Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-60 Installment payments

A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which such judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments

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and the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-62 Failure to pay installments--Suspension of licenses.

In the event the judgment debtor referred to in § 32-35-61 fails to pay any installment as specified by such order, then upon notice of such default, the Department of

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Public Safety shall forthwith suspend the license or nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall forthwith suspend the registration of the judgment debtor until such judgment is satisfied, as provided in this chapter.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-23-4.10 Costs payable to county--Nonpayment punishable by contempt.

In addition to any other penalty, assessment, or fine provided by law, the court shall order any person convicted of a crime for a violation of § 32-23-1 to remit

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costs in the amount of fifty dollars to the clerk of courts. The clerk of courts shall forward any amount collected pursuant to this section to the county treasurer for deposit in the county general fund. Failure to remit the amount to the clerk of courts in the time specified by the court is punishable by contempt proceedings.

Incarceration All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-47-6 Failure to comply with plan of restitution or of financial obligation constitutes violation of conditions — Modification of plan — Contempt

Failure of any individual in this system to comply with the plan of restitution or plan for financial obligations as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of

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the conditions within this system. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or financial obligation, extend the period of time for restitution or financial obligation, or continue the individual in the administrative financial accountability system. If the individual fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the individual may be held in contempt of the court’s order.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-10 Funds of defendant — Order for reimbursement — Applicability — Credit against lien

If the court finds that funds are available for payment from or on behalf of a defendant to carry out, in whole or in part, the provisions of this chapter,

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the court may order that the funds be paid, as court costs or as a condition of probation, to the court for deposit with the county or municipal treasurer, to be placed in the county or municipal general fund or in the public defender fund in those counties establishing the office pursuant to subdivision 23A-40-7(1) as a reimbursement to the county or municipality to carry out the provisions of this section. The court may also order payment to be made in the form of installments or wage assignments, in amounts set by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge, either during the time a charge is pending or after the disposition of the charge, regardless of whether the defendant has been acquitted or the case has been dismissed by the prosecution or by order of the court. The provisions of this section also apply to persons who have had counsel appointed under chapters 26-7A, 26-8A, 26-8B, and 26-8C. The reimbursement is a credit against any lien created by the provisions of this chapter against the property of the defendant.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-11 Lien for cost of provision of counsel — Limitation

A lien, enforceable as provided by this chapter, upon all the property, both real and personal, of any person, including the parents of a minor child, for whom legal counsel

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or a public defender has been appointed under the provisions of § 23A-40-6, subdivisions 23A-40-7(2) and (3), or § 26-7A-31 may be filed. The services rendered and expenses incurred are a claim against the person and that person's estate, enforceable according to law in an amount to be determined by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge and paid by the county or municipality chargeable for them. A lien on the parents of a minor child pursuant to this section may not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars plus an amount equal to any taxable court costs.

Property liens All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-52 Suspension of license for failure to pay judgment

The Department of Public Safety upon receipt of a certified copy of a judgment shall forthwith suspend the license and any nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall

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forthwith suspend the registration of any person against whom such judgment was rendered except as provided in §§ 32-35-53 to 32-35-56, inclusive.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-57 Length of suspension pursuant to Section 32-35-52

A license, registration, and nonresident's operating privilege suspended pursuant to § 32-35-52 shall remain so suspended and shall not be renewed, nor shall any such license or registration be thereafter

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issued in the name of such person, including any such person not previously licensed, unless and until every such judgment is stayed, satisfied in full, or to the extent provided in § 32-35-59, and until the said person gives proof of financial responsibility subject to the exemptions stated in §§ 32-35-54, 32-35-55, and 32-35-61.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 216-15-7
Resistance to judicial process as misdemeanorEvery person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a
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Class 2 misdemeanor.

Every person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-18.3 Conditions required on probation or suspension of sentence

The conditions of probation imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-12 or 23A-27-13 or the conditions of a suspension of execution imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-18 may provide in addition to any

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other conditions, as an explicit condition of probation, suspended imposition of sentence, or suspended execution of sentence that the defendant:
(1) Pay a fine or perform community service work as directed by the court; or
(2) Receive treatment for chemical dependency at any South Dakota treatment facility accredited pursuant to § 34-20A-27 and reimburse the county for costs of treatment ordered by the court; or
(3) Make restitution pursuant to the provisions of chapter 23A-28.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-25.4 Default in payment of fine or costs and restitution

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine, costs, or restitution, defaults in the timely payment thereof, the court may, upon its own motion or upon motion of the state's

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attorney, require the defendant to show cause why he should not be imprisoned or jailed for nