Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(1) Fine and costs; commitment until paid; installments; deduction from bond; suspension or revocation of motor vehicle operator’s license.

(1)(a) In all cases in which courts or magistrates have now or may hereafter have the power to punish offenses, either in whole or in part, by requiring the offender

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to pay fines or costs, or both, such courts or magistrates may make it a part of the sentence that the party stand committed and be imprisoned in the jail of the proper county until the fines or costs are paid or secured to be paid or the offender is otherwise discharged according to law if the court or magistrate determines that the offender has the financial ability to pay such fines or costs.

Incarceration All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(2) Fine and costs; commitment until paid; installments; deduction from bond; suspension or revocation of motor vehicle operator’s license

(2) If the court or magistrate determines, pursuant to subsection (1) of this section, that an offender is financially unable to pay such fines or costs in one lump sum but

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is financially capable of paying in installments, the court or magistrate shall make arrangements suitable to the court or magistrate and to the offender by which the offender may pay in installments. The court or magistrate shall enter an order specifying the terms of such arrangements and the dates on which payments are to be made. When the judgment of conviction provides for the suspension or revocation of a motor vehicle operator’s license and the court authorizes the payment of fines or costs by installments, the revocation or suspension shall be effective as of the date of judgment.

Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(3) Alternative to lump sum/installment payments

As an alternative to a lump-sum payment or as an alternative or in conjunction with installment payments, the court or magistrate may deduct fines or costs from a bond posted

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by the offender to the extent that such bond is not otherwise encumbered by a valid lien, levy, execution, or assignment to counsel of record or the person who posted the bond.

Other All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206.01 Fine and costs; payment of installments; violation; penalty

Installments provided for in section 29-2206 shall be paid pursuant to the order entered by the court or magistrate. Any person who fails to comply with the terms of such order shall

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be liable for punishment for contempt, unless such person has the leave of the court or magistrate in regard to such noncompliance or such person requests a hearing pursuant to section 29-2412 and establishes at such hearing that he or she is financially unable to pay.

Incarceration, Increased fine All Yes
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2412 (3) Fine and costs; nonpayment; commutation upon confinement; credit; amount

(1) (a) Any person arrested and brought into custody on a warrant for failure to pay fines or costs, for failure to appear before a court or magistrate on the due date

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of such fines or costs, or for failure to comply with the terms of an order pursuant to sections 29-2206 and 29-2206.01, shall be entitled to a hearing on the first regularly scheduled court date following the date of arrest.

(b) If the court or magistrate determines that the person is financially able to pay the fines or costs and the person refuses to pay, the court or magistrate may: (i) Order the person to be confined in the jail of the proper county until the fines or costs are paid or secured to be paid or the person is otherwise discharged pursuant to subsection (4) of this section; or (ii) Enter an order pursuant to subdivision (1)(d) of this section discharging the person of such fines or costs and order the person to complete community service for a specified number of hours pursuant to sections 29-2277 to 29-2279;

(3) Nothing in this section shall authorize any person to be discharged from imprisonment before the expiration of the time for which he or she may be sentenced to be imprisoned as part of his or her punishment

(4) (a) Any person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs or for default on an installment shall be entitled to a credit on the fines, costs, or installment of one hundred fifty dollars for each day so held.

(b) In no case shall a person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs be held in such custody for more days than the maximum number to which he or she could have been sentenced if the penalty set by law includes the possibility of confinement.

Community service, Incarceration All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2404 Misdemeanor cases; fines and costs; judgment; levy; commitment

In all cases of misdemeanor in which courts or magistrates shall have power to fine any offender, and shall render judgment for such fine, it shall be lawful to issue

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executions for the same, with the costs taxed against the offender, to be levied on the goods and chattels of any such offender, and, for want of the same, upon the body of the offender, who shall, following a determination that the offender has the financial ability to pay such fine pursuant to section 29-2412, be committed to the jail of the proper county until the fine and costs be paid, or secured to be paid, or the offender be otherwise discharged according to law.

Collection fee/interest, Incarceration Misdemeanor Yes
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Nebraska (2)Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1011 Violations; liability for expenses

Even if reimbursement for expenses is not ordered under subsection (1) of this section, the defendant shall be liable for all unreimbursed expenses incurred by a public or private agency

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in conjunction with the care, impoundment, seizure, or disposal of an animal. The expenses shall be a lien upon the animal.

Property liens All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2262(2)(l)-(m),(s)-(t) Probation; conditions

(2) The court may, as a condition of a sentence of probation, require the offender:
(l) To pay a fine in one or more payments as ordered;
(m) To pay

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for tests to determine the presence of drugs or alcohol, psychological evaluations, offender assessment screens, and rehabilitative services required in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of offenders if such offender has the financial ability to pay for such services;
(s) To make restitution as described in sections 29-2280 and 29-2281; or
(t) To pay for all costs imposed by the court, including court costs and the fees imposed pursuant to section 29-2262.06.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2262.06(1),(5) Fees; waiver; when; failure to pay; effect

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, whenever a district court or county court sentences an adult offender to probation, the court shall require the probationer to pay a

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one-time administrative enrollment fee and thereafter a monthly probation programming fee.
(5) If a probationer defaults in the payment of monthly probation programming fees or any installment thereof, the court may revoke his or her probation for nonpayment, except that probation shall not be revoked nor shall the offender be imprisoned for such nonpayment if the probationer is financially unable to make the payment, if he or she so states to the court in writing under oath, and if the court so finds after a hearing.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.94B.040(1),(4) Conversion of fine to community service (for crimes committed before July 1, 2000)

(1) If an offender violates any condition or requirement of a sentence, the court may modify its order of judgment and sentence and impose further punishment in accordance with this section.

(4) If

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the violation involves failure to pay legal financial obligations, the following provisions apply: (a) The department and the offender may enter into a stipulated agreement that the failure to pay was willful noncompliance, according to the provisions and requirements of subsection (3)(a) of this section; (b) In the absence of a stipulated agreement, or where the court is not satisfied with the department’s sanctions as provided in a stipulated agreement under (a) of this subsection, the court, upon the motion of the state, or upon its own motion, shall require the offender to show cause why the offender should not be punished for the noncompliance. The court may issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for the offender’s appearance; (c) The state has the burden of showing noncompliance by a preponderance of the evidence. The court may not sanction the offender for failure to pay legal financial obligations unless the court finds, after a hearing and on the record, that the failure to pay is willful. A failure to pay is willful if the offender has the current ability to pay but refuses to do so. In determining whether the offender has the current ability to pay, the court shall inquire into and consider: (i) The offender’s income and assets; (ii) the offender’s basic living costs as defined by RCW 10.101.010 and other liabilities including child support and other legal financial obligations; and (iii) the offender’s bona fide efforts to acquire additional resources. An offender who is indigent as defined by RCW 10.101.010(3) (a) through (c) is presumed to lack the current ability to pay; (d) If the court determines that the offender is homeless or a person who is mentally ill, as defined in RCW 71.24.025, failure to pay a legal financial obligation is not willful noncompliance and shall not subject the offender to penalties; (e) If the court finds that the failure to pay is willful noncompliance, the court may order the offender to be confined for a period not to exceed sixty days for each violation or order one or more of the penalties authorized in subsection (3)(a)(i) of this section; and (f) If the court finds that the violation was not willful, the court may, and if the court finds that the defendant is indigent as defined in RCW 10.101.010(3) (a) through (c), the court shall modify the terms of payment of the legal financial obligations, reduce or waive nonrestitution legal financial obligations, or convert nonrestitution legal financial obligations to community restitution hours, if the jurisdiction operates a community restitution program, at the rate of no less than the state minimum wage established in RCW 49.46.020 for each hour of community restitution. The crime victim penalty assessment under RCW 7.68.035 may not be reduced, waived, or converted to community restitution hours.

Community service, Incarceration, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 10.82.010 Execution for fines and costs

Upon a judgment for fine and costs, and for all adjudged costs, execution shall be issued against the property of the defendant, and returned in the same manner as in

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civil actions.

Property liens All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 10.01.170 Fine or costs--Payment within specified time or installments

When a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine or costs, the court may grant permission for payment to be made within a specified period of time or in specified

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installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 10.82.030 Commitment for failure to pay fine and costs — Execution against defendant’s property — Reduction by payment, labor, or confinement

If any person ordered into custody until the fine and costs adjudged against him or her be paid shall not, within five days, pay, or cause the payment of the

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same to be made, the clerk of the court shall issue a warrant to the sheriff commanding him or her to imprison such defendant in the county jail until the amount of such fine and costs owing are paid. Execution may at any time issue against the property of the defendant for that portion of such fine and costs not reduced by the application of this section. The amount of such fine and costs owing shall be the whole of such fine and costs reduced by the amount of any portion thereof paid, and an amount established by the county legislative authority for every day the defendant performs labor as provided in RCW 10.82.040, and a lesser amount established by the county legislative authority for every day the defendant does not perform such labor while imprisoned.

Incarceration All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 3.62.040(5) Costs, fines, forfeitures, and penalties from city cases--Disposition--Interest

(5) (a) Except as provided in (b) of this subsection, penalties, fines, fees, and costs may accrue interest at the rate of twelve percent per annum, upon assignment to a collection agency.

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Interest may accrue only while the case is in collection status.

(b) As of June 7, 2018, penalties, fines, bail forfeitures, fees, and costs imposed against a defendant in a criminal proceeding shall not accrue interest.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 10.82.080 Unlawful receipt of public assistance — Deduction from subsequent assistance payments — Restitution payments

(1) When a superior court has, as a condition of the sentence for a person convicted of the unlawful receipt of public assistance, ordered restitution to the state of that

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overpayment or a portion thereof: (a) The department of social and health services shall deduct the overpayment from subsequent assistance payments as provided in RCW 43.20B.630, when the person is receiving public assistance; or (b) Ordered restitution payments may be made at the direction of the court to the clerk of the appropriate county or directly to the department of social and health services when the person is not receiving public assistance.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 10.82.040 Commitment for failure to pay fine and costs--Reduction of amount by performance of labor

When a defendant is committed to jail, on failure to pay any fines and costs, he or she shall, under the supervision of the county sheriff and subject to the

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terms of any ordinances adopted by the county commissioners, be permitted to perform labor to reduce the amount owing of the fine and costs.

Work program/jail industry program All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 46.20.289 Suspension for failure to respond, appear, etc

Except for traffic violations committed under RCW 46.61.165, the department shall suspend all driving privileges of a person when the department receives notice from a court under RCW 46.63.070(6), 46.63.110(6),

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or 46.64.025 that the person has failed to respond to a notice of traffic infraction for a moving violation, failed to appear at a requested hearing for a moving violation, violated a written promise to appear in court for a notice of infraction for a moving violation, or has failed to comply with the terms of a notice of traffic infraction, criminal complaint, or citation for a moving violation, or when the department receives notice from another state under Article IV of the nonresident violator compact under RCW 46.23.010 or from a jurisdiction that has entered into an agreement with the department under RCW 46.23.020, other than for a standing, stopping, or parking violation, provided that the traffic infraction or traffic offense is committed on or after July 1, 2005. A suspension under this section takes effect pursuant to the provisions of RCW 46.20.245, and remains in effect until the department has received a certificate from the court showing that the case has been adjudicated, and until the person meets the requirements of RCW 46.20.311. In the case of failure to respond to a traffic infraction issued under RCW 46.55.105, the department shall suspend all driving privileges until the person provides evidence from the court that all penalties and restitution have been paid. A suspension under this section does not take effect if, prior to the effective date of the suspension, the department receives a certificate from the court showing that the case has been adjudicated.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 7.68.035(3) PenPenalty assessments in addition to fine or bail forfeiture — Distribution — Establishment of crime victim and witness programs in county — Contribution required from cities and towns

When any person accused of having committed a crime posts bail in superior court pursuant to the provisions of chapter 10.19 RCW and such bail is forfeited, there shall be

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deducted from the proceeds of such forfeited bail a penalty assessment, in addition to any other penalty or fine imposed by law, equal to the assessment which would be applicable under subsection (1) of this section if the person had been convicted of the crime.

Increased fine All Yes
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.92.130 City jail prisoners may be compelled to work

When a person has been sentenced by any municipal or district judge in this state to a term of imprisonment in a city jail, whether in default of payment of

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a fine or otherwise, such person may be compelled on each day of such term, except Sundays, to perform eight hours' labor upon the streets, public buildings, and grounds of such city.

Community service All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 7.68.120(2) Reimbursement — Restitution to victim — Notice — Fees — Order to withhold and deliver — Limitation

(2) (a) The department may issue a notice of debt due and owing to the person found to have committed the criminal act, and shall serve the notice on the person in

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the manner prescribed for the service of a summons in a civil action or by certified mail. The department shall file the notice of debt due and owing along with proof of service with the superior court of the county where the criminal act took place. The person served the notice shall have thirty days from the date of service to respond to the notice by requesting a hearing in superior court.

(b) If a person served a notice of debt due and owing fails to respond within thirty days, the department may seek a default judgment. Upon entry of a judgment in an action brought pursuant to (a) of this subsection, the clerk shall enter the order in the execution docket. The filing fee shall be added to the amount of the debt indicated in the judgment. The judgment shall become a lien upon all real and personal property of the person named in the judgment as in other civil cases. The judgment shall be subject to execution, garnishment, or other procedures for collection of a judgment.

Civil judgment, Property liens, Wage/bank account garnishment All No