Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-60 Installment payments

A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which such judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments

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and the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-62 Failure to pay installments--Suspension of licenses.

In the event the judgment debtor referred to in § 32-35-61 fails to pay any installment as specified by such order, then upon notice of such default, the Department of

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Public Safety shall forthwith suspend the license or nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall forthwith suspend the registration of the judgment debtor until such judgment is satisfied, as provided in this chapter.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-23-4.10 Costs payable to county--Nonpayment punishable by contempt.

In addition to any other penalty, assessment, or fine provided by law, the court shall order any person convicted of a crime for a violation of § 32-23-1 to remit

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costs in the amount of fifty dollars to the clerk of courts. The clerk of courts shall forward any amount collected pursuant to this section to the county treasurer for deposit in the county general fund. Failure to remit the amount to the clerk of courts in the time specified by the court is punishable by contempt proceedings.

Incarceration All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-47-6 Failure to comply with plan of restitution or of financial obligation constitutes violation of conditions — Modification of plan — Contempt

Failure of any individual in this system to comply with the plan of restitution or plan for financial obligations as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of

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the conditions within this system. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or financial obligation, extend the period of time for restitution or financial obligation, or continue the individual in the administrative financial accountability system. If the individual fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the individual may be held in contempt of the court’s order.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-10 Funds of defendant — Order for reimbursement — Applicability — Credit against lien

If the court finds that funds are available for payment from or on behalf of a defendant to carry out, in whole or in part, the provisions of this chapter,

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the court may order that the funds be paid, as court costs or as a condition of probation, to the court for deposit with the county or municipal treasurer, to be placed in the county or municipal general fund or in the public defender fund in those counties establishing the office pursuant to subdivision 23A-40-7(1) as a reimbursement to the county or municipality to carry out the provisions of this section. The court may also order payment to be made in the form of installments or wage assignments, in amounts set by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge, either during the time a charge is pending or after the disposition of the charge, regardless of whether the defendant has been acquitted or the case has been dismissed by the prosecution or by order of the court. The provisions of this section also apply to persons who have had counsel appointed under chapters 26-7A, 26-8A, 26-8B, and 26-8C. The reimbursement is a credit against any lien created by the provisions of this chapter against the property of the defendant.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-11 Lien for cost of provision of counsel — Limitation

A lien, enforceable as provided by this chapter, upon all the property, both real and personal, of any person, including the parents of a minor child, for whom legal counsel

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or a public defender has been appointed under the provisions of § 23A-40-6, subdivisions 23A-40-7(2) and (3), or § 26-7A-31 may be filed. The services rendered and expenses incurred are a claim against the person and that person's estate, enforceable according to law in an amount to be determined by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge and paid by the county or municipality chargeable for them. A lien on the parents of a minor child pursuant to this section may not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars plus an amount equal to any taxable court costs.

Property liens All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-52 Suspension of license for failure to pay judgment

The Department of Public Safety upon receipt of a certified copy of a judgment shall forthwith suspend the license and any nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall

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forthwith suspend the registration of any person against whom such judgment was rendered except as provided in §§ 32-35-53 to 32-35-56, inclusive.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-57 Length of suspension pursuant to Section 32-35-52

A license, registration, and nonresident's operating privilege suspended pursuant to § 32-35-52 shall remain so suspended and shall not be renewed, nor shall any such license or registration be thereafter

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issued in the name of such person, including any such person not previously licensed, unless and until every such judgment is stayed, satisfied in full, or to the extent provided in § 32-35-59, and until the said person gives proof of financial responsibility subject to the exemptions stated in §§ 32-35-54, 32-35-55, and 32-35-61.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 216-15-7
Resistance to judicial process as misdemeanorEvery person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a
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Class 2 misdemeanor.

Every person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-18.3 Conditions required on probation or suspension of sentence

The conditions of probation imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-12 or 23A-27-13 or the conditions of a suspension of execution imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-18 may provide in addition to any

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other conditions, as an explicit condition of probation, suspended imposition of sentence, or suspended execution of sentence that the defendant:
(1) Pay a fine or perform community service work as directed by the court; or
(2) Receive treatment for chemical dependency at any South Dakota treatment facility accredited pursuant to § 34-20A-27 and reimburse the county for costs of treatment ordered by the court; or
(3) Make restitution pursuant to the provisions of chapter 23A-28.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-25.4 Default in payment of fine or costs and restitution

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine, costs, or restitution, defaults in the timely payment thereof, the court may, upon its own motion or upon motion of the state's

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attorney, require the defendant to show cause why he should not be imprisoned or jailed for nonpayment. The court may issue a warrant of arrest, bench warrant, or order to show cause for the defendant's appearance.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-25.5 Hearing required prior to imprisonment or jailing for failure to pay fine, costs, and restitution--Burden of proof--Computation of time to be served

No defendant may be imprisoned or jailed for failure to pay a fine, costs, or restitution or have any suspended prison or jail sentence revoked without a prior hearing. At

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the hearing, the defendant has the burden of proof to establish to the reasonable satisfaction of the magistrate or circuit judge that the defendant did not willfully fail to pay the fine, costs, or restitution or that the defendant did make a bona fide effort to pay the fine, costs, or restitution.
Failure by the defendant to make such a showing is grounds for being imprisoned or jailed. If the sentence provided for payment of fine or costs only, the term of jail or imprisonment may be no longer than the number of days equal to the total amount of the fine or costs imposed divided by sixty. For purposes of making this computation, any fraction of less than one day shall be dropped from the term of imprisonment. In no event may such imprisonment for failure to pay the fine, costs, and restitution together with all other time served or to be served exceed the maximum allowed by statute.
If the defendant establishes that nonpayment was not willful or that the defendant did make a bona fide effort to pay, the defendant may not be imprisoned or jailed for nonpayment. The magistrate or circuit judge shall consider other alternatives which take into account the state's interest in punishment and deterrence.
The court shall make findings in its decision.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-28-8 Failure to comply as violation of conditions of probation--Modification of plan by court--Contempt

Failure of the defendant to comply with § 23A-28-3 or to comply with the plan of restitution as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of the conditions

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of probation. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or extend the period of time for restitution, regardless of whether the defendant is no longer on probation. If the defendant fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the defendant may be held in contempt of the court's order.

