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Fines and Fees
State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Amount Type of financial obligation Type of court Level of offense Mandatory Imposed by Delegation of authority
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(l)(1) Transportation of Hazardous Materials - First offense
Any person who is convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of § 22-409 of this article (“Transportation of hazardous materials”), § 23-403(b) of this article (Obeying signs
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to stop for a diesel emissions test), § 24-111(d) or (e) of this article (Obeying signs to stop for inspection), § 24-111.1(b), (d)(2), or (e)(2) of this article (Overweight vehicles), or § 25-111 of this article (Motor carrier safety violations) is subject to a fine of: (1) Not more than $1,000 for a first offense;
$0 - $1000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(l)(2) Transportation of Hazardous Materials - Second Offense
Any person who is convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of § 22-409 of this article (“Transportation of hazardous materials”), § 23-403(b) of this article (Obeying signs
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to stop for a diesel emissions test), § 24-111(d) or (e) of this article (Obeying signs to stop for inspection), § 24-111.1(b), (d)(2), or (e)(2) of this article (Overweight vehicles), or § 25-111 of this article (Motor carrier safety violations) is subject to a fine of: (2) Not more than $2,000 for a second offense;
$0 - $2000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(l)(3) Transportation of hazardous materials - subsequent offense
Any person who is convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of § 22-409 of this article (“Transportation of hazardous materials”), § 23-403(b) of this article (Obeying signs
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to stop for a diesel emissions test), § 24-111(d) or (e) of this article (Obeying signs to stop for inspection), § 24-111.1(b), (d)(2), or (e)(2) of this article (Overweight vehicles), or § 25-111 of this article (Motor carrier safety violations) is subject to a fine of: (3) Not more than $3,000 for a third or subsequent offense.
$0 - $3000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(m) Exceeding Speed Limit in Highway Work Zone
Any person who is convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of § 21-802.1 of this article (Exceeding speed limit within highway work zone) is subject to a
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fine of not more than $1,000.
$0 - $1000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(o)(1) Failing to stop at scene of accident resulting in bodily injury
Any person who is convicted of a violation of § 20-102(a) of this article is subject to a fine of not more than $3,000 or imprisonment for not more than
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1 year or both.
$0 - $3000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(o)(2) Failing to stop at scene of accident resulting in death
Any person who is convicted of a violation of § 20-102(b) of this article is subject to a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than
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5 years or both.
$0 - $5000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(p)(1)(i) Fleeing or eluding police - First Offense
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any person who is convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of § 21-904 of this article (“Fleeing or eluding police”)
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is subject to: (i) For a first offense, a fine of not more than $1,000, or imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both
$0 - $1000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(p)(1)(ii) Fleeing or eluding police - Subsequent Offense
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any person who is convicted of a violation of any of the provisions of § 21-904 of this article (“Fleeing or eluding police”)
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is subject to: (ii) For any subsequent offense, a fine of not more than $1,000, or imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or both.
$0 - $1000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(p)(2) Fleeing or eluding police resulting in bodily injury
Any person who is convicted of a violation of § 21-904(d)(1) of this article is subject to a fine of not more than $5,000, or imprisonment for not more than
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3 years, or both.
$0 - $5000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
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Maryland Md. Code Ann., Transp. § 27-101(p)(3) Fleeing or eluding police resulting in death
Any person who is convicted of a violation of § 21-904(d)(2) of this article is subject to a fine of not more than $5,000, or imprisonment for not more than
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10 years, or both
$0 - $5000 Fine All Misdemeanor No Court N/A
Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps
State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Type of financial obligation Type of court Level of offense Mandatory
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-8 Payment of fine as condition precedent to probation in felony cases the judge may in his discretion impose a fine on the person so convicted as a condition to such probation.  Incarceration Fee All All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-8 Payment of fine as condition precedent to probation in felony cases the judge may in his discretion impose a fine on the person so convicted as a condition to such probation.  Condition or extension of supervision Fee All All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-8.1 Payment of legal defense application fee as condition of probation
In any case in which a defendant receives legal defense services pursuant to Chapter 12 of Title 17 where the defendant has not paid the application fee required by Code
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Section 15-21A-6 and the court has not waived such fee at the time of sentencing, the court shall impose such fee as a condition of probation.
Condition or extension of supervision Fee All All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-8.1 Payment of legal defense application fee as condition of probation
In any case in which a defendant receives legal defense services pursuant to Chapter 12 of Title 17 where the defendant has not paid the application fee required by Code
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Section 15-21A-6 and the court has not waived such fee at the time of sentencing, the court shall impose such fee as a condition of probation.
Incarceration Fee All All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-11-1 When defendant shall pay costs
The judgment shall be a lien from the date of his arrest on all the property of the defendant. The clerk shall issue an execution on the judgment against the
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property.
Property liens Fine Traffic Traffic Yes
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Illinois 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/113-3.1(g) Payment for Court-Appointed Counsel
A defendant who fails to obey any order of court entered under this Section may be punished for contempt of court. Any arrearage in payments may be reduced to judgment
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in the court's discretion and collected by any means authorized for the collection of money judgments under the law of this State.
Collection fee/interest Fee All All No
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Illinois 625 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/6-206.1 Monitoring Device Driving Permit - cancellation
  Any offender participating in the MDDP program must pay the Secretary a MDDP Administration Fee in an amount not to exceed $30 per month, to be deposited into the Monitoring
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Device Driving Permit Administration Fee Fund. The Secretary shall establish by rule the amount and the procedures, terms, and conditions relating to these fees. The offender must have an ignition interlock device installed within 14 days of the date the Secretary issues the MDDP. The ignition interlock device provider must notify the Secretary, in a manner and form prescribed by the Secretary, of the installation. If the Secretary does not receive notice of installation, the Secretary shall cancel the MDDP
Driver's license suspension/impoundment Fee Traffic Traffic Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-2110 Failure to comply with traffic citation; misdemeanor; suspension of driver's license; restricted driving privileges; fees for mailing notice; reinstatement fee; authorized only by legislative enactment; disposition of reinstatement fees
When a person fails to comply with a traffic citation, except for illegal parking, standing or stopping, the district or municipal court in which the person should have complied with
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the citation shall mail notice to the person that if the person does not appear in district or municipal court or pay all fines, court costs and any penalties within 30 days from the date of mailing notice, the division of vehicles will be notified to suspend the person's driving privileges. The district or municipal court may charge an additional fee of $5 for mailing such notice.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment Fee All Misdemeanor Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-1567 Driving a commercial motor vehicle under the influence; penalties
In lieu of payment of a fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may order that the person perform community service specified by the court. The person shall receive
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a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed not later than one year after the fine is imposed or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date.
Community service Fine All All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 532.033 Order of restitution
When a judge orders restitution, the judge shall... (8) Not release the defendant from probation supervision until restitution has been paid in full and all other aspects of the probation
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order have been successfully completed.
Condition or extension of supervision Restitution All All Yes
Ability to Pay
State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of financial obligation Type of court Level of offense Definition of ability to pay Timeline Burden of proof Hearing requirement(s) Method of determination Mandatory Remedies if unable to pay
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Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-30(e) Conditions of probation and conditional discharge. If the court finds that the person subject to electronic monitoring is indigent and unable to pay the costs of electronic monitoring services, it shall waive such costs. Fee State, Municipal All

indigent and unable to pay the costs

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

The court shall waive such costs

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Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-56i(g) Pretrial drug education and community service program.
No person may be excluded from any such program for inability to pay such fee or cost, provided (1) such person files with the court an affidavit of indigency or
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inability to pay, (2) such indigency or inability to pay is confirmed by the Court Support Services Division, and (3) the court enters a finding thereof. The court may waive all or any portion of such fee depending on such person’s ability to pay. If the court finds that a person is indigent or unable to pay for a substance abuse treatment program, the costs of such program shall be paid from the pretrial account established under section 54-56k.
Fee State, Municipal All

indigency

Before imposition of fine or fee Burden on defendant to show inability to pay

affidavit filed with the court

Not provided for Yes

costs of such program shall be paid from the pretrial account

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Florida Fla. Stat. §776.085(4)(b) Defense to civil action for damages; party convicted of forcible or attempted forcible felony
The court shall award a reasonable attorney’s fee to be paid to the prevailing party in equal amounts by the losing party and the losing party’s attorney; however, the losing
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party’s attorney is not personally responsible if he or she has acted in good faith, based on the representations of his or her client. If the losing party is incarcerated for the crime or attempted crime and has insufficient assets to cover payment of the costs of the action and the award of fees pursuant to this paragraph, the party shall, as determined by the court, be required to pay by deduction from any payments the prisoner receives while incarcerated.
Fee All All

Inability to pay: Has insufficient assets to cover payment

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

Payment deduction

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Florida Fla. Stat. §806.13(6)(c) Criminal mischief; penalties; penalty for minor
If a minor commits a delinquent act prohibited under paragraph (a), the parent or legal guardian of the minor is liable along with the minor for payment of the fine.
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The court may decline to order a person to pay a fine under paragraph (a) if the court finds that the person is indigent and does not have the ability to pay the fine or if the court finds that the person does not have the ability to pay the fine whether or not the person is indigent.
Fine All All

Inability to pay: Indigent

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

Not specified

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Florida Fla. Stat. §812.015(2) Retail and farm theft; transit fare evasion; mandatory fine; alternative punishment; detention and arrest; exemption from liability for false arrest; resisting arrest; penalties
Upon a second or subsequent conviction for petit theft from a merchant, farmer, or transit agency, the offender shall be punished as provided in s. 812.014(3), except that the court
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shall impose a fine of not less than $50 or more than $1,000. However, in lieu of such fine, the court may require the offender to perform public services designated by the court. In no event shall any such offender be required to perform fewer than the number of hours of public service necessary to satisfy the fine assessed by the court, as provided by this subsection, at the minimum wage prevailing in the state at the time of sentencing.
Fine All All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

Public service

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Florida Fla. Stat. §316.193(6) Driving under the influence; penalties
For the purposes of this section, any conviction for a violation of s. 327.35; a previous conviction for the violation of former s. 316.1931, former s. 860.01, or former s.
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316.028; or a previous conviction outside this state for driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, driving with an unlawful blood-alcohol level, driving with an unlawful breath-alcohol level, or any other similar alcohol-related or drug-related traffic offense, is also considered a previous conviction for violation of this section. However, in satisfaction of the fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may, upon a finding that the defendant is financially unable to pay either all or part of the fine, order that the defendant participate for a specified additional period of time in public service or a community work project in lieu of payment of that portion of the fine which the court determines the defendant is unable to pay. In determining such additional sentence, the court shall consider the amount of the unpaid portion of the fine and the reasonable value of the services to be ordered; however, the court may not compute the reasonable value of services at a rate less than the federal minimum wage at the time of sentencing.
Fine, Fee All All

Inability to pay: Defendant is financially unable to pay either all or part of the fine

At enforcement of fine or fee Not provided for

Factors to consider: The amount of the unpaid portion of the fine and the reasonable value of the services to be ordered and the federal minimum wage at the time

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of sentencing.

Not provided for No

Public service or Community work project

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Florida Fla. Stat. §316.1937(5)(b) Ignition interlock devices, requiring; unlawful acts
Any person convicted of a violation of subsection (6) who does not have a driver license shall, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, pay a fine of
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not less than $250 or more than $500 per each such violation. In the event that the person is unable to pay any such fine, the fine shall become a lien against the motor vehicle used in violation of subsection (6) and payment shall be made pursuant to s. 316.3025(5).
Fine All Traffic Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

Property lien

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Florida Fla. Stat. §938.21 Alcohol and drug abuse programs
Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary of the laws of this state, the court may assess for alcohol and other drug abuse programs as provided in s. 893.165 any defendant
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who pleads guilty or nolo contendere to, or is convicted of, a violation of any provision of chapter 893 or which involves a criminal violation of s. 316.193, s. 856.011, s. 856.015, or chapter 562, chapter 567, or chapter 568, in addition to any fine and other penalty provided by law, a court cost in an amount up to the amount of the fine authorized for the violation. The court is authorized to order a defendant to pay an additional assessment if it finds that the defendant has the ability to pay the fine and the additional assessment and will not be prevented thereby from being rehabilitated or from making restitution.
Fine, Fee All All Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for No

Not specified

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Florida Fla. Stat. §775.0844(8) White Collar Crime Victim Protection Act
A person convicted of an aggravated white collar crime under this section is liable for all court costs and shall pay restitution to each victim of the crime, regardless of
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whether the victim is named in the information or indictment. As used in this subsection, “victim” means a person directly and proximately harmed as a result of the commission of the offense for which restitution may be ordered, including any person directly harmed by the defendant’s criminal conduct in the course of the commission of the aggravated white collar crime. The court shall hold a hearing to determine the identity of qualifying victims and shall order the defendant to pay restitution based on his or her ability to pay, in accordance with this section and s. 775.089.
Restitution State Felony Not provided for Before imposition of fine or fee Not provided for Not provided for Determined by judge after hearing Yes

Not specified

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Florida Fla. Stat. §806.13(8) Criminal mischief; penalties; penalty for minor
A minor whose driver license or driving privilege is revoked, suspended, or withheld under subsection (7) may elect to reduce the period of revocation, suspension, or withholding by performing community
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service at the rate of 1 day for each hour of community service performed. In addition, if the court determines that due to a family hardship, the minor’s driver license or driving privilege is necessary for employment or medical purposes of the minor or a member of the minor’s family, the court shall order the minor to perform community service and reduce the period of revocation, suspension, or withholding at the rate of 1 day for each hour of community service performed. As used in this subsection, the term “community service” means cleaning graffiti from public property.
Other All Misdemeanor

Inability to pay: due to a family hardship, the minor's driver license or driving privilege is necessary for employment or medical purposes of the minor or a member of the

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minor's family

Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Not provided for Yes

Community service

Transparency
State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of obligation Actor
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 15-11-37(b)(2) Supervision fees The funds in which supervision fees are deposited shall be administered by the county and the court may draw upon them by submitting invoices to the county. Obligation to report/conduct analysis State courts
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Idaho Idaho code § 19-5304(12) Restitution - presentence report (12) Every presentence report shall include a full statement of economic loss suffered by the victim or victims of the defendant’s crime or crimes. Obligation to collect or record Supervision agency
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Illinois 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/113-3.1(d) Payment for Court-Appointed Counsel The Clerk of the Circuit Court shall keep records and make reports to the court concerning funds paid under this Section in whatever manner the court directs. Obligation to collect or record State courts
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Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-9-1.6 Fine for domestic battery
Not later than March 1 of each year the Clerk of the Circuit Court shall submit to the State Comptroller a report of the amount of funds remitted by him
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to the State Treasurer under this Section during the preceding calendar year. Except as otherwise provided by Supreme Court Rules, if a court in sentencing an offender levies a gross amount for fine, costs, fees and penalties, the amount of the additional penalty provided for herein shall be collected from the amount remaining after deducting from the gross amount levied all fees of the Circuit Clerk, the State's Attorney and the Sheriff. After deducting from the gross amount levied the fees and additional penalty provided for herein, less any other additional penalties provided by law, the clerk shall remit the net balance remaining to the entity authorized by law to receive the fine imposed in the case. For purposes of this Section “fees of the Circuit Clerk” shall include, if applicable, the fee provided for under Section 27.3a of the Clerks of Courts Act1 and the fee, if applicable, payable to the county in which the violation occurred under Section 5-1101 of the Counties Code.2
Obligation to collect or record State courts
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-5821 Crimes Involving Property: Giving a worthless check
In addition to all other costs and fees allowed by law, each prosecutor who takes any action under the provisions of this section may collect from the issuer in such
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action an administrative handling cost, except in cases filed in a court of appropriate jurisdiction. The cost shall not exceed $10 for each check. If the issuer of the check is convicted in a district court, the administrative handling costs may be assessed as part of the court costs in the matter. The moneys collected pursuant to this subsection shall be deposited into a trust fund which shall be administered by the board of county commissioners. The funds shall be expended only with the approval of the board of county commissioners, but may be used to help fund the normal operating expenses of the county or district attorney's office.
Obligation to collect or record Prosecutor, State/statewide agency
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-4529 Entitlement of defendant to counsel; application fee; disposition of moneys
Any defendant entitled to counsel pursuant to Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-4503, and amendments thereto, shall pay an application fee in the amount of $100 to the clerk of the
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district court. Any defendant entitled to counsel in a proceeding for a violation of a condition of release pursuant to Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-3716, and amendments thereto, shall pay an application fee of $100 to the clerk of the district court. Such fee shall be paid regardless of whether the defendant has paid application fees pursuant to this section in any other proceeding. If it appears to the satisfaction of the court that payment of the application fee will impose manifest hardship on the defendant, the court may waive payment of all or part of the application fee. All moneys received pursuant to this section shall be remitted to the state treasurer in accordance with the provisions of Kan. Stat. Ann. § 75-4215, and amendments thereto. Upon receipt of each such remittance, the state treasurer shall deposit the entire amount in the state treasury to the credit of the indigents' defense services fund. If the defendant is acquitted or the case is dismissed, any application fee paid pursuant to this section shall be remitted to the defendant.
Obligation to collect or record Clerk, State/statewide agency
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 3-1-511 Procedure--contempt committed in presence of court
When a contempt is committed in the immediate view and presence of the court or judge at chambers and the contemptuous conduct requires immediate action in order to restore order,
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maintain the dignity or authority of the court, or prevent delay, it may be punished summarily. An order must be made reciting the facts that occurred in the judge's immediate view and presence and adjudging that the person proceeded against is guilty of a contempt and that the person must be punished as prescribed in the order. An order may not be issued unless the person proceeded against has been informed of the contempt and given an opportunity to defend or explain the person's conduct. A person may be adjudged guilty of and penalized for criminal contempt under this section by a fine in an amount not to exceed $500 or by imprisonment for a term not to exceed 30 days, or both, and by any other reasonable conditions or restrictions that the court may consider appropriate under the circumstances.
Obligation to collect or record All courts
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 114C Restitution Agreements The district attorney shall keep full records of all restitution monies received and disbursed. These records shall be audited at the same time the county funds are audited. Obligation to collect or record State/statewide agency
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Rhode Island R.I. Gen. Laws. Ann. § 12-14-2 Violation of parking regulations in the city of Newport
The city of Newport is authorized and empowered to fix any fines that the Newport city council may, from time to time, establish for violation of traffic ordinances. The city
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council may designate the police department for the purpose of collecting any fines, when the offender desires to dispose of the charge without personal appearance in court within seven (7) days from notification of the fine. The police department is authorized to receive the fines, directly or by mail, from any person charged with violation of any provision of the ordinances of the city relating to traffic and the money so received and collected shall be turned over by the police to the director of finance of the city. All charges, records and payments shall be immediately entered by the police in their books, containing records of the violations, their disposition, and money received as fines shall be audited not less than once every three (3) months by the finance director of the city. In the event the offender refuses or neglects to dispose of the charges within seven (7) days, then he or she shall be brought before the district court of the state of Rhode Island, second division, for trial and for any disposition of the case that the court may decide to be proper, in which case, the provisions of § 12-14-1, relating to fines and their disposition, shall prevail.
Obligation to collect or record Law enforcement
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Rhode Island R.I. Gen. Laws. Ann. § 12-14-3 Violations of Central Falls ordinance
The city of Central Falls is authorized and empowered to fix any fines that the council committee on police may, from time to time, establish for violation of traffic ordinances.
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The council committee on police may designate one person who shall act as clerk of the police department for the purpose of collecting fines as provided in this section, when the offender decides to dispose of the charge without personal appearance in court, within seven (7) days from notification of the fine. The police clerk of the police department is authorized to receive the fines directly from any person charged with a violation of any provision of the ordinances of the city relating to traffic, and the money so received and collected shall be turned over by the police clerk to the city treasurer. All charges, records and payments shall be immediately entered by the clerk of police, and the books of the clerk of police containing records of the violations, their dispositions, and money received as fines shall be audited not less than once each month by the city auditor of the city. In the event the offender refuses or neglects to dispose of the charges before seven (7) days, then he or she shall be brought before the district court for the fifth division for trial and for any disposition of the case that the court may decide to be proper, in which case the provisions of § 12-14-1 relating to fines and their disposition shall prevail.
Obligation to collect or record Law enforcement
Collections Infrastructure
State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Who may collect
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2A:158A-19 Collection by public defenders
The Public Defender in the name of the State shall do all things necessary and proper to collect all moneys due to the State by way of reimbursement for services
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rendered pursuant to this act. He may enter into arrangements with one or more agencies of the State, including the comprehensive enforcement program established pursuant to the provisions of P.L.1995, c. 9 (C.2B:19-1 et seq.) or of the counties to handle said collections on a cost basis to the extent that such arrangements are calculated to simplify collection procedures. He shall have all the remedies and may take all of the proceedings for the collection thereof which may be had or taken for or upon the recovery of a judgment in a civil action and may institute and maintain any action or proceeding in the courts necessary therefor. In any such proceedings or action, the defendant may contest the value of the service rendered by the Public Defender.
Other
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-4 Collection by supervision agency
All fines, assessments imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), all penalties imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5), all penalties imposed pursuant to section 11
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of P.L.2001, c. 81 (C.2C:43-3.6), all penalties imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c. 73 (C.2C:14-10), all penalties imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2009, c. 143 (C.2C:43-3.8), all penalties imposed pursuant to section 7 of P.L.2013, c. 214 (C.30:4-123.97) and restitution imposed by the Superior Court or otherwise imposed at the county level, shall be collected by the county probation division except when such fine, assessment or restitution is imposed in conjunction with a custodial sentence to a State correctional facility or in conjunction with a term of incarceration imposed pursuant to section 25 of P.L.1982, c. 77 (C.2A:4A-44) in which event such fine, assessment or restitution shall be collected by the Department of Corrections or the Juvenile Justice Commission established pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1995, c. 284 (C.52:17B-170).
Supervision agency
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-4 Collection by municipal court
All fines, assessments imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), any penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5) and restitution imposed by a
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municipal court shall be collected by the municipal court administrator except if such fine, assessments imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), or restitution is ordered as a condition of probation in which event it shall be collected by the county probation division.
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.4841 Collections;  payment to county treasurer
(1) All officers or other persons who collect or receive any moneys on account of any penalty shall pay over the same to the county treasurer on or before the
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last day of the month following. (2) Upon learning that any person has neglected to pay over such moneys within such time, the county treasurer shall proceed in the circuit court for the county to collect such moneys.
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 12.133 Agreement;  provisions
An agreement entered into under this act shall provide for at least all of the following: (a) Assignment to the state for collection by the department of amounts that have been
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due and owing the court for not less than 180 days, including, but not limited to, any or all of the following: (i) Fees, including reinstatement fees. (ii) Fines. (iii) Forfeitures. (iv) Penalties and costs assessed for criminal offenses, including the costs of prosecution and providing court-ordered legal assistance to the defendant. (v) Penalties and costs assessed for civil infractions, civil violations, and parking violations. (vi) Penalties and costs assessed for ordinance violations. (vii) Forfeited recognizances. (viii) Late penalties assessed pursuant to section 4803 of the revised judicature act of 1961, Act No. 236 of the Public Acts of 1961, being section 600.4803 of the Michigan Compiled Laws. (b) Provision of the information necessary for the department to identify, locate, and collect delinquent accounts. (c) Accounting for, settlement of, and transmission to the court of money collected pursuant to the agreement. (d) Collection of a fee by the state treasurer to recoup costs associated with the collection services.
State/statewide agency
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 616:4 Right of Town
If part of a penalty or forfeiture is payable to a town, corporation or board of public officers, they shall have the same rights in relation to such action and
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penalty as the county has in the cases aforesaid.
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 616:1 Jurisdiction
Any penalty or forfeiture of money may be recovered by action of debt before a justice if it does not exceed $13.33, before a municipal court if it does not
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exceed $100, and before the superior court in other cases.
All courts
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 616:5 Powers of Selectmen
Whenever a penalty or forfeiture or any part thereof is given to a town, the selectmen may sue therefor in the name of the town, shall defray the expenses of
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the action and may remit the penalty or forfeiture.
Other
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 504-A:12 Powers and Duties of Probation or Parole Officers
