Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 534.020(3)(b),(4) Methods of imposing fines; installment payment plan; determination of reason for defendant's default; show cause hearing; certain installment payments not to be reported as liquidated debt

(b) If the defendant fails to appear at the show cause hearing, the court may issue a warrant for the defendant's arrest. Any warrant for arrest issued for nonpayment of

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court costs, fees, or fines pursuant to this subsection shall include a notice to the jailer that the defendant shall be released upon payment or completion of daily credit pursuant to KRS 534.070.

(4) When a defendant is sentenced to pay court costs, fees, or fines, an alternative sentence of imprisonment that is to be served in the event the court costs, fees, or fines are not paid shall not be imposed at the same time. The response of a court to nonpayment shall be determined only after:

(a) The court costs, fees, or fines have not been paid; and

(b) 1. The show cause hearing has been held pursuant to subsections (2)(a) and (3)(a) of this section; or 2. The defendant has failed to appear at the show cause hearing as outlined in subsection (3)(b) of this section.

Other All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 534.070(1) Incarceration for failure to pay fine or court costs or failure to appear in court; daily credit against fine or court costs for time served; application of partial payment

 

(1) A defendant who has been sentenced to jail for failure to pay court costs, fees, or fines or for failure to appear in court on a date set for

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the sole purpose of addressing nonpayment of court costs, fees, or fines shall receive credit against the court costs, fees, or fines owed for each day the defendant spends in jail . . . 

Incarceration All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 431.100
Withholding of money payable by Commonwealth to defendant in satisfaction of money judgment in criminal proceeding; fines and forfeitures go to Commonwealth; disposition of fines from offenses relating to alcohol
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and to criminal littering; monetary . . .

When a money judgment is entered against a defendant in a criminal proceeding and each sum, or any part thereof, remains unpaid, there shall be withheld from any disbursement, payment, benefit,

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compensation, salary, or other transfer of money from the Commonwealth of Kentucky to such defendant an amount equal to the unpaid amount of the judgment. Under no circumstances shall the general fund be used to reimburse court costs or pay for judgment.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Kentucky Ky. RCr 2.05 Bench Warrants

Whenever a witness or defendant fails to appear in court as duly required, the presiding judge may issue a warrant for his or her arrest without the necessity of a

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supporting affidavit or complaint.

Other All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 534.020(1) Methods of imposing fines; installment payment plan; determination of reason for defendant's default; show cause hearing; certain installment payments not to be reported as liquidated debt

When a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine, the court may provide for payment to be made within a specified period of time or in specified installments. If no

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such provision is made a part of the sentence, then the fine shall be payable forthwith.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 532.033(8) Order of restitution

When a judge orders restitution, the judge shall:

(8) Not release the defendant from probation supervision until restitution has been paid in full and all other aspects of the probation order

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have been successfully completed.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 24A.175(4) Court cost enforcement

(4) If the court finds that the defendant does not meet the standard articulated in subsection (3) of this section and that the defendant is nonetheless unable to pay the

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full amount of the court costs, fees, or fines at the time of sentencing, then the court may establish an installment payment plan in accordance with KRS 534.020.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 441.265(3),(5)-(7) Required reimbursement by prisoner of costs of confinement; local policy of fee and expense rates; billing and collection methods

(3) The jailer or his designee may bill and attempt to collect any amount owed which remains unpaid. The governing body of the county may, upon the advice of the

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jailer, contract with one (1) or more public agencies or private vendors to perform this billing and collection. Within twelve (12) months after the date of the prisoner's release from confinement, the county attorney, jailer, or the jailer's designee, may file a civil action to seek reimbursement from that prisoner for any amount owed which remains unpaid . . .

(6) Payment of any required fees may be automatically deducted from the prisoner's property or canteen account. If the prisoner has no funds in his account, a deduction may be made creating a negative balance. If funds become available or if the prisoner reenters the jail at a later date, the fees may be deducted from the prisoner's property or canteen account.

(7) Prior to the prisoner's release, the jailer or his designee may work with the confined prisoner to create a reimbursement plan to be implemented upon the prisoner's release. At the end of the prisoner's incarceration, the prisoner shall be presented with a billing statement produced by the jailer or designee. After the prisoner's release, the jailer or his designee may, after negotiation with the prisoner, release the prisoner from all or part of the prisoner's repayment obligation if the jailer believes that the prisoner will be unable to pay the full amount due.

Civil judgment All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 532.162(2) Order as lien upon earnings; circuit clerk to disburse; fee

(2) The circuit clerk's office shall disburse all collected reimbursement, restitution, and fees to the victim, the Kentucky Claims Commission, or the local government, whichever is appropriate. The clerk shall

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be entitled to collect a fee of two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50) from each account for which a disbursement is made at the time of disbursement. In the event of challenge to a garnishment, the appropriate clerk's office shall not disburse those sums associated with the challenged garnishment until determination by the sentencing court regarding the propriety of the garnishment.