Condition or extension of supervision, Extension of probation/supervision, Incarceration, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-28-7 Compliance with restitution plan as condition of probation or suspension--Payments to clerk

Compliance with the plan of restitution as approved or modified by the court shall be a condition of the defendant's probation or suspension. Restitution payments shall be made to the

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office of the clerk unless otherwise ordered by the court.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13 § 5422(a) Actions to recover profits from a crime

(a)  Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including any statute of limitations, any crime victim shall have the right to bring a civil action in a court of competent jurisdiction to

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recover money damages from a person convicted of that crime, or the legal representative of that convicted person, within three years of the discovery of any profits from the crime. Any damages awarded in such action shall be recoverable only up to the value of the profits of the crime. This section shall not limit the right of a victim to proceed or recover under another cause of action.

(b)  The Attorney General may, within three years of the discovery of any profits from the crime, bring a civil action on behalf of the State to enforce the subrogation rights described in section 5357 of this title.

(c)  If the full value of any profits from the crime has not yet been claimed by either the victim of the crime or the victim's representative, the Attorney General, or both, within three years of the discovery of such profits, then the State may bring a civil action in a court of competent jurisdiction to recover the costs incurred by providing the defendant with counsel, if any, and other costs reasonably incurred or to be incurred in the incarceration of the defendant.

Civil judgment All No
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Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13 § 7173 Mittimus against property of respondent

A mittimus issued by a court for the collection of a penalty, and fine in criminal prosecutions, in the discretion of such court, in addition to the prescribed form, may

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be issued against the goods, chattels, or lands of the respondent in the form in which executions are issued. Such mittimus may be levied upon the goods, chattels, or lands of the respondent, and the same sold in satisfaction thereof as in the sale of personal property or real estate upon execution.

Property liens All No
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Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13 § 7180(4)(b) Remedies for failure to pay fines, costs, surcharges, and penalties

(4)  Contempt. (A) The court may conclude that the defendant is in contempt if the court finds that: (i) the defendant knew or reasonably should have known that he or she

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owed the amount due; (ii) the defendant had the ability to pay all or any portion of the amount due; and (iii) the defendant failed to pay all or any portion of the amount due.

(B) If the court concludes that the defendant is in contempt, the court may: (i) Order payment of the amount due on a specific date. (ii) Assess an additional penalty not to exceed ten percent of the amount due. (iii) Direct that the matter be reported to one or more designated credit bureaus. The Court Administrator or the Court Administrator's designee is authorized to contract with one or more credit bureaus for the purpose of reporting information about unpaid Judicial Bureau judgments. (iv)  Refer to Small Claims Court for the purpose of issuing writs of attachment for property and trustee process pursuant to 12 V.S.A. § 5534. Filing fees shall be waived in such cases. (v) Sentence the defendant to serve a term of imprisonment on furlough to participate in a program supervised by the Department of Corrections pursuant to 28 V.S.A. § 808(a) that provides reparation to the community in the form of supervised work activities. For each day the defendant participates in supervised work activities, the defendant shall be given credit against the amount owed at the hourly rate for minimum wage. A defendant who is determined by the Department of Corrections to be ineligible for the preapproved furlough supervised work program may be ordered by the court to serve a sentence in a correctional facility, in which event the defendant shall be given credit against the amount owed for every day served at a rate determined by the court.

Incarceration, Increased fine, Property liens, Work program/jail industry program All No
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Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 28 § 252(b)(7) Condition of probation

(b) When imposing a sentence of probation, the court may, as a condition of probation, require that the offender: (6) Make restitution or reparation to the victim of his or her conduct, or

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to the Victims' Compensation Fund to the extent it has made payment to or on behalf of the victim in accordance with 13 V.S.A. chapter 167, for the damage or injury which was sustained. When restitution or reparation is a condition of the sentence, the court, in accordance with 13 V.S.A. § 7043, shall fix the amount thereof, which shall not exceed an amount the defendant can or will be able to pay, and shall fix the manner of performance. (7) Pay a fine authorized in accordance with law.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13 § 7043(f)(1) Restitution

If not paid at the time of sentencing, restitution may be ordered as a condition of probation, supervised community sentence, furlough, preapproved furlough, or parole if the convicted person is

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sentenced to preapproved furlough, probation, or supervised community sentence, or is sentenced to imprisonment and later placed on parole. A person shall not be placed on probation solely for purposes of paying restitution. An offender may not be charged with a violation of probation, furlough, or parole for nonpayment of a restitution obligation incurred after July 1, 2004.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 23 § 1209a(a)(1)(D) Conditions of reinstatement; alcohol and driving education; screening; therapy programs

(1) In the case of a first suspension, a license or privilege to operate shall be reinstated only: . . . (D) if the person has no pending criminal charges,

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civil citations, or unpaid fines or penalties for a violation under this chapter.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes