Ability to Pay

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Level of offense Definition of ability to pay Timeline Burden of proof Method of determination Mandatory Remedies if unable to pay
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Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-30(e) Conditions of probation and conditional discharge. If the court finds that the person subject to electronic monitoring is indigent and unable to pay the costs of electronic monitoring services, it shall waive such costs. All

indigent and unable to pay the costs

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

The court shall waive such costs

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Florida Fla. Stat. §316.193(6) Driving under the influence; penalties
For the purposes of this section, any conviction for a violation of s. 327.35; a previous conviction for the violation of former s. 316.1931, former s. 860.01, or former s.
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316.028; or a previous conviction outside this state for driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, driving with an unlawful blood-alcohol level, driving with an unlawful breath-alcohol level, or any other similar alcohol-related or drug-related traffic offense, is also considered a previous conviction for violation of this section. However, in satisfaction of the fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may, upon a finding that the defendant is financially unable to pay either all or part of the fine, order that the defendant participate for a specified additional period of time in public service or a community work project in lieu of payment of that portion of the fine which the court determines the defendant is unable to pay. In determining such additional sentence, the court shall consider the amount of the unpaid portion of the fine and the reasonable value of the services to be ordered; however, the court may not compute the reasonable value of services at a rate less than the federal minimum wage at the time of sentencing.
All

Inability to pay: Defendant is financially unable to pay either all or part of the fine

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

Public service or Community work project

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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. ? 8-1567 Driving a commercial motor vehicle under the influence; penalties
In lieu of payment of a fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may order that the person perform community service specified by the court. The person shall receive
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a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed not later than one year after the fine is imposed or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date.
Misdemeanor, Felony Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

Community service

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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 471.6H Final eligibility hearing--Acceptance into program--Duration of participation--Costs and fees--Driving privileges
Court orders for costs and fees shall remain an obligation of the offender until fully paid; provided, however, once the offender has successfully completed the drug court program, the drug
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court judge shall have the discretion to expressly waive all or part of the costs and fees provided for in this subsection if, in the opinion of the drug court judge, continued payment of the costs and fees by the offender would create a financial hardship for the offender. Offenders who have not fully paid all costs and fees pursuant to court order but who have otherwise successfully completed the drug court program shall not be counted as an active drug court participant for purposes of drug court contracts or program participant numbers.
All

No financial hardship

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for No

Waiver of fee

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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 1355A Application for representation by the System
except that the court may, based upon the financial information submitted, defer all or part of the fee if the court determines that the person does not have the financial
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resources to pay the fee at time of application, to attach as a court fee upon conviction.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Determined by judge without hearing No

Deferment of fee

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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 8-21-401(m) Fees for particular services
(m) Indigent parties. No clerk shall be permitted to collect any fee authorized by this section without permitting any person the opportunity to institute a cause of action by means
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of a pauper's oath, in accordance with Rule 29 of the Rules of the Tennessee Supreme Court.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Not provided for Yes

Not specified

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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann 10.82.090(2) Interest on judgments--Disposition of nonrestitution interest
The court may, on motion by the offender, following the offender's release from total confinement, reduce or waive the interest on legal financial obligations levied as a result of a
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criminal conviction as follows:(a) The court shall waive all interest on the portions of the legal financial obligations that are not restitution that accrued during the term of total confinement for the conviction giving rise to the financial obligations, provided the offender shows that the interest creates a hardship for the offender or his or her immediate family; (b) The court may reduce interest on the restitution portion of the legal financial obligations only if the principal has been paid in full; (c) The court may otherwise reduce or waive the interest on the portions of the legal financial obligations that are not restitution if the offender shows that he or she has personally made a good faith effort to pay and that the interest accrual is causing a significant hardship. For purposes of this section, “good faith effort” means that the offender has either (i) paid the principal amount in full; or (ii) made at least fifteen monthly payments within an eighteen-month period, excluding any payments mandatorily deducted by the department of corrections; (d) For purposes of (a) through (c) of this subsection, the court may reduce or waive interest on legal financial obligations only as an incentive for the offender to meet his or her legal financial obligations. The court may grant the motion, establish a payment schedule, and retain jurisdiction over the offender for purposes of reviewing and revising the reduction or waiver of interest.
All

Significant hardship and demonstration of a good faith effort to pay

At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Not provided for No Not provided for
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 772.6 Failure to pay recognizance
If the person so ordered to recognize refuses or neglects to provide that recognizance, the court shall commit the person to the county jail during the period for which security
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was required, or until the person provides that recognizance. A person shall not be incarcerated for failure to pay the recognizance unless the court conducts a hearing and determines that the person has the resources to pay the recognizance and has not made a good faith effort to do so. In determining whether to incarcerate the person, the court shall also consider the person's employment status, earning ability, and financial resources; the willfulness of the person's failure to pay the recognizance; and any other special circumstances that may have a bearing on the person's ability to pay the recognizance. The court shall state in the warrant the cause of commitment with the sum and the time for which the security was required.
All

the person has the resources to pay the recognizance and has not made a good faith effort to do so

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing No

none

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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 257.908(1)-(4) Default as civil contempt; penalty
If a defendant defaults in the payment of a civil fine, costs, or both, or of any installment, as ordered pursuant to section 907(2), the court, upon the motion of
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the plaintiff or upon its own motion, may require the defendant to show cause why the default should not be treated as in civil contempt and may issue a summons or order to show cause or a bench warrant of arrest for the defendant's appearance. . . . If it appears that the default in the payment of a civil fine or costs does not constitute civil contempt, the court may enter an order allowing the defendant additional time for payment, reducing the amount of payment or of each installment, or revoking the fine or costs or the unpaid portion thereof in whole or in part. . .
Traffic

"default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court or to a failure on his or her part to make a good faith effort

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to obtain the funds required for payment"

At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Determined by judge after hearing No

allowing the defendant additional time for payment, reducing the amount of payment or of each installment, or revoking the fine or costs or the unpaid portion thereof in whole or

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in part

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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.8729(1)-(4) Payment of fine, default as civil contempt
If a defendant defaults in the payment of a civil fine, costs, assessment, or, if applicable, damages or expenses as provided in section 8733(2) if applicable, or any installment, as
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ordered pursuant to section 8727, the court, upon the motion of the plaintiff or upon its own motion, may require the defendant to show cause why the defendant should not be held in civil contempt and may issue a summons, an order to show cause, or a bench warrant of arrest for the defendant's appearance. . . . If it appears that the default in the payment of a fine, costs, assessment, or damages or expenses does not constitute civil contempt, the court may enter an order allowing the defendant additional time for payment, reducing the amount of payment or of each installment, or revoking the fine, costs, assessment, or damages or expenses.
All

"the default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court or to a failure on his or her part to make a good faith

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effort to obtain the funds required for payment"

At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Determined by judge after hearing No

allowing the defendant additional time for payment, reducing the amount of payment or of each installment, or revoking the fine, costs, assessment, or damages or expense

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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 5-6-202(b) Powers and duties of municipal judge generally; court to open every day except Sunday.
(b) The municipal judge shall enforce due obedience to all orders, rules and judgments made by him. The judge has the same power as the district court in the
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issuance of warrant, search warrant, subpoena or other necessary process and may fine or imprison for contempt offered to him or to process issued by him in the same manner and to the same extent as the district court. Before any person is imprisoned for the willful refusal to pay a fine, the court shall determine whether the defendant has an ability to pay or that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

NA

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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 5-6-301(b) Punishment of persons convicted before judge; maximum penalty permitted; power to punish for contempt.
(b) The municipal judge shall punish for contempt in the same manner as district court. Before any person is imprisoned for the willful refusal to pay a fine,
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the court shall determine whether the defendant has an ability to pay or that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

