Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 1907.25(B) Blocking of motor vehicle registration or transfer or registration for failure to pay fine or costs
If a person is charged with an offense in county court and either fails to appear in court at the required time and place to answer the charge or pleads
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guilty to or is found guilty of the offense and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay any fine or costs imposed by the court, the court may enter information relative to the person's failure to pay any outstanding amount of the fine or costs on a form prescribed or approved by the registrar of motor vehicles pursuant to division (C) of this section and send the form to the registrar. Upon receipt of the form, the registrar shall take any measures necessary to ensure that neither the registrar nor any deputy registrar accepts any application for the registration or transfer of registration of any motor vehicle owned or leased by the person. However, for a motor vehicle leased by the person, the registrar shall not implement this requirement until the registrar adopts procedures for that implementation under section 4503.39 of the Revised Code. The period of denial relating to the issuance or transfer of a certificate of registration for a motor vehicle imposed under this section remains in effect until the person pays any fine or costs imposed by the court relative to the offense. When the fine or costs have been paid in full, the court shall inform the registrar of the payment by entering information relative to the payment on a notice of payment form prescribed or approved by the registrar pursuant to division (C) of this section and sending the form to the registrar.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.14(A) Satisfaction of fine

(A) If a fine is imposed as a sentence or a part of a sentence, the court or magistrate that imposed the fine may order that the offender be committed to

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the jail or workhouse until the fine is paid or secured to be paid, or the offender is otherwise legally discharged, if the court or magistrate determines at a hearing that the offender is able, at that time, to pay the fine but refuses to do so. The hearing required by this section shall be conducted at the time of sentencing.

Incarceration All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2949.15 Writs of execution to issue

If a nonindigent person convicted of a felony fails to pay the costs of prosecution pursuant to section 2949.14 of the Revised Code, the clerk of the court of common

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pleas shall forthwith issue to the sheriff of the county in which the indictment was found, and to the sheriff of any other county in which the person has property, executions against his property for fines and the costs of prosecution, which shall be served and returned within ten days, with the proceedings of such sheriff or the certification that there is no property upon which to levy, indorsed thereon. When a levy is made upon property under such execution, a writ shall forthwith be issued by the clerk for the sale thereof, and such sheriff shall sell the property and make return thereof, and after paying the costs of conviction, execution, and sale, pay the balance to the person authorized to receive it.

Property liens All Yes
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.23(A)(1)(a)(i) Judgment for costs and jury fees

(A)(1)(a) In all criminal cases, including violations of ordinances, the judge or magistrate shall include in the sentence the costs of prosecution, including any costs under section 2947.231 of the

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Revised Code, and render a judgment against the defendant for such costs. If the judge or magistrate imposes a community control sanction or other nonresidential sanction, the judge or magistrate, when imposing the sanction, shall notify the defendant of both of the following: (i) If the defendant fails to pay that judgment or fails to timely make payments towards that judgment under a payment schedule approved by the court, the court may order the defendant to perform community service until the judgment is paid or until the court is satisfied that the defendant is in compliance with the approved payment schedule.

Community service All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.25(C)(2) Community control sanctions

(C)(2) The sentencing court shall require as a condition of any community control sanction that the offender abide by the law and not leave the state without the permission of

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the court or the offender's probation officer. In the interests of doing justice, rehabilitating the offender, and ensuring the offender's good behavior, the court may impose additional requirements on the offender. The offender's compliance with the additional requirements also shall be a condition of the community control sanction imposed upon the offender.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2949.09 Execution for fine and costs

When a judge or magistrate renders judgment for a fine, an execution may issue for such judgment and costs of prosecution, to be levied on the property, or in default

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thereof, upon the body of the defendant for nonpayment of the fine. The officer holding such writ may arrest such defendant in any county and commit him to the jail of the county in which such writ issued, until such fine is paid or secured to be paid or he is otherwise legally discharged.

