collection investigators may be made available to the victim and to any private collection agency or third party with whom the judicial department may contract for the collection of past due restitution. In addition, if any warrant is issued for the arrest of any defendant due to nonpayment of restitution, information concerning the defendant's address and place of employment may be shared with a criminal justice agency.

All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on government to show ability to pay Administrative decision No Not provided for