The powers and duties of probation or parole officers shall be:
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VI. To collect or to supervise the collection of any fees, fines, or restitution payments ordered and to administratively process these funds under rules adopted under RSA 541-A by the commissioner.
Supervision agency
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 604-A:9(VII) Repayment
The commissioner of administrative services, with the approval of governor and council, is authorized to enter into contracts to secure the repayment of fees and expenses paid by the state
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as provided for in this section. Any person or entity with whom the commissioner so contracts may bring any legal or equitable action authorized by law, including any petition authorized by this section, to secure an order for repayment, or repayment pursuant to any order, of fees and expenses paid by the state which are recoverable by the state under this section. The contract or contracts authorized by this paragraph may include provisions by which the contractor may, as consideration in whole or in part for services, receive a percentage of the amounts recovered on behalf of the state.
Private actors
Revenue Flow
State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Who collects the funding Who receives the funding Other beneficiaries Type of financial obligation Type of court Level of offense
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Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-143b Forfeited bonds for motor vehicle violations
The total amount of any forfeited bond for a motor vehicle violation, when such bond is composed in part of an additional fee established under subsection (c) or (d) of
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section 51-56a, any cost established under subsection (b) of section 54-143 or any cost established under section 54-143a, shall be deposited in the General Fund as one undifferentiated lump sum amount or deposited in the Special Transportation Fund as one undifferentiated lump sum amount as may be required by statute.
State courts State/statewide agency N/A Surcharge, Fee State, Municipal All
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Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-215(b) Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund
(b) The cost paid into court under section 54-143 shall be deposited in the General Fund and shall be credited to and become a part of the Criminal Injuries Compensation
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Fund. Any restitution collected by the Court Support Services Division pursuant to section 46b-140, 53a-30 or 54-56e which is not disbursed within five years after the date such restitution is collected, because the victim could not be located, shall be deposited in the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund. Any restitution collected pursuant to section 46b-140 or 54-56e on or before May 8, 1997, that has not been disbursed as of October 1, 2003, shall be deposited in the fund. If payment is awarded under section 54-210 and thereafter the court orders the defendant in the criminal case from which such injury or death resulted to make restitution, any money collected as restitution shall be paid to the fund unless the court directs otherwise. The Office of Victim Services may apply for and receive moneys for the fund from any federal, state or private source.
State courts State/statewide agency N/A Restitution, Fee Municipal, State All
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Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § 54-215(c) Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund
(c) Any administrative costs related to the operation of the Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund, including credits to and payments of compensation therefrom, shall be paid from the fund. Administrative costs
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of providing direct services, the proportionate share of any fixed costs associated with such services, the costs of providing direct services to victims and witnesses of crimes in accordance with subdivision (6) of subsection (b) of section 54-203, and any services offered by the Office of Victim Services to witnesses and victims of crime may be budgeted for payment from the fund.
State courts State/statewide agency N/A Restitution, Fee Municipal, State All
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-12-51(a) Repayment of costs of legal representation as condition of probation - county
When a defendant who is represented by a public defender, who is paid in part or in whole by a county, enters a plea of nolo contendere, first offender, or
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guilty or is otherwise convicted, the court may impose as a condition of probation repayment of all or a portion of the cost for providing legal representation and other expenses of the defense if the payment does not impose a financial hardship upon the defendant or the defendant's dependent or dependents. The defendant shall make the payment through the community supervision officer to the county.
Supervision agency Municipality/municipal agency N/A Fee State, Municipal All
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-12-51(b) Repayment of costs of legal representation as condition of probation - municipality
When a defendant who is represented by a public defender, who is paid in part or in whole by a municipality, enters a plea of nolo contendere, first offender, or
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guilty or is otherwise convicted, the court may impose as a condition of probation repayment of all or a portion of the cost for providing legal representation and other expenses of the defense if the payment does not impose a financial hardship upon the defendant or the defendant's dependent or dependents. The defendant shall make the payment through the community supervision officer to the municipality.
Supervision agency Municipality/municipal agency N/A Fee State, Municipal All
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-12-51(c) Repayment of costs of legal representation as condition of probation - state
If a defendant who is represented by a public defender, who is paid for entirely by the state, enters a plea of nolo contendere, first offender, or guilty or is
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otherwise convicted, the court may impose as a condition of probation repayment of all or a portion of the cost for providing legal representation and other costs of the defense if the payment does not impose a financial hardship upon such defendant or such defendant's dependent or dependents. Such defendant shall make such payment through the community supervision officer to the Georgia Public Defender Council for payment to the general fund of the state treasury.
Supervision agency State/statewide agency State Treasury Fee State, Municipal All
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 40-6-189(e) Super speeder; fees
All fees collected under the provisions of this Code section shall be deposited in the general fund of this state with the intent that these moneys be used to fund
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a trauma care system in Georgia and the direct and indirect costs associated with the administration of this Code section. The Office of the State Treasurer shall separately account for all of the moneys received under the provisions of this Code section.
State/statewide agency State/statewide agency Trauma care in Georgia Fee Traffic Traffic
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 15-21-73(b) Assessment of additional penalties
Such sums shall be in addition to that amount required by Code Section 47-17-60 to be paid into the Peace Officers' Annuity and Benefit Fund or Code Section 47-11-51 concerning the Judges of the
