Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-05(3) Imposition of fine--Response to nonpayment
3. If the defendant does not pay the fine, or make any required partial payment, the court, upon motion of the prosecuting attorney or on its own motion, may issue
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an order to show cause why the defendant should not be imprisoned for nonpayment. Unless the defendant shows that his default is excusable, the court may sentence him to the following periods of imprisonment for failure to pay a fine:a. If the defendant was convicted of a misdemeanor, to a period not to exceed thirty days. b. If the defendant was convicted of a felony, to a period not to exceed six months.
Incarceration All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-05(2) Imposition of fine--Response to nonpayment
The court may allow the defendant to pay any fine imposed in installments. When a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine, the court shall not impose at the same
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time an alternative sentence to be served in the event that the fine is not paid.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-05(3) Imposition of fine--Response to nonpayment
If the defendant does not pay the fine, or make any required partial payment, the court, upon motion of the prosecuting attorney or on its own motion, may issue an
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order to show cause why the defendant should not be imprisoned for nonpayment. Unless the defendant shows that his default is excusable, the court may sentence him to the following periods of imprisonment for failure to pay a fine: a. If the defendant was convicted of a misdemeanor, to a period not to exceed thirty days. b. If the defendant was convicted of a felony, to a period not to exceed six months.
Incarceration All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22(4) Judgment for fines--Court administration fee--Community service supervision fee--Special funds--Docketing and enforcement
...A judgment that the defendant pay a fine or fees, or both, may be docketed and if docketed constitutes a lien upon the real estate of the defendant in like
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manner as a judgment for money rendered in a civil action. The court may allow the defendant to pay any assessed administration fee or community service supervision fee in installments. When a defendant is assessed administration fees or a community service supervision fee, the court may not impose at the same time an alternative sentence to be served if the fees are not paid.
Property liens All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22.1 Judgment for fine or costs in criminal cases--Docketing and enforcement
The court may, within ten years of the date of entry of a judgment that imposes a fine or assesses costs against a defendant, order the judgment to be docketed
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by the clerk of court in the judgment docket maintained pursuant to section 28-20-13 in the same manner in which a civil judgment for money is docketed. The docketing of the judgment has the same effect as the docketing of a civil judgment. The docketed judgment may be docketed in any other county in the same manner, it imposes a lien upon the real property owned by the defendant to the same extent, it is subject to the same statute of limitations, and it is enforceable by execution in the same manner as provided for a civil judgment for money.
Property liens All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-27-03 Judgment for imprisonment or as response to nonpayment of fine
If a judgment is for imprisonment, initially or as response to nonpayment of a fine in accordance with section 12.1-32-05, the defendant forthwith must be committed to the custody of
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the proper officer and be detained by that officer until the judgment is complied with.
Incarceration All Yes
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 32-09.1-02 Creditors may proceed by garnishment
Any creditor is entitled to proceed by garnishment in any court having jurisdiction of the subject of the action against any person, any public corporation, the United States, the state
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of North Dakota, or any institution, department, or agency of the state, indebted to or having any property in possession or under control, belonging to the creditor's debtor after securing a judgment against the debtor in a court of competent jurisdiction, in the cases, upon the conditions, and in the manner prescribed in this chapter. A garnishment action brought pursuant to this chapter is the exclusive procedure which may be used to execute on earnings of a debtor while those earnings are held by a third-party employer.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 32-09.1-14 Default
If any garnishee who is duly summoned willfully fails to serve disclosure as required in this chapter, the court, upon proof by affidavit of the creditor, may render judgment against
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the garnishee for an amount not exceeding the lesser of the plaintiff's judgment against the defendant or the retention amount as defined under section 32-09.1-07. The creditor shall serve the garnishee with a copy of the affidavit and a notice of intent to take default judgment. The court upon good cause shown may remove the default and permit the garnishee to disclose on terms as may be just.
Increased fine All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 40-11-12 Commitment of guilty person for nonpayment of fines or costs
Any person upon whom any fine or costs, or both, has been imposed for violation of a municipal ordinance may, after hearing, be committed upon order of the court to
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jail or other place provided by the municipality for the incarceration of offenders until the fine or costs, or both, are fully paid or discharged by labor as provided in section 40-18-12. The court may not commit a person under this section when the sole reason for the person's nonpayment of fines or costs, or both, is the person's indigence. An order of commitment under this section shall not be for a period in excess of thirty days. As used in this section, “fine” does not include a fee established pursuant to subsection 2 of section 40-05-06.
