Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.270 Effect of felony conviction on property of defendant

No conviction of any person for crime works any forfeiture of any property, except in cases where the same is expressly provided by law; but in all cases of the

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commission or attempt to commit a felony, the state has a lien, from the time of such commission or attempt, upon all the property of the defendant for the purpose of satisfying any judgment which may be given against the defendant for any fine on account thereof and for the costs and disbursements in the proceedings against the defendant for such crime; provided, however, such lien shall not attach to such property as against a purchaser or incumbrancer in good faith, for value, whose interest in the property was acquired before the entry of the judgment against the defendant. [Formerly 137.460; 2003 c.576 Or. Rev. Stat. §191]

Property liens Felony No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.520(4) Power of committing magistrate to parole and grant temporary release to persons confined in county jail; authority of sheriff to release county jail inmates; disposition of work release earnings

A defendant confined in a county jail and placed upon educational release or upon work release shall, during the hours in which not so engaged or employed, be confined in

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the county jail unless the court by order otherwise directs or unless the sheriff otherwise directs in the absence of a contrary order by the court. The defendants net earnings shall be paid to the sheriff, who shall deduct therefrom and pay such sums as may be ordered by the court for the defendants board, restitution, fine, support of dependents and necessary personal expense. Any balance remaining shall be retained by the sheriff until the defendants discharge from custody, whereupon the balance shall be paid to the defendant.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 156.315(1)-(2) Assignment of judgment to Department of Revenue. [Effective January 1, 2020]

(1) A justice court may assign a judgment in a criminal action, as described in ORS 137.118 (1) to (5), to the Collections Unit in the Department of Revenue for the following purposes:

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(a) To determine whether refunds or other sums are owed to the debtor by the department; and (b) To deduct the amount of the debt from any refunds or other sums owed to the debtor by the department.

(2) If the Collections Unit determines that refunds or other sums are owed to the debtor, the department shall deduct the amount of the debt from any refunds or other sums owed to the debtor by the department. After also deducting costs of its actions under this section, the department shall remit the amount deducted from refunds or other sums owed to the debtor to the justice court that assigned the judgment.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 161.675 Time and method of payment of fines, restitution and costs

(1) When a defendant, as a part of a sentence or as condition of probation or suspension of sentence, is required to pay a sum of money for any purpose, the

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court may order payment to be made immediately or within a specified period of time or in specified installments. If a defendant is sentenced to a term of imprisonment, any part of the sentence that requires the payment of a sum of money for any purpose is enforceable during the period of imprisonment if the court expressly finds that the defendant has assets to pay all or part of the amounts ordered.

(2) When a defendant whose sentence requires the payment of a sum of money for any purpose is also sentenced to probation or imposition or execution of sentence is suspended, the court may make payment of the sum of money a condition of probation or suspension of sentence.

(3) When a defendant is sentenced to probation or imposition or execution of sentence is suspended and the court requires as a part of the sentence or as a condition of the probation or suspension of sentence that the defendant pay a sum of money in installments, the court, or the court clerk or parole and probation officer if so ordered by the court, shall establish a schedule of payments to satisfy the obligation. A schedule of payments shall be reviewed by the court upon motion of the defendant at any time, so long as the obligation remains unsatisfied.

Condition or extension of supervision, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 161.685(4)-(6) Effect of nonpayment of fines, restitution or costs; report to consumer reporting agency; rules

(4)Notwithstanding ORS 33.105, the term of confinement for contempt for nonpayment of fines or failure to make restitution shall be set forth in the commitment order, and shall not exceed

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one day for each $25 of the fine or restitution, 30 days if the fine or order of restitution was imposed upon conviction of a violation or misdemeanor, or one year in any other case, whichever is the shorter period.

(5) If it appears to the satisfaction of the court that the default in the payment of a fine or restitution is not contempt, the court may enter an order allowing the defendant additional time for payment, reducing the amount of the payment or installments due on the payment, or revoking the fine or order of restitution in whole or in part.

(6) A default in the payment of a fine or costs or failure to make restitution or a default on an installment on a fine, costs or restitution may be collected by any means authorized by law for the enforcement of a judgment. The levy of execution or garnishment for the collection of a fine or restitution shall not discharge a defendant confined for contempt until the amount of the fine or restitution has actually been collected.

Incarceration, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 1.005 Credit card transactions for fees, security deposits, fines and other court-imposed obligations; rules

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court or the presiding judge of any judicial district of this state may establish by rule a program to permit the use of credit

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card transactions as security deposits, fines, assessments, restitution or any other court-imposed monetary obligation arising out of an offense. The program may also provide for the use of credit card transactions to pay for filing fees, response fees, certification fees and any other fees charged by the court. Any rules adopted pursuant to this section may provide for recovery from the person using the credit card of an additional amount reasonably calculated to recover any charge to the court by a credit card company resulting from use of the credit card.