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Probate Courts Retirement Fund of Georgia and any other amounts provided for by law.
State courts State/statewide agency Peace Officers' Annuity and Benefit Fund; Judges of the Probate Courts Retirement Fund of Georgia Fine All All
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 15-21-93(b) Amount of additional penalties
Such sums required by subsection (a) of this Code section shall be in addition to that amount required by Code Section 47-17-60 to be paid into the Peace Officers' Annuity
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and Benefit Fund or Code Section 47-11-51 concerning the Judges of the Probate Courts Retirement Fund of Georgia.
State courts State/statewide agency Peace Officers' Annuity and Benefit Fund; Judges of the Probate Courts Retirement Fund of Georgia Fine All All
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 15-21-131(b) Additional penalties imposed for criminal offenses and criminal ordinance violations
Such sums shall be in addition to any amount required by Code Section 47-17-60 to be paid into the Peace Officers' Annuity and Benefit Fund and in addition to any
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other amounts provided for in this chapter.
State courts State/statewide agency N/A Fine All All
Court Rules
State Citation Description/Statute Name Language from the rule When does the rule apply?
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Rhode Island $0 Child nudity prohibited in publications $15,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child pornography prohibited $5,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child pornography prohibited $5,000
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Rhode Island $0 Contributing to delinquency $500
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Rhode Island $0 Cruelty to or neglect of child $1,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child abuse - Brendan's Law $10,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child abuse - Brendan's Law $5,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child abuse - Brendan's Law $10,000
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Rhode Island $0 Penalty for loitering on curfew street $5
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Rhode Island $0 Cigarette and tobacco vending machines $500
Structure of Courts
State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Court/legal body Type of court Function Funding
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2B:12-1; N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2B:12-17 Municipal court jurisdiction
A municipal court has jurisdiction over the following cases within the territorial jurisdiction of the court: a. Violations of county or municipal ordinances; b. Violations of the motor vehicle and
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traffic laws; c. Disorderly persons offenses, petty disorderly persons offenses and other non-indictable offenses except where exclusive jurisdiction is given to the Superior Court; d. Violations of the fish and game laws; e. Proceedings to collect a penalty where jurisdiction is granted by statute; f. Violations of laws regulating boating; and g. Any other proceedings where jurisdiction is granted by statute; A municipal court has jurisdiction over the following cases within the territorial jurisdiction of the court: a. Violations of county or municipal ordinances; b. Violations of the motor vehicle and traffic laws; c. Disorderly persons offenses, petty disorderly persons offenses and other non-indictable offenses except where exclusive jurisdiction is given to the Superior Court; d. Violations of the fish and game laws; e. Proceedings to collect a penalty where jurisdiction is granted by statute; f. Violations of laws regulating boating; and g. Any other proceedings where jurisdiction is granted by statute.
Municipal court Jurisdiction of the courts State and locally funded
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New Jersey N.J. Const. art. VI, § 3 State superior court jurisdiction
The Superior Court shall consist of such number of judges as may be authorized by law, each of whom shall exercise the powers of the court subject to rules of the
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Supreme Court. The Superior Court shall at all times consist of at least two judges who shall be assigned to sit in each of the counties of this State, and who are resident therein at the time of appointment and reappointment. The Superior Court shall have original general jurisdiction throughout the State in all causes
State court Jurisdiction of the courts State and locally funded
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New Jersey N.J. Const. art. VI, § 3 appellate court jurisdiction
The Superior Court shall be divided into an Appellate Division, a Law Division, and a Chancery Division, which shall include a family part. Each division shall have such other parts, consist of
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such number of judges, and hear such causes, as may be provided by rules of the Supreme Court. At least two judges of the Superior Court shall at all times be assigned to sit in each of the counties of the State, who at the time of their appointment and reappointment were residents of that county provided, however, that the number of judges required to reside in the county wherein they sit shall be at least equal in number to the number of judges of the county court sitting in each of the counties at the adoption of this amendment.
State court Jurisdiction of the courts State funded
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New Jersey N.J. Const. art. VI, § 1 Supreme Court jurisdiction
The judicial power shall be vested in a Supreme Court, a Superior Court, and other courts of limited jurisdiction. The other courts and their jurisdiction may from time to time
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be established, altered or abolished by law.
State court Jurisdiction of the courts State funded
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-2-7 Supreme court - jurisdiction
(1) To exercise appellate jurisdiction coextensive with the state, under such restrictions and regulations as are prescribed by law; but, in deciding appeals, no weight shall be given the decision
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of the trial judge upon the facts where the evidence is not taken orally before the judge, but in such cases the Supreme Court shall weigh the evidence and give judgment as it deems just.(2) To exercise original jurisdiction in the issue and determination of writs of quo warranto and mandamus in relation to matters in which no other court has jurisdiction. (3) To issue writs of injunction, habeas corpus, and such other remedial and original writs as are necessary to give to it a general superintendence and control of courts of inferior jurisdiction. (4) To make and promulgate rules governing the administration of all courts and rules governing practice and procedure in all courts; provided, that such rules shall not abridge, enlarge, or modify the substantive right of any party nor affect the jurisdiction of circuit and district courts or venue of actions therein; and provided further, that the right of trial by jury as at common law and declared by Section 11 of the Constitution of Alabama of 1901 shall be preserved to the parties inviolate. (5) To punish for contempts by the infliction of a fine not exceeding $100, and imprisonment not exceeding 10 days or both. (6) To transfer to the Court of Civil Appeals, for determination by that court, any civil case appealed to the Supreme Court and within the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, except the following: a. A case that the Supreme Court determines presents a substantial question of federal or state constitutional law. b. A case that the Supreme Court determines involves a novel legal question, the resolution of which will have significant statewide impact. c. A utility rate case appealed directly to the Supreme Court under the provisions of Section 37-1-140. d. A bond validation proceeding appealed to the Supreme Court under the provisions of Section 6-6-754. e. A bar disciplinary proceeding. (7) To exercise such other powers as are or may be given to the Supreme Court by law.
