Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 99-19-20 (2) Incarceration
 The defendant may be imprisoned until the fine is paid if the defendant is financially able to pay a fine and the court so finds, subject to the limitations hereinafter
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set out.
Incarceration All No
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 63-1-53 (1) Driver's license suspension
Upon failure of any person to respond timely and properly to a summons or citation charging such person with any violation of this title, or upon failure of any person
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to pay timely any fine, fee or assessment levied as a result of any violation of this title, the clerk of the court shall give written notice to such person by United States first-class mail at his last known address advising such person that, if within ten (10) days after such notice is deposited in the mail, the person has not properly responded to the summons or citation or has not paid the entire amount of all fines, fees and assessments levied, then the court will give notice thereof to the Commissioner of Public Safety and the commissioner may suspend the driver's license of such person.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic No
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 99-19-20 (1) Fines; payment; indigent defendants; inability to work or unavailability of work
When any court sentences a defendant to pay a fine, the court may order (a) that the fine be paid immediately, or (b) that the fine be paid in installments
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to the clerk of said court or to the judge, if there be no clerk, or (c) that payment of the fine be a condition of probation, or (d) that the defendant be required to work on public property for public benefit under the direction of the sheriff for a specific number of hours, or (e) any combination of the above.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 99-19-20 (1) Fines; payment; indigent defendants; inability to work or unavailability of work
When any court sentences a defendant to pay a fine, the court may order (a) that the fine be paid immediately, or (b) that the fine be paid in installments
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to the clerk of said court or to the judge, if there be no clerk, or (c) that payment of the fine be a condition of probation, or (d) that the defendant be required to work on public property for public benefit under the direction of the sheriff for a specific number of hours, or (e) any combination of the above.
Work program/jail industry program All No
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 99-37-5(1) Payment and orders
When a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine or costs or ordered to make restitution, the court may order payment to be made forthwith or within a specified period
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of time or in specified installments. If a defendant is sentenced to a term of imprisonment, an order of payment of a fine, costs or restitution shall not be enforceable during the period of imprisonment unless the court expressly finds that the defendant has assets to pay all or part of the amounts ordered at the time of sentencing.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 99-37-5(2) Payment and orders
(2) When a defendant sentenced to pay a fine or costs or ordered to make restitution is also placed on probation or imposition or execution of sentence is suspended, the
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court may make payment of the fine or costs or the making of restitution a condition of probation or suspension of sentence. Such offenders shall make restitution payments directly to the victim. As an alternative to a contempt proceeding under Sections 99-37-7 through 99-37-13, the intentional refusal to obey the restitution order or a failure by a defendant to make a good faith effort to make such restitution may be considered a violation of the defendant's probation and may be cause for revocation of his probation or suspension of sentence.
Incarceration All No
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 99-37-5(2) Payment and orders
(2) When a defendant sentenced to pay a fine or costs or ordered to make restitution is also placed on probation or imposition or execution of sentence is suspended, the
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court may make payment of the fine or costs or the making of restitution a condition of probation or suspension of sentence. Such offenders shall make restitution payments directly to the victim. As an alternative to a contempt proceeding under Sections 99-37-7 through 99-37-13, the intentional refusal to obey the restitution order or a failure by a defendant to make a good faith effort to make such restitution may be considered a violation of the defendant's probation and may be cause for revocation of his probation or suspension of sentence.
Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. § 99-37-7(2) Contempt for default
(2) Unless the defendant shows that his default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court or to a failure on his part to
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make a good faith effort to make the payment, the court may find that his default constitutes contempt and may order him committed until the fine or the restitution, or a specified part thereof, is paid.
Incarceration All No
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Mississippi Miss. Code. Ann. § 63-1-51 Grounds for revocation or suspension
It shall be the duty of the court clerk, upon conviction of any person holding a license issued pursuant to this article where the penalty for a traffic violation is
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as much as Ten Dollars ($10.00), to mail a copy of abstract of the court record or provide an electronically or computer generated copy of abstract of the court record immediately to the commissioner at Jackson, Mississippi, showing the date of conviction, penalty, etc., so that a record of same may be made by the Department of Public Safety. The commissioner shall forthwith revoke the license of any person for a period of one (1) year upon receiving a duly certified record of each person's convictions of any of the following offenses when such conviction has become final: . . . (f) Contempt for failure to pay a fine or fee or to respond to a summons or citation pursuant to a charge of a violation of this title.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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Mississippi Miss. Code. Ann. § 47-1-3 Working out fine, costs, sentence
It is the imperative duty of the board of supervisors in each county in this state to require each convict sentenced to imprisonment in the county jail and the payment
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of a fine and costs, or to imprisonment and payment of costs, or to payment of fine and costs, to work out the sentence on the county convict farm or on the public roads or other public works of the county, or in a contiguous county, as herein provided. But any convict who is sentenced to the payment of a fine and costs and who pays such fine and costs shall thereby be relieved from working out such fine and costs, but the payment in full of such fine and costs shall not relieve such convict from working out the full time of his imprisonment as adjudged in his sentence.
Work program/jail industry program All Yes
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. §97-33-1 Miss. Code Ann. §97-33-1
shall be fined in a sum not more than Five Hundred Dollars ($ 500.00); and, unless such fine and costs be immediately paid, shall be imprisoned for any period not
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more than ninety (90) days
Incarceration Misdemeanor Yes
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. §97-33-11 Miss. Code Ann. §97-33-11
shall be fined in a sum not more than five hundred dollars; and unless such fine and costs be immediately paid, shall be imprisoned in the county jail for not
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less than five nor more than twenty days
Incarceration Misdemeanor Yes
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. §97-35-41 Miss. Code Ann. §97-35-41  in addition to being committed to jail is herein provided, such person shall also pay all costs, and shall stand committed until same is paid Incarceration Misdemeanor Yes
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Mississippi Miss. Code Ann. §47-7-49 (2) Miss. Code Ann. §47-7-49 (2)
The offender may be imprisoned until the payments are made if the offender is financially able to make the payments and the court in the county where the offender resides
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so finds
Incarceration Misdemeanor No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2B:12-23 Community Service
a. A person, sentenced by a municipal court to pay a fine, who defaults in payment may be ordered to perform community service in lieu of incarceration or other modification
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of the sentence with the person's consent. b. The county or municipal official in charge of the community service program shall report to the municipal court any failure of a person subject to a court work order to report for work or to perform the assigned work. Upon receipt of the report, the court may revoke its community service order and impose any sentence consistent with the original sentence.
Community service All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2B:12-23.1 Community Service
Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, if a municipal court finds that a person does not have the ability to pay a penalty in full on the date
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of the hearing or has failed to pay a previously imposed penalty, the court may order the person to perform community service in lieu of the payment of a penalty; or, order the payment of the penalty in installments for a period of time determined by the court. If a person defaults on any payment and a municipal court finds that the defendant does not have the ability to pay, the court may: (1) reduce the penalty, suspend the penalty, or modify the installment plan; (2) order that credit be given against the amount owed for each day of confinement, if the court finds that the person has served jail time for the default; (3) revoke any unpaid portion of the penalty, if the court finds that the circumstances that warranted the imposition have changed or that it would be unjust to require payment; (4) order the person to perform community service in lieu of payment of the penalty; or (5) impose any other alternative permitted by law in lieu of payment of the penalty. b. For the purposes of this section, “penalty” means any fine, statutorily-mandated assessment, surcharge or other financial penalty imposed by a municipal court, except restitution or a surcharge assessed pursuant to subsection f. of section 1 of P.L.2000, c. 75 (C.39:4-97.2).
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
When a defendant sentenced to pay an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), a penalty imposed pursuant to section 11 of P.L.2001, c. 81 (C.2C:43-3.6),
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a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c. 73 (C.2C:14-10), monthly probation fee, fine, a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5), other court-imposed financial obligations or to make restitution or pay child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, upon the motion of the person authorized by law to collect the payment, the motion of the prosecutor, the motion of the victim entitled to payment of restitution, the motion of the Victims of Crime Compensation Office, the motion of the State or county Office of Victim and Witness Advocacy or upon its own motion, the court shall recall him, or issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for his appearance. The court shall afford the person notice and an opportunity to be heard on the issue of default. Failure to make any payment when due shall be considered a default. The standard of proof shall be by a preponderance of the evidence, and the burden of establishing good cause for a default shall be on the person who has defaulted. (1) If the court finds that the person has defaulted without good cause, the court shall: (a) Order the suspension of the driver's license or the nonresident reciprocity driving privilege of the person
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
When a defendant sentenced to pay an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), a penalty imposed pursuant to section 11 of P.L.2001, c. 81 (C.2C:43-3.6),
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a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c. 73 (C.2C:14-10), monthly probation fee, fine, a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5), other court-imposed financial obligations or to make restitution or pay child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, upon the motion of the person authorized by law to collect the payment, the motion of the prosecutor, the motion of the victim entitled to payment of restitution, the motion of the Victims of Crime Compensation Office, the motion of the State or county Office of Victim and Witness Advocacy or upon its own motion, the court shall recall him, or issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for his appearance. The court shall afford the person notice and an opportunity to be heard on the issue of default. Failure to make any payment when due shall be considered a default. The standard of proof shall be by a preponderance of the evidence, and the burden of establishing good cause for a default shall be on the person who has defaulted. (1) If the court finds that the person has defaulted without good cause, the court shall: (a) Order the suspension of the driver's license or the nonresident reciprocity driving privilege of the person
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
When a defendant sentenced to pay an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), a penalty imposed pursuant to section 11 of P.L.2001, c. 81 (C.2C:43-3.6),
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a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c. 73 (C.2C:14-10), monthly probation fee, fine, a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5), other court-imposed financial obligations or to make restitution or pay child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, upon the motion of the person authorized by law to collect the payment, the motion of the prosecutor, the motion of the victim entitled to payment of restitution, the motion of the Victims of Crime Compensation Office, the motion of the State or county Office of Victim and Witness Advocacy or upon its own motion, the court shall recall him, or issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for his appearance. The court shall afford the person notice and an opportunity to be heard on the issue of default. Failure to make any payment when due shall be considered a default. The standard of proof shall be by a preponderance of the evidence, and the burden of establishing good cause for a default shall be on the person who has defaulted. (1) If the court finds that the person has defaulted without good cause, the court shall: (a) Order the suspension of the driver's license or the nonresident reciprocity driving privilege of the person
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
If the court finds that the person defaulted on payment of a court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court without good cause and finds
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that the default was willful, the court may, in addition to the action required by paragraph (1) of this subsection a., impose a term of imprisonment or participation in a labor assistance program or enforced community service to achieve the objective of the court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court. These options shall not reduce the amount owed by the person in default. The term of imprisonment or enforced community service or participation in a labor assistance program in such case shall be specified in the order of commitment. It need not be equated with any particular dollar amount but, in the case of a fine it shall not exceed one day for each $50 of the fine nor shall it exceed a period of 90 consecutive days. In no case shall the total period of imprisonment in the case of a disorderly persons offense for both the sentence of imprisonment and for failure to pay a fine exceed six months.
Incarceration All No