Other All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 809.210(1) Suspension or restriction of driving privileges for failure to pay fine or obey court order; exceptions

(1) A court may do any of the following if the defendant is convicted of any traffic offense and fails or refuses to pay a fine imposed by the court or

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to comply with any condition upon which payment of the fine or any part of it was suspended: (a) Issue a notice of suspension to the Department of Transportation that directs the department to implement procedures under ORS 809.416. (b) Order a defendant’s driving privileges restricted.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 1.202(1) Fee for establishing and administering account for judgment that includes monetary obligation; fee for judgment referred for collection

(1) All circuit courts and appellate courts of this state, and all commissions, departments and divisions in the judicial branch of state government, shall add a fee of not less than

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$ 50 and not more than $ 200 to any judgment that includes a monetary obligation that the court or judicial branch is charged with collecting. The fee shall cover the cost of establishing and administering an account for the debtor and shall be added without further notice to the debtor or further order of the court. The fee shall be added only if the court gives the defendant a period of time in which to pay the obligation after the financial obligation is imposed. Fees under this subsection shall be deposited in the General Fund.

(2) All circuit courts and appellate courts of this state, and all commissions, departments and divisions in the judicial branch of state government, that use private collection agencies, the Department of Revenue or an offset of federal tax refunds pursuant to an agreement entered into under ORS 1.196 shall add a fee to any judgment referred for collection that includes a monetary obligation that the state court or the commission, department or division is charged with collecting. A fee to cover the costs of collecting judgments referred to the private collection agency, the Department of Revenue, the United States Financial Management Service or the Internal Revenue Service shall be added to the monetary obligation without further notice to the debtor or further order of the court. The fee may not exceed the actual costs of collecting the judgment.

Collection fee/interest, Increased fine All Yes
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.118(3),(6)-(7) Assignment of judgments for collection of monetary obligation; costs of collection. [Effective January 1, 2020]

(3) A municipal or justice court may add to any judgment in a criminal action that includes a monetary obligation a fee for the cost of collection if the court

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gives the defendant a period of time to pay the obligation after the date of imposition of the sentence or after the date of the hearing or proceeding that results in the imposition of the financial obligation. The fee may not exceed 25 percent of the monetary obligation imposed by the court without the addition of the cost of collection and may not be more than $250. The fee shall be waived or suspended by the court if the defendant pays the monetary obligation in the manner required by the court.

(6) If part of a judgment in a criminal action, as described in subsections (1) to (5) of this section, is payable to the State of Oregon, a municipal court may assign the judgment to the Collections Unit in the Department of Revenue for the following purposes: (a) To determine whether refunds or other sums are owed to the debtor by the department; and (b) To deduct the amount of debt from any refunds or other sums owed to the debtor by the department.

(7) If the Collections Unit determines that refunds or other sums are owed to the debtor, the department shall deduct the amount of the debt from any refunds or other sums owed to the debtor by the department. After also deducting costs of its actions under subsections (6) to (8) of this section, the department shall remit the amount deducted from refunds or other sums owed to the debtor to the municipal court that assigned the judgment.

Collection fee/interest, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.106(4) Payment schedule

(a) If a judgment or supplemental judgment described in subsection (1) of this section includes restitution, a court may delay the enforcement of the monetary sanctions, including restitution, only if

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the defendant alleges and establishes to the satisfaction of the court the defendants inability to pay the judgment in full at the time the judgment is entered. If the court finds that the defendant is unable to pay, the court may establish or allow an appropriate supervising authority to establish a payment schedule, taking into consideration the financial resources of the defendant and the burden that payment of restitution will impose, with due regard to the other obligations of the defendant. The supervising authority shall be authorized to modify any payment schedule established under this section.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 179.620 Responsibility for Cost of Care of Persons in State Institutions: Liability of person or estate for cost of care

(3) Upon the death of a person, the decedent’s estate shall be liable for any unpaid cost of care. The liability of the decedent’s estate is limited to the cost of

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care incurred on or after July 24, 1979. The decedent’s estate shall not include assets placed in trust for the person by other persons. Collection of any amount from a decedent’s estate shall be pursuant to ORS 179.740.

(4) Regardless of subsection (1) of this section and ORS 179.610 (5), assets held in trust by a trustee for a person are subject to laws generally applicable to trusts.

(5) Notwithstanding subsections (1) and (3) of this section, the Department of Corrections, the Department of Human Services and the Oregon Health Authority may not collect the cost of care from: (a) Any assets received by or owing to a person and the personal estate of the person, or the decedent’s estate, as compensation from the state for injury, death or, if the collection is being made by the Department of Corrections, the false imprisonment of the person that occurred when the person was in a state institution listed in ORS 179.321 or in the Eastern Oregon Training Center and for which the state admits liability or is found liable through adjudication; and (b) Any real or personal property of the personal estate of the person, or the decedent’s estate, that the person or an authorized representative of the person can demonstrate was purchased solely with assets referred to in paragraph (a) of this subsection or partially with such assets, to the extent such assets were used in the purchase.

