Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 45-5-205(4) Negligent vehicular assault--penalty
If a term of incarceration is imposed under subsection (2) or (3), the judge may suspend the term of incarceration upon the condition of payment of any fine imposed and
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of restitution. If the person does not pay the fine or restitution, the term of incarceration may be imposed.
Incarceration Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(3)(a) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
In addition to other methods of payment, the court may order one or more of the following in order to satisfy the offender's restitution obligation: (a) forfeiture and sale of
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the offender's assets under the provisions of Title 25, chapter 13, part 7, unless the court finds, after notice and an opportunity for the offender to be heard, that the assets are reasonably necessary for the offender to sustain a living or support the offender's dependents or unless the state determines that the cost of forfeiture and sale would outweigh the amount available to the victim after sale. If the proceeds of sale exceed the amount of restitution ordered and the costs of forfeiture and sale, any remaining amount must be returned to the offender
Property liens All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-8-115 Effect of Nonpayment
(1) When a defendant who is sentenced to pay the costs of assigned counsel defaults in payment of the costs or of any installment, the court on motion of the
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prosecutor or on its own motion may require the defendant to show cause why the default should not be treated as contempt of court and may issue a show cause citation or an arrest warrant requiring the defendant's appearance. (2) Unless the defendant shows that the default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court or to a failure on the defendant's part to make a good faith effort to make the payment, the court may find that the default constitutes civil contempt. (3) The term of imprisonment for contempt for nonpayment of the costs of assigned counsel must be set forth in the judgment and may not exceed 1 day for each $25 of the payment, 30 days if the order for payment of costs was imposed upon conviction of a misdemeanor, or 1 year in any other case, whichever is the shorter period. A person committed for nonpayment of costs must be given credit toward payment for each day of imprisonment at the rate specified in the judgment.
Incarceration Misdemeanor No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-17-302(4) Procedure after trial--Justice's and city courts--Execution of Judgement
A judgment that the offender pay a fine may also direct that the offender be imprisoned until the fine is satisfied in the proportion of 1 day's imprisonment for every
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$75 of the fine. When the judgment is rendered, the offender must be held in custody for the time specified in the judgment unless the fine is paid.
Incarceration All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-208 Termination of remaining portion of deferred or suspended sentence--petition
When imposition of a sentence has been deferred or execution of a sentence has been suspended, the prosecutor or defendant may file a petition to terminate the time remaining on
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the sentence…The court may grant the petition if it finds that...the defendant has paid all restitution and court-ordered financial obligations in full.
Incarceration All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-233 Fine or costs as condition on suspended or deferred sentence
(1) Whenever a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine or costs under 46-18-231 or 46-18-232 and the imposition or execution of the rest of the defendant's sentence is deferred
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or suspended, the court may make payment of the fine or costs a condition for probation. (2) A suspended or deferred sentence may not be revoked if the defendant defaults on the payment of the fine and the default is not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court or a failure to make a good faith effort to make the payment.
Incarceration All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-237 Garnishment--report by supervising authority
(1) If the department of corrections becomes aware that a person while incarcerated under the legal custody of the department of corrections or a person supervised by the department is
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entitled to receive money from any source, the person's supervising authority may prepare a report... (2) The supervising authority shall provide notice and a copy of the report to the office of victims services in the department of justice and the county attorney for the county in which the person was sentenced, either of whom may submit the report along with a petition for garnishment to the court that sentenced the person. The court may order garnishment of the person's money for the payment of restitution, child support, and per diem costs of incarceration owed by the person. Upon receipt of the petition, the court shall provide a copy of the report to the person, who has 15 days following receipt to file an objection. The court may hold a hearing to consider objections raised by the person. (3) Upon compliance with the provisions of subsections (1) and (2), the court shall determine the amount of restitution, child support, and repayment for per diem costs owed by the person. The court shall order, up to the amount of money available, payment of an amount equal to the restitution owed by the person to the person designated under 46-18-245 to supervise the making of restitution payments, any outstanding child support payments to the department of public health and human services for disbursement to the obligee, and per diem costs owed by the person. All restitution owed by the person must be paid prior to payment of any child support payments. All child support owed by the person must be paid prior to the payment of any per diem costs.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-201(3) Sentences that may be imposed
(a) Whenever a person has been found guilty of an offense upon a verdict of guilty or a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, a sentencing judge may impose a
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sentence that may include: (i) a fine as provided by law for the offense; (ii) payment of costs, as provided in 46-18-232, or payment of costs of assigned counsel as provided in 46-8-113... (b) A court may permit a part or all of a fine to be satisfied by a donation of food to a food bank program.
Community service All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-201(6) Sentences that may be imposed
In addition to any of the penalties, restrictions, or conditions imposed pursuant to subsections (1) through (5), the sentencing judge may include the suspension of the license or driving privilege
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of the person to be imposed upon the failure to comply with any penalty, restriction, or condition of the sentence. A suspension of the license or driving privilege of the person must be accomplished as provided in 61-5-214 through 61-5-217.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(3)(a) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
In addition to other methods of payment, the court may order one or more of the following in order to satisfy the offender's restitution obligation: (a) forfeiture and sale of
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the offender's assets under the provisions of Title 25, chapter 13, part 7, unless the court finds, after notice and an opportunity for the offender to be heard, that the assets are reasonably necessary for the offender to sustain a living or support the offender's dependents or unless the state determines that the cost of forfeiture and sale would outweigh the amount available to the victim after sale. If the proceeds of sale exceed the amount of restitution ordered and the costs of forfeiture and sale, any remaining amount must be returned to the offender.
Property liens All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(4) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
With the consent of the victim and in the discretion of the court, an offender may be ordered to make restitution in services to the victim in lieu of money
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or to make restitution to a person designated by the victim, if that person provided services to the victim as a result of the offense.
Community service All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-246 Waiver or modification of payment
An offender may at any time petition the sentencing court to adjust or otherwise waive payment of any part of any ordered restitution or amount to be paid pursuant to
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46-18-241(2)(a). The court shall schedule a hearing and give a victim to whom restitution was ordered notice of the hearing date, place, and time and inform the victim that the victim will have an opportunity to be heard. If the court finds that the circumstances upon which it based the imposition of restitution, amount of the victim's pecuniary loss, or method or time of payment no longer exist or that it otherwise would be unjust to require payment as imposed, the court may adjust or waive unpaid restitution or the amount to be paid pursuant to 46-18-241(2)(a) or modify the time or method of making restitution. The court may extend the restitution schedule.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-241(3) Condition of Restitution
If at any time the court finds that, because of circumstances beyond the offender's control, the offender is not able to pay any restitution, the court may order the offender
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to perform community service during the time that the offender is unable to pay. The offender must be given a credit against restitution due at the rate of the hours of community service times the state minimum wage in effect at the time that the community service is performed.
Community service All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-16-101 Persons subject to required work

