Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-2110 Failure to comply with traffic citation; misdemeanor; suspension of driver's license; restricted driving privileges; fees for mailing notice; reinstatement fee; authorized only by legislative enactment; disposition of reinstatement fees
When a person fails to comply with a traffic citation, except for illegal parking, standing or stopping, the district or municipal court in which the person should have complied with
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the citation shall mail notice to the person that if the person does not appear in district or municipal court or pay all fines, court costs and any penalties within 30 days from the date of mailing notice, the division of vehicles will be notified to suspend the person's driving privileges. The district or municipal court may charge an additional fee of $5 for mailing such notice.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment Misdemeanor Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-1567 Driving a commercial motor vehicle under the influence; penalties
In lieu of payment of a fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may order that the person perform community service specified by the court. The person shall receive
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a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed not later than one year after the fine is imposed or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date.
Community service All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 45-5-205(4) Negligent vehicular assault--penalty
If a term of incarceration is imposed under subsection (2) or (3), the judge may suspend the term of incarceration upon the condition of payment of any fine imposed and
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of restitution. If the person does not pay the fine or restitution, the term of incarceration may be imposed.
Incarceration Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(3)(a) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
In addition to other methods of payment, the court may order one or more of the following in order to satisfy the offender's restitution obligation: (a) forfeiture and sale of
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the offender's assets under the provisions of Title 25, chapter 13, part 7, unless the court finds, after notice and an opportunity for the offender to be heard, that the assets are reasonably necessary for the offender to sustain a living or support the offender's dependents or unless the state determines that the cost of forfeiture and sale would outweigh the amount available to the victim after sale. If the proceeds of sale exceed the amount of restitution ordered and the costs of forfeiture and sale, any remaining amount must be returned to the offender
Property liens All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(6) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
For a felony offense: (a) during any period that the offender is incarcerated, the department of corrections shall take a percentage, as set by department rule, of any money in
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any account of the defendant administered by the department and use the money to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; (b) at the beginning of any period during which the offender is not incarcerated, the offender shall sign a statement allowing any employer of the offender to garnish up to 25% of the offender's compensation and give the garnished amounts to the department of corrections to be used by the department to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; and (c) during any period that the defendant is on probation or parole, the probation and parole officer shall set a monthly restitution payment amount by dividing the total amount of unpaid restitution by the number of remaining months of probation or parole. The probation and parole officer may adjust the monthly payment up or down by a maximum of 10%, depending on the offender's circumstances.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(7) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
The department of corrections shall give the department of revenue a copy of the order to pay restitution. If full restitution has not been paid, the department of revenue shall,
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pursuant to an agreement made under 46-18-241, intercept any state tax refunds and any federal tax refunds, as provided by law, due the offender and transfer the money to the department of corrections for a felony offense and to the sentencing court for a misdemeanor offense for disbursement to the victim.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-8-115 Effect of Nonpayment
(1) When a defendant who is sentenced to pay the costs of assigned counsel defaults in payment of the costs or of any installment, the court on motion of the
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prosecutor or on its own motion may require the defendant to show cause why the default should not be treated as contempt of court and may issue a show cause citation or an arrest warrant requiring the defendant's appearance. (2) Unless the defendant shows that the default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court or to a failure on the defendant's part to make a good faith effort to make the payment, the court may find that the default constitutes civil contempt. (3) The term of imprisonment for contempt for nonpayment of the costs of assigned counsel must be set forth in the judgment and may not exceed 1 day for each $25 of the payment, 30 days if the order for payment of costs was imposed upon conviction of a misdemeanor, or 1 year in any other case, whichever is the shorter period. A person committed for nonpayment of costs must be given credit toward payment for each day of imprisonment at the rate specified in the judgment.
Incarceration Misdemeanor No
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New York Penal Law § 60.35(5) Inmate money
When a person who is convicted of a crime or violation and sentenced to a term of imprisonment has failed to pay the mandatory surcharge, sex offender registration fee, DNA
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databank fee, crime victim assistance fee or supplemental sex offender victim fee required by this section, the clerk of the court that rendered the conviction shall notify the superintendent or the municipal official of the facility where the person is confined. The superintendent or the municipal official shall cause any amount owing to be collected from such person during his or her term of imprisonment from moneys to the credit of an inmates' fund or such moneys as may be earned by a person in a work release program pursuant to section eight hundred sixty of the correction law. 
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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New York N.Y. Veh. & Traf. Law § 1809(5) Inmate money
The superintendent or the municipal official shall cause any amount owing to be collected from such person during his term of imprisonment from moneys to the credit of an inmates'
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fund or such moneys as may be earned by a person in a work release program pursuant to section eight hundred sixty of the correction law.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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New York N.Y. Veh. & Traf. Law § 1199(4) License Suspension
4. If a person shall fail to pay any driver responsibility assessment as provided in this section, the commissioner shall suspend such person's driver's license or privilege of obtaining a
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license. Such suspension shall remain in effect until any and all outstanding driver responsibility assessments have been paid in full.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New York N.Y. Veh. & Traf. Law § 1194(2) License Suspension No new driver's license or permit shall be issued, or non-resident operating privilege restored to such person unless such penalty has been paid. Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New York N.Y. Veh. & Traf. Law § 503 License Suspension
(d) If a person shall fail to pay any driver responsibility assessment as provided in this subdivision, the commissioner shall suspend such person's driver's license or privilege of obtaining a
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license. Such suspension shall remain in effect until any and all outstanding driver responsibility assessments have been paid in full.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New York N.Y. Crim. Proc. Law § 420.35(1) Mandatory surcharge and crime victim assistance fee; applicability to sentences mandating payment of fines
 The provisions of section 420.10 of this article governing the collection of fines and the provisions of section 420.40 of this article governing deferral of mandatory surcharges, sex offender registration fees, DNA databank fees
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and financial hardship hearings and the provisions of section 430.20 of this chapter governing the commitment of a defendant for failure to pay a fine shall be applicable to a mandatory surcharge, sex offender registration fee, DNA databank fee and a crime victim assistance fee imposed pursuant to subdivision one of section 60.35 of the penal law, subdivision twenty-a of section three hundred eighty-five of the vehicle and traffic law, subdivision nineteen-a of section four hundred one of the vehicle and traffic law, or a mandatory surcharge imposed pursuant to section eighteen hundred nine of the vehicle and traffic law or section 27.12 of the parks, recreation and historic preservation law. When the court directs that the defendant be imprisoned until the mandatory surcharge, sex offender registration fee or DNA databank fee is satisfied, it must specify a maximum period of imprisonment not to exceed fifteen days; provided, however, a court may not direct that a defendant be imprisoned until the mandatory surcharge, sex offender registration fee, or DNA databank fee is satisfied or otherwise for failure to pay the mandatory surcharge, sex offender registration fee or DNA databank fee unless the court makes a contemporaneous finding on the record, after according defendant notice and an opportunity to be heard, that the payment of the mandatory surcharge, sex offender registration fee or DNA databank fee upon defendant will not work an unreasonable hardship upon him or her or his or her immediate family.
Incarceration All No
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 1355.14D Payment of costs of representation--Fee schedule
Any order directing the defendant to pay costs of representation shall be a lien against all real and personal property of the defendant and may be filed against such property
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and foreclosed as provided by law for civil liens.
Property liens All Yes
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 1355.14A Payment of costs of representation--Fee schedule
At the time of pronouncing the judgment and sentence or other final order, the court shall order any person represented by an attorney employed by the Oklahoma Indigent Defense System
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or a defense attorney who contracts or volunteers to represent indigents pursuant to the provisions of the Indigent Defense Act to pay the costs for representation in total or in installments and, in the case of installment payments, set the amount and due date of each installment.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 10A, § 1-4-701B Reimbursements and costs by parents able to pay
The court may order the terms and conditions of the payment of costs and expenses described in subsection A of this section. When any parent is financially able but has
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willfully failed to pay the costs and reimbursements as ordered by the court pursuant to this section, the parent may be held in indirect contempt of court and, upon conviction, shall be punished pursuant to Section 566 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes.
Increased fine All No
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 979a Payment of jail costs by inmate
The sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail may collect costs of incarceration ordered by the court from the jail account of the inmate.
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If the funds collected from the jail account of the inmate are insufficient to satisfy the actual incarceration costs ordered by the court, the sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail is authorized to collect the remaining balance of the incarceration costs by civil action.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 55-50-507 Community Service Work
By a majority vote of the applicable local legislative body, any county or city may, by resolution or ordinance, establish a program that allows any person who is indigent and
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who has been convicted of driving while the person's license is cancelled, suspended, or revoked in violation of § 55-50-504(a) to complete community service work in lieu of paying the fines and other costs imposed for the conviction. The community service program shall be administered and monitored by the appropriate entity that administers court-ordered community service within the applicable jurisdiction.
Community service All No
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 41-2-129(b)(4) Compensation and salaries; work release (4) If the prisoner is gainfully self-employed, the prisoner shall pay for such board, in default of which the prisoner's privilege under §§ 41-2-127 -- 41-2-132 shall be automatically forfeited. Other All Yes
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 41-2-128(5) Prisoners who may apply for release -- Procedure.
(5) (A) The judge shall, at the time of sentencing, cause the sentencing order to reflect the defendant's cost of incarceration and treatment and shall affix to the order,
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taking into consideration the defendant's ability to pay, the time and manner in which the costs are to be paid. The court shall enter the necessary orders requiring that the costs of incarceration and treatment be paid or secured, including, but not limited to, orders of probation that include, as a condition thereof, the payment of costs covered by this subdivision (c)(5).
Condition or extension of supervision All Yes