Incarceration All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-08(1) Hearing prior to ordering restitution, reparation, or reimbursement of indigent defense costs and expenses--Conditions--Collection of restitution for insufficient funds checks--Continuing appropriation
An order that a defendant make restitution or reparation as a sentence or condition of probation may, unless the court directs otherwise, be filed, transcribed, and enforced by the person
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entitled to the restitution or reparation or by the division of adult services in the same manner as civil judgments rendered by the courts of this state may be enforced.
Other All Yes
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-08(2) Hearing prior to ordering restitution, reparation, or reimbursement of indigent defense costs and expenses--Conditions--Collection of restitution for insufficient funds checks--Continuing appropriation
When the restitution ordered by the court under subsection 1 is the result of a finding that the defendant issued a check or draft without sufficient funds or without an
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account, the court shall impose as costs the greater of the sum of ten dollars or an amount equal to twenty-five percent of the amount of restitution ordered. The costs imposed under this subsection, however, may not exceed one thousand dollars. The state-employed clerks of district court shall remit the funds collected as costs under this subsection to the state treasurer for deposit in the restitution collection assistance fund. The funds deposited into the restitution collection assistance fund are appropriated to the judicial branch on a continuing basis for the purpose of defraying expenses incident to the collection of restitution, including operating expenses and the compensation of additional necessary personnel. The state's attorneys and county-employed clerks of district court shall remit the funds collected as costs under this subsection to the county treasurer to be deposited in the county general fund.
Increased fine All Yes
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 27-10-01.4(1)(b) Remedial sanctions--Punitive sanctions for nonsummary and summary procedure--Past conduct
1. A court may impose one or more of the following remedial sanctions:b. Imprisonment if the contempt of court is of a type included in subdivision b, c, d, e,
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or f of subsection 1 of section 27-10-01.1 (providing that contempt of court includes "Intentional nonpayment of a sum of money ordered by the court to be paid in a case when by law execution cannot be awarded for the collection of the sum") The imprisonment may extend for as long as the contemnor continues the contempt or six months, whichever is shorter.
Incarceration All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 27-10-01.4(1)(d) Remedial sanctions--Punitive sanctions for nonsummary and summary procedure--Past conduct A court may impose one or more of the following remedial sanctions:d. An order designed to ensure compliance with a previous order of the court Other All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 27-10-01.4(1)(e) Remedial sanctions--Punitive sanctions for nonsummary and summary procedure--Past conduct
A court may impose one or more of the following remedial sanctions:e. A sanction other than the sanctions specified in subdivisions a through d if the court expressly finds that
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those sanctions would be ineffectual to terminate a continuing contempt.
Other All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-05(2) Imposition of fine--Response to nonpayment
The court may allow the defendant to pay any fine imposed in installments. When a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine, the court shall not impose at the same
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time an alternative sentence to be served in the event that the fine is not paid.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-07-01.1 Payment of expenses for defense of indigents--Reimbursement of indigent defense costs and expenses--Indigent defense administration fund--Continuing appropriation If the application fee is not paid before disposition of the case, the fee amount must be added to the amount to be reimbursed under this section. Increased fine All Yes
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22(4) Judgment for fines--Court administration fee--Community service supervision fee--Special funds--Docketing and enforcement
A judgment that the defendant pay a fine or fees, or both, may be docketed and if docketed constitutes a lien upon the real estate of the defendant in like
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manner as a judgment for money rendered in a civil action. The court may allow the defendant to pay any assessed administration fee or community service supervision fee in installments. When a defendant is assessed administration fees or a community service supervision fee, the court may not impose at the same time an alternative sentence to be served if the fees are not paid.
Property liens All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22(4) Judgment for fines--Court administration fee--Community service supervision fee--Special funds--Docketing and enforcement
A judgment that the defendant pay a fine or fees, or both, may be docketed and if docketed constitutes a lien upon the real estate of the defendant in like
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manner as a judgment for money rendered in a civil action. The court may allow the defendant to pay any assessed administration fee or community service supervision fee in installments. When a defendant is assessed administration fees or a community service supervision fee, the court may not impose at the same time an alternative sentence to be served if the fees are not paid.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-02.2(4) Repayment of rewards paid by crimestoppers programs--Duties of attorney general--Qualified local programs--Disbursement of moneys collected
A judgment that includes a repayment of reward, either alone or in conjunction with section 29-26-22, may be docketed and thereafter constitutes a lien upon the real estate of the
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defendant in the same manner as a judgment for money rendered in a civil action.
Property liens Felony No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-32-07(2) Supervision of probationer--Conditions of probation--Revocation
If the offender has not paid the full amount of supervision fees and costs before completion or termination of probation, the court may issue an order, after opportunity for hearing,
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to determine the amount of supervision fees and costs that are unpaid. The order may be filed, transcribed, and enforced by the department of corrections and rehabilitation in the same manner as civil judgments rendered by a district court of this state.
Property liens All No