Property liens All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 4510.22 Forfeiture for failure to appear or pay fine; denial of vehicle registration

If a person who has a current valid Ohio driver's, commercial driver's license, or temporary instruction permit is charged with a violation of any provision in sections 4503.11, 4503.12, 4503.182,

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4503.21, 4507.02, 4507.05, 4507.35, 4510.11, 4510.111, 4510.12, 4510.16, 4510.21, 4511.01 to 4511.76, 4511.81, 4511.82, 4511.84, 4513.01 to 4513.65, or 4549.01 to 4549.65 of the Revised Code or with a violation of any substantially equivalent municipal ordinance and if the person either fails to appear in court at the required time and place to answer the charge or pleads guilty to or is found guilty of the violation and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay the fine imposed by the court, the court may declare the forfeiture of the person's license. Thirty days after such a declaration of forfeiture, the court shall inform the registrar of motor vehicles of the forfeiture by entering information relative to the forfeiture on a form approved and furnished by the registrar and sending the form to the registrar. The court also shall forward the person's license, if it is in the possession of the court, to the registrar. The registrar shall impose a class F suspension of the person's driver's or commercial driver's license, or temporary instruction permit for the period of time specified in division (B)(6) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code on any person who is named in a declaration received by the registrar under this section. The registrar shall send written notification of the suspension to the person at the person's last known address and, if the person is in possession of the license, order the person to surrender the person's license or permit to the registrar within forty-eight hours.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Misdemeanor No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.28(G)(3) Financial sanctions; court costs

(G) Each court imposing a financial sanction upon an offender under this section may designate the clerk of the court or another person to collect the financial sanction. The clerk,

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or another person authorized by law or the court to collect the financial sanction may do the following: (3) To defray administrative costs, charge a reasonable fee to an offender who elects a payment plan rather than a lump sum payment of any financial sanction.

Increased fine, Payment plan/installment plan Misdemeanor No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.18(D)(2)(c) Proceeding in the aid of execution

. . . Once the financial sanction is imposed as a judgment or order under this division, the victim, private provider, state, or political subdivision may do any of the

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following: (c) A proceeding in aid of execution under Chapter 2333. of the Revised Code, including: (i) A proceeding for the examination of the judgment debtor under sections 2333.09 to 2333.12 and sections 2333.15 to 2333.27 of the Revised Code; (ii) A proceeding for attachment of the person of the judgment debtor under section 2333.28 of the Revised Code; (iii) A creditor's suit under section 2333.01 of the Revised Code.

Civil judgment Felony No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.23(C) Judgment for costs and jury fees

The court retains jurisdiction to waive, suspend, or modify the payment of the costs of prosecution, including any costs under section 2947.231 of the Revised Code, at the time of

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sentencing or at any time thereafter.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 5120.133 Transfer of prisoner’s funds to satisfy judgment; exemptions

(A) The department of rehabilitation and correction, upon receipt of a certified copy of the judgment of a court of record in an action in which a prisoner was a

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party that orders a prisoner to pay a stated obligation, may apply toward payment of the obligation money that belongs to a prisoner and that is in the account kept for the prisoner by the department. The department may transmit the prisoner's funds directly to the court for disbursement or may make payment in another manner as directed by the court. Except as provided in rules adopted under this section, when an amount is received for the prisoner's account, the department shall use it for the payment of the obligation and shall continue using amounts received for the account until the full amount of the obligation has been paid. No proceedings in aid of execution are necessary for the department to take the action required by this section. (B) The department may adopt rules specifying a portion of an inmate's earnings or other receipts that the inmate is allowed to retain to make purchases from the commissary and that may not be used to satisfy an obligation pursuant to division (A) of this section. The rules shall not permit the application or disbursement of funds belonging to an inmate if those funds are exempt from execution, garnishment, attachment, or sale to satisfy a judgment or order pursuant to section 2329.66 of the Revised Code or to any other provision of law.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 1901.44(B) Community service in lieu of court costs; failure to pay

If a person is charged with an offense in municipal court and either fails to appear in court at the required time and place to answer the charge or pleads

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guilty to or is found guilty of the offense and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay any fine or costs imposed by the court, the court may enter information relative to the person's failure to pay any outstanding amount of the fine or costs on a form prescribed or approved by the registrar of motor vehicles pursuant to division (C) of this section and send the form to the registrar. Upon receipt of the form, the registrar shall take any measures necessary to ensure that neither the registrar nor any deputy registrar accepts any application for the registration or transfer of registration of any motor vehicle owned or leased by the person. However, for a motor vehicle leased by the person, the registrar shall not implement this requirement until the registrar adopts procedures for that implementation under section 4503.39 of the Revised Code. The period of denial relating to the issuance or transfer of a certificate of registration for a motor vehicle imposed under this section remains in effect until the person pays any fine or costs imposed by the court relative to the offense. When the fine or costs have been paid in full, the court shall inform the registrar of the payment by entering information relative to the payment on a notice of payment form prescribed or approved by the registrar pursuant to division (C) of this section and sending the form to the registrar.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.09(A) Failure to appear or pay court costs

If a person is charged with an offense in a court of common pleas, including a juvenile court, and either fails to appear in court at the required time and

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place to answer the charge or pleads guilty to or is found guilty of the offense or is adjudicated a delinquent child or juvenile traffic offender based on the offense and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay any fine or costs imposed by the court, the court may enter information relative to the person's failure to pay any outstanding amount of the fine or costs on a form prescribed or approved by the registrar of motor vehicles pursuant to division (B) of this section and send the form to the registrar. Upon receipt of the form, the registrar shall take any measures necessary to ensure that neither the registrar nor any deputy registrar accepts any application for the registration or transfer of registration of any motor vehicle owned or leased by the person. However, for a motor vehicle leased by the person, the registrar shall not implement this requirement until the registrar adopts procedures for that implementation under section 4503.39 of the Revised Code. The period of denial relating to the issuance or transfer of a certificate of registration for a motor vehicle imposed under this section remains in effect until the person pays any fine or costs imposed by the court relative to the offense. When the fine or costs have been paid in full, the court shall inform the registrar of the payment by entering information relative to the payment on a notice of payment form prescribed or approved by the registrar pursuant to division (B) of this section and sending the form to the registrar.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2969.27 Deductions from judgment awarded to inmate

If an inmate commences a civil action or appeal against a government entity or employee and is granted a judgment for damages in the civil action or appeal, the court

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shall order that the following be deducted and paid from the award on a pro rata basis before any payment is made to the inmate or the inmate's counsel: (A) Any fine, court costs, or court-ordered restitution imposed upon the inmate for an offense for which the inmate is confined or for any previous offense committed by the inmate; (B) The amount of an award of reparations made under sections 2743.51 to 2743.71 of the Revised Code to a victim of the inmate relative to the offense for which the inmate is confined or any previous offense committed by the inmate; (C) Any other award ordered by a court against the inmate in any other criminal or civil action or proceeding in any court in this state.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.18(D)(2)(a) Financial sanctions; restitution; reimbursements

. . . Once the financial sanction is imposed as a judgment or order under this division, the victim, private provider, state, or political subdivision may do any of the

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following: (a) An execution against the property of the judgment debtor under Chapter 2329. of the Revised Code.

Property liens Felony No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.18(D)(2)(b) Financial sanctions; restitution; reimbursements.

. . . Once the financial sanction is imposed as a judgment or order under this division, the victim, private provider, state, or political subdivision may do any of the

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following: (b) An execution against the person of the judgment debtor under Chapter 2331. of the Revised Code.

Civil judgment Felony No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.18(D)(2)(d) Financial sanctions; restitution; reimbursements.

. . . Once the financial sanction is imposed as a judgment or order under this division, the victim, private provider, state, or political subdivision may do any of the

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following: (d) The attachment of the property of the judgment debtor under Chapter 2715. of the Revised Code;

Property liens Felony No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.18(D)(2)(e) Financial sanctions; restitution; reimbursements.

. . . Once the financial sanction is imposed as a judgment or order under this division, the victim, private provider, state, or political subdivision may do any of the

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following: (e) The garnishment of the property of the judgment debtor under Chapter 2716. of the Revised Code.

Property liens, Wage/bank account garnishment Felony No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 1901.44(A)(2) Community service in lieu of court costs; failure to pay

Notwithstanding any other provision of the Revised Code, if at the time of sentencing or at any time after sentencing a municipal court finds that a person who is found

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guilty of an offense will not be able to pay costs in full when they are due, the court may order the offender to pay the costs in installments according to a schedule set by the court.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.18(D)(3) Financial sanctions; restitution; reimbursements

. . . Once the financial sanction is imposed as a judgment or order under this division, the victim, private provider, state, or political subdivision may do any of the

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following: (3) Obtain an order for the assignment of wages of the judgment debtor under section 1321.33 of the Revised Code.

Wage/bank account garnishment Felony No