Property liens All Yes
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.540(12)(a) Conditions of probation; evaluation and treatment; fees; effect of failure to abide by conditions; modification

(12)(a) If the court determines that a defendant has violated the terms of probation, the court shall collect a $25 fee from the defendant and may impose a fee for

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the costs of extraditing the defendant to this state for the probation violation proceeding if the defendant left the state in violation of the conditions of the defendant’s probation. The fees imposed under this subsection become part of the judgment and may be collected in the same manner as a fine.

Increased fine All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.540(1)(a),(7) Conditions of probation; evaluation and treatment; fees; effect of failure to abide by conditions; modification

(1) The court may sentence the defendant to probation subject to the following general conditions unless specifically deleted by the court. The probationer shall: (a) Pay supervision fees, fines, restitution

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or other fees ordered by the court.


(7) Failure to abide by all general and special conditions of probation may result in arrest, modification of conditions, revocation of probation or imposition of structured, intermediate sanctions in accordance with rules adopted under ORS 137.595.

Condition or extension of supervision, Incarceration, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.450 Enforcement of money judgment in criminal action

A judgment against the defendant or complainant in a criminal action, so far as it requires the payment of a fine, fee, assessment, costs and disbursements of the action or

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restitution, may be enforced as a judgment in a civil action.

Civil judgment All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 135.891(2) Required and permissive elements of diversion agreement; program fee

(2) As a condition of entering into a diversion agreement under ORS 135.881 to 135.901, the defendant must pay a program fee of $100. The court may waive all or

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part of the fee in cases involving indigent defendants, or may provide for payment of the fee on an installment basis. A fee collected under this subsection in the circuit court shall be deposited by the clerk of the court in the Criminal Fine Account. If the fee is collected in a municipal or justice court, $35 of the fee shall be forwarded by the court to the Department of Revenue for deposit in the Criminal Fine Account, and the remainder of the fee shall be paid to the city or county treasurer.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.118(3) Assignment of judgment for collection of monetary obligation; costs

(3) A municipal or justice court may add to any judgment in a criminal action that includes a monetary obligation a fee for the cost of collection if the court

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gives the defendant a period of time to pay the obligation after the date of imposition of the sentence or after the date of the hearing or proceeding that results in the imposition of the financial obligation. The fee may not exceed 25 percent of the monetary obligation imposed by the court without the addition of the cost of collection and may not be more than $250. The fee shall be waived or suspended by the court if the defendant pays the monetary obligation in the manner required by the court.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 142.102(5)(a) Conditions of post-prison supervision

(5)(a) The board or supervisory authority may require the person to pay, as a condition of post-prison supervision, compensatory fines, restitution or attorney fees:

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-18-114 Record and disbursement of wages; exemption from process; confidentiality of amount

(a) Wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender while in an adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed

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for the purposes provided in this subsection and in the order specified: (i) Personal necessities; (ii) Room and board to the program operator at a rate to be established by the department; (iii) Support of dependent relations; (iv) Court ordered restitution, fines, sanctions and reimbursement for the services of public defender or court appointed counsel, the surcharge imposed under W.S. 1-40-119, victims compensation obligations under W.S. 1-40-112(g) and the surcharge imposed under W.S. 7-13-1616; (v) Repealed by Laws 1999, ch. 62, § 2. (vi) Costs of health insurance; and (vii) Remaining funds shall be paid to the inmate, parolee or offender upon parole or final discharge.

(b) Wages earned by offenders, other than parolees or inmates, while in a residential adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed only for the purposes and in the order specified in subsection (a) of this section unless otherwise ordered by the sentencing court. Any remaining funds shall be paid to the offender upon his satisfactory discharge from the program. Upon revocation of an offender's probation, the program operator shall forward any remaining funds to the court or to the institution to which the offender is sentenced as directed by the court.

(c) Program operators shall keep an accurate record and account of all wages earned by inmates, parolees and offenders pursuant to the rules promulgated by the department.

(d) The earnings of inmates under this act are not subject to garnishment, attachment or execution.

(e) Information relating to the amount of wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender in an adult community corrections program is confidential and is not subject to public inspection.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-16-101 Persons subject to required work

(a) The sentencing court may require the following persons to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104: (i) Persons sentenced to a definite term of imprisonment in the county jail,

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whether or not a fine is imposed as a part of the sentence; (ii) Persons committed to jail pursuant to W.S. 6-10-105 for refusal to pay a fine or costs; and (iii) Persons for whom work is imposed as a condition of probation pursuant to W.S. 7-13-304(b). (b) No person charged with a crime and awaiting the action of the grand jury or awaiting trial shall be required to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104.

Condition or extension of supervision, Work program/jail industry program All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day

A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or

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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.

Incarceration All No