NA

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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-6-106 Determination of need; reimbursement for services
(a) The determination of whether a person covered by W.S. 7 6 104 is a needy person shall be deferred until his first appearance in court or in a
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suit for payment or reimbursement under W.S. 7 6 108, whichever occurs earlier. Thereafter, the court shall determine, with respect to each proceeding, whether he is a needy person. For purposes of this section, an appeal, probation revocation or proceeding to correct or modify a sentence is a separate proceeding. The determination of need shall be based on a separate application submitted at the time of each proceeding. (b) In determining whether a person is a needy person and in determining the extent of his inability to pay, and, in the case of an unemancipated minor, the inability to pay of his custodial parent or another person who has a legal obligation of support, the court shall consider the standards set forth in Rule 44(d), Wyoming Rules of Criminal Procedure. Release on bail does not necessarily prevent a person from being determined to be needy. In each case the person, subject to the penalties for perjury, shall certify in writing, or by other record, the material factors relating to his ability to pay as the court prescribes. (c) In every case in which a person has received services under W.S. 7 6 104, the presiding judge shall determine whether the person or, in the case of an unemancipated minor, his custodial parent or any other person who has a legal obligation of support, is able to provide any funds towards payment of part or all of the cost associated with such services. If the person or, in the case of an unemancipated minor, his custodial parent or any other person who has a legal obligation of support, is not able to provide any funds towards payment of costs, the court shall enter a specific finding on the record. If the court determines the person or, in the case of an unemancipated minor, his custodial parent or any other person who has a legal obligation of support, is able to provide any amount as reimbursement, the court shall order the person or, in the case of an unemancipated minor, his custodial parent or any other person who has a legal obligation of support, to reimburse the state for all or part of the costs of the services provided or shall state on the record the reasons why an order for reimbursement was not entered. Where a person is initially provided with counsel pursuant to W.S. 7 6 105(a), but subsequently retains private counsel, the court may order the person to reimburse the state for the services already provided. All reimbursements under this act shall be made through the clerk of court. (d) The state public defender shall report in the agency's annual report concerning: (i) The number of cases by court in which an attorney was appointed to represent a person at public expense under this act during the preceding calendar quarter; (ii) For each case in which an attorney was appointed, whether the court ordered reimbursement under this section or, if reimbursement was not ordered, whether the court complied with subsection (c) of this section; (iii) For the guardian ad litem program, the number of cases, the amount of monies expended and the amounts of reimbursements from participating counties. (e) If the court orders release on bail pending trial or appeal, probation before sentence, suspended sentence or probation, the court shall order the needy person as a condition of bail, sentence or probation to repay the state for expenses and services provided by appointed attorneys pursuant to the state public defender's standard fee schedule if the court determines the defendant has an ability to pay or that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay.
All

In making a determination of eligibility, the judicial officer shall consider: (1) The probable cost of representation given the number and severity of the offenses charged and the factual and

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legal complexity of the case. (2) The defendant's income from all sources and the defendant's capacity to earn income. (3) The expenses of the defendant's household and whether a spouse or roommate contributes or ought to contribute to those expenses. (4) The defendant's responsibility for the support of others. (5) The defendant's assets whether held individually or with others. (6) The defendant's debts and the periodic payments due on the debts. (7) The defendant's capacity to borrow money. Uncertainty as to a defendant's eligibility for appointed counsel should be resolved in the defendant's favor. An erroneous determination of eligibility may be corrected at any time.

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

No

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West Virginia W. Va. Code §62-4-17. Criminal procedure - Recovery of fines in criminal cases - Duties of prosecuting attorney in relation to fines.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section to the contrary, the notice of the failure to pay such costs, fines, forfeitures or penalties shall not be given where the circuit
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court, upon application of the person upon whom the same were imposed filed prior to the expiration of the period within which the same are required to be paid, enters an order finding that such person is financially unable to pay all or a portion of the same: Provided, That where the circuit court, upon finding that the person is financially unable to pay the full amount thereof, requires the person to pay the remaining portion thereof, the circuit clerk shall notify the division of motor vehicles of such person's failure to pay the same if the same is not paid within the period of time ordered by such court.
All

NA

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

if payment for a lower amount, suspension of the driver's license is still possible to enforce payment of that lower amount. if no payment is required, no suspension will be

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ordered.