State court Jurisdiction of the courts state funded
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-11-30 Circuit court - jurisdiction
(1) CIVIL. The circuit court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of all civil actions in which the matter in controversy exceeds ten thousand dollars ($10,000), exclusive of interest and costs,
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and shall exercise original jurisdiction concurrent with the district court in all civil actions in which the matter in controversy exceeds six thousand dollars ($6,000), exclusive of interest and costs.(2) CRIMINAL. The circuit court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of all felony prosecutions and of misdemeanor or ordinance violations which are lesser included offenses within a felony charge or which arise from the same incident as a felony charge; except, that the district court shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court to receive pleas of guilty in felony cases not punishable by sentence of death. The circuit court may, on conviction of a defendant, upon a showing of inability to make immediate payment of fine and costs, continue the case from time to time to permit the fine and costs to be paid. (3) APPELLATE. The circuit court shall have appellate jurisdiction of civil, criminal, and juvenile cases in district court and prosecutions for ordinance violations in municipal courts, except in cases in which direct appeal to the Courts of Civil or Criminal Appeals is provided by law or rule. Appeals to the circuit court shall be tried de novo, with or without a jury, as provided by law. (4) SUPERINTENDENCE OF DISTRICT, MUNICIPAL AND PROBATE COURTS. The circuit court shall exercise a general superintendence over all district courts, municipal courts, and probate courts. (5) CONTEMPTS. The circuit court may punish contempts by fines not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100) and by imprisonment not exceeding five days. The power of the circuit court to enforce its orders and judgments by determinations of civil contempt shall be unaffected by this section. (6) GENERAL. The circuit court shall have other powers as provided by law.
State court Jurisdiction of the courts state funded
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Michigan Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 10 Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 10 The jurisdiction of the court of appeals shall be provided by law and the practice and procedure therein shall be prescribed by rules of the supreme court. State court Jurisdiction of the courts State funded
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Michigan Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 13 Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 13
The circuit court shall have original jurisdiction in all matters not prohibited by law; appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals except as otherwise provided by law; power to
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issue, hear and determine prerogative and remedial writs; supervisory and general control over inferior courts and tribunals within their respective jurisdictions in accordance with rules of the supreme court; and jurisdiction of other cases and matters as provided by rules of the supreme court.
State court Jurisdiction of the courts State funded
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Michigan Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 15 Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 15
In each county organized for judicial purposes there shall be a probate court. The legislature may create or alter probate court districts of more than one county if approved in
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each affected county by a majority of the electors voting on the question. The legislature may provide for the combination of the office of probate judge with any judicial office of limited jurisdiction within a county with supplemental salary as provided by law. The jurisdiction, powers and duties of the probate court and of the judges thereof shall be provided by law. They shall have original jurisdiction in all cases of juvenile delinquents and dependents, except as otherwise provided by law.
County court Jurisdiction of the courts State and locally funded
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Michigan Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 1 Michigan State Constitution Article VI Sec. 1
The judicial power of the state is vested exclusively in one court of justice which shall be divided into one supreme court, one court of appeals, one trial court of
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general jurisdiction known as the circuit court, one probate court, and courts of limited jurisdiction . . .
County court, Municipal court, Other, State court, Traffic court Jurisdiction of the courts
The state pays for the appellate courts, the administrative office of the courts, and for the salaries of the trial court judges and for some trial court technology.  Trial court
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clerical staff and judicial support staff, courthouses, operating expenses and equipment are funded locally.
Case Law
State Citation Question Brief Answer Language from the opinion When does the case apply?
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Rhode Island Child nudity prohibited in publications $15,000
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Rhode Island Child pornography prohibited $5,000
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Rhode Island Child pornography prohibited $5,000
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Rhode Island Contributing to delinquency $500
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Rhode Island Cruelty to or neglect of child $1,000
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Rhode Island Child abuse - Brendan's Law $10,000
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Rhode Island Child abuse - Brendan's Law $5,000
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Rhode Island Child abuse - Brendan's Law $10,000
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Rhode Island Penalty for loitering on curfew street $5
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Rhode Island Cigarette and tobacco vending machines $500
Attorney General Opinions
State Citation Description/Statute Name Question Brief answer Language from the opinion When does the case apply?
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Rhode Island $0 Child nudity prohibited in publications $15,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child pornography prohibited $5,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child pornography prohibited $5,000
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Rhode Island $0 Contributing to delinquency $500
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Rhode Island $0 Cruelty to or neglect of child $1,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child abuse - Brendan's Law $10,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child abuse - Brendan's Law $5,000
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Rhode Island $0 Child abuse - Brendan's Law $10,000
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Rhode Island $0 Penalty for loitering on curfew street $5
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Rhode Island $0 Cigarette and tobacco vending machines $500