Increased fine All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 532.160(1) Criminal garnishment

(1) If a convicted person is unable to pay all court costs, fees, fines, and other monetary penalties at the time of sentencing, then the sentencing court may, consistent with

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KRS 23A.205, 24A.175, 534.020, and KRS 534.060, issue a criminal garnishment order for all fines under KRS Chapter 534 or KRS 49.480 and for court costs, restitution, and reimbursement charges in this chapter.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 532.168 Show cause hearing for failure to comply with criminal garnishment order

If a garnishee fails to comply with the terms of the order of criminal garnishment within thirty (30) days after its issuance, the attorney for the Commonwealth may move the

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court to order the garnishee to show cause why he should not be held in contempt. If the court finds that the failure was willful or grossly negligent, the court shall find the garnishee in contempt and shall award reasonable attorney's fees and costs, in addition to any contempt sanction it imposes.

Incarceration All No
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Kentucky Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 532.356(1)(a) Reimbursement and restitution as additional sanctions; ineligibility to operate motor vehicle upon conviction of certain theft, fraud, and organized crime offenses

(1) Upon a person's conviction and sentencing for any nonstatus juvenile offense, moving traffic violation, criminal violation, misdemeanor, or Class D felony offense, and, for the purposes of paragraph (b)

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of this subsection, any Class C felony offense listed in subsection (3) of this section, the court shall impose the following sanctions in addition to any imprisonment, fine, court cost, or community service:
(a) Reimbursement to the state or local government for the person's incarceration, determined by the per person, per diem, expenses of each prisoner incarcerated by the respective local government, times the number of days he has spent or shall spend in confinement, plus any medical services received by the prisoner, less copayments paid by the prisoner. The convicted person's ability to pay all or part of the reimbursement shall be considered by the sentencing court in imposing the sanction

Increased fine All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 774.28 Neglecting to pay fine or costs; action by county treasurer; neglecting to pay over fine to county treasurer as misdemeanor; punishment; judge to keep exact record of proceedings; liability.
(1) If a person who has received a fine or costs or any part of a fine or costs, neglects to pay the money pursuant to section 22 or 26
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of this chapter, the county treasurer immediately shall commence an action for the unpaid amount, in the name of the people of this state, and shall prosecute the case diligently to effect. (2) A person who neglects to pay over a fine to the county treasurer within 60 days after receiving the fine, is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than $50.00 nor more than $100.00, or imprisonment for not less than 30 nor more than 90 days, or both.
Increased fine All Yes
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 769.1(k) Wage assignment The court may require the defendant to pay any fine, cost, or assessment ordered to be paid under this section by wage assignment. Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 769.1a(11) Payment of restitution as condition of sentence, parole, or probation
If the defendant is placed on probation or paroled or the court imposes a conditional sentence under section 3 of this chapter, any restitution ordered under this section shall be
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a condition of that probation, parole, or sentence. The court may revoke probation or impose imprisonment under the conditional sentence and the parole board may revoke parole if the defendant fails to comply with the order and if the defendant has not made a good faith effort to comply with the order. In determining whether to revoke probation or parole or impose imprisonment, the court or parole board shall consider the defendant's employment status, earning ability, and financial resources, the willfulness of the defendant's failure to pay, and any other special circumstances that may have a bearing on the defendant's ability to pay.
Incarceration All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 780.73 Credit for incarceration on bailable offense
Any person incarcerated on a bailable offense who does not supply bail and against whom a fine is levied on conviction of such offense shall be allowed a credit of
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$5.00 for each day so incarcerated prior to conviction except that in no case shall the amount so allowed or credited exceed the amount of the fine.
Incarceration All Yes
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 769.3(1) Conditional sentence
(1) If a person is convicted of an offense punishable by a fine or imprisonment, or both, the court may impose a conditional sentence and order the person to pay
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a fine, with or without the costs of prosecution, and restitution . . . within a limited time stated in the sentence and, in default of payment, sentence the person as provided by law.
Incarceration All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 769.3(2) Conditional sentence - installments
(2) Except for a person who is convicted of criminal sexual conduct in the first or third degree, the court may also place the offender on probation with the condition
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that the offender pay a fine, costs, damages, restitution, or any combination in installments with any limited time and may, upon default in any of those payments, impose sentence as provided by law.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.4803 Failure to pay as subject to late penalty
A person who fails to pay a penalty, fee, or costs in full within 56 days after that amount is due and owing is subject to a late penalty equal
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to 20% of the amount owed. The court shall inform a person subject to a penalty, fee, or costs that the late penalty will be applied to any amount that continues to be unpaid 56 days after the amount is due and owing. . . . A late penalty may be waived by the court upon the request of the person subject to the late penalty.
Collection fee/interest All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 780.830a Deductions and payments
(1) If a defendant who has been sentenced to jail is ordered to pay restitution under section 76, and if the defendant receives more than $50.00 in a month, the
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sheriff may deduct 50% of the amount over $50.00 received by the defendant for payment of the restitution, and 5% of the amount over $50.00 received by the defendant to be retained by the sheriff as an administrative fee. The sheriff shall promptly send the money deducted for restitution to the court or to the crime victim as provided in the order of restitution when it accumulates to an amount that exceeds $100.00, or when the defendant is released to probation or discharged on the maximum sentence.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No