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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2284 Probation or parole; revocation; conditions
If the defendant is placed on probation or paroled, the court may revoke probation, and the Board of Parole may revoke parole if the defendant fails to comply with the
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restitution order. In determining whether to revoke probation or parole, the court or Board of Parole shall consider the defendant's earning ability and financial resources, the willfulness of the defendant's failure to pay, and any special circumstances affecting the defendant's ability to pay. Probation or parole may not be revoked unless noncompliance with the restitution order is attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order or a failure to make a good faith effort to comply with the order.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

N/A

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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-07-1.1 Payment of expenses for defense of indigents--Reimbursement of indigent defense costs and expenses--Indigent defense administration fund--Continuing appropriation
For an application for indigent defense services in the district court, a nonrefundable application fee of thirty-five dollars must be paid at the time the application is submitted. The district
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court may extend the time for payment of the fee or may waive or reduce the fee if the court determines the defendant is financially unable to pay all or part of the fee.
All

financially unable to pay all or part of the fee

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Yes

extend time for payment; reduce fee

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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9730 Payment of Court Costs, Restitution, and Fines
If a defendant defaults in the payment of a fine, court costs or restitution after imposition of sentence, the issuing authority or a senior judge or senior magisterial district judge
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appointed by the president judge for the purposes of this section may conduct a hearing to determine whether the defendant is financially able to pay. . . If the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge determines that the defendant is without the financial means to pay the fine or costs immediately or in a single remittance, the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge may provide for payment in installments. In determining the appropriate installments, the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge shall consider the defendant's financial resources, the defendant's ability to make restitution and reparations and the nature of the burden the payment will impose on the defendant. If the defendant is in default of a payment or advises the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge that default is imminent, the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge may schedule a rehearing on the payment schedule. At the rehearing the defendant has the burden of proving changes of financial condition such that the defendant is without the means to meet the payment schedule. The issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge may extend or accelerate the schedule, leave it unaltered or sentence the defendant to a period of community service as the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge finds to be just and practicable under the circumstances.
All

financial means to pay, taking account of financial resources and nature of burden

At enforcement of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay Not provided for No

extension or acceleration of payment schedule; community service

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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Cts. & Jud. Proc. § 7-201(b) Waiver of Fees for Indigent Petitioners
The circuit court shall pass an order waiving the payment in advance if: (1) Upon petition for waiver, it is satisfied that the petitioner is unable by reason of his
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poverty to make the payment; and (2) The petitioner's attorney, if any, certifies that the suit, appeal, or writ is meritorious.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing No

Waiver of fee

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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Cts. & Jud. Proc. § 7-405 Waiver of Criminal Court Costs
The District Court or a circuit court in a criminal case may not waive any court costs imposed under § 7-409 of this subtitle unless the defendant establishes indigency as
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provided in the Maryland Rules.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing No

Waiver of fee

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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Cts. & Jud. Proc. § 7-504(c)(2) Ability to Pay Fine
(a) A defendant who is unable to pay a fine ordered by a court may apply to the court for a reduction of the fine. (b) If a defendant
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fails or is unable to pay a fine as ordered by a court, the court may investigate the reasons for the failure or inability to pay the fine, including the defendant's financial and family situation and whether nonpayment of the fine is contumacious or is due to indigence. (c) After an investigation that a court considers necessary as to the reasons for the failure or inability to pay a fine, the court: (1) May order that the individual be committed to a correctional facility; (2) May reduce the fine to an amount that the court determines the defendant is able to pay; or (3) Subject to subsection (d) of this section, may direct that the individual be imprisoned until payment of: (i) The fine; or(ii) Part of the fine that is undischarged after a pro rata credit for time served instead of payment.
All Not provided for At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing No

Commitment; Reduction of Fee; Incarceration until payment based upon a per diem rate