(a) The sentencing court may require the following persons to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104: (i) Persons sentenced to a definite term of imprisonment in the county jail,

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whether or not a fine is imposed as a part of the sentence; (ii) Persons committed to jail pursuant to W.S. 6-10-105 for refusal to pay a fine or costs; and (iii) Persons for whom work is imposed as a condition of probation pursuant to W.S. 7-13-304(b). (b) No person charged with a crime and awaiting the action of the grand jury or awaiting trial shall be required to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104.

Condition or extension of supervision, Work program/jail industry program All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day

A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or

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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-11-504 Commitment until fine and costs paid

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine or costs defaults in payment, the court may order the defendant to show cause why he should not be committed to jail.

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If the court finds that the defendant's default is willful or is due to a failure on defendant's part to make a good faith effort to obtain the funds required for the payment and the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, the court may order him committed until the fine or costs, or a specified part thereof, is paid. The defendant shall be given a credit for each day of imprisonment at the rate provided by W.S. 6 10 105, and may earn additional credits against his fine or costs for work performed as provided by W.S. 7 16 101 through 7 16 104.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day

A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or

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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 31-9-305 Payment of judgments in installments; failure to meet payments

(a) A judgment debtor upon notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying the judgment in installments and

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the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

(b) The division shall not suspend a license, registration or a nonresident's operating privilege, and shall restore any license, registration or nonresident's operating privilege suspended following nonpayment of a judgment, when the judgment debtor gives proof of financial responsibility and obtains an order permitting the payment of the judgment in installments, and while the payment of any installment is not in default.

(c) If the judgment debtor fails to pay any installment as specified by the order, then upon notice of default, the division shall suspend the license, registration or nonresident's operating privilege of the judgment debtor until the judgment is fully satisfied, as provided in this act.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-13-421 Restitution as condition of parole

(b) The board shall provide for restitution in the amount determined by the court pursuant to W.S. 7-9-103 unless the board finds the parolee is not reasonably capable of making the payments,

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in which case the board may modify the amount of restitution to be paid, taking into account the factors enumerated in W.S. 7-9-106.

(c) If the parolee fails to pay the restitution as provided by this section the board may: (i) Modify the amount of the restitution; (ii) Repealed By Laws 2011, Ch. 30, § 2. (iii) Revoke the parole.

Condition or extension of supervision, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-9-109 Failure to comply; modification or extension of plan

Failure of the defendant to comply with W.S. 7 9 104 or to comply with the plan of restitution as approved or modified by the court is a violation of

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the conditions of probation. If the probation period has expired, the restitution order may be enforced by either civil or criminal contempt proceedings. Criminal contempt under this section is punishable by imprisonment for not more than one (1) year. The court may modify the plan of restitution or extend the period of time for restitution, but, except for those cases falling within the provisions of W.S. 7 9 113 through 7 9 115, the court may not extend the period of time for restitution beyond ten (10) years following the date of the defendant's discharge from sentence or expiration of probation under W.S. 7 13 301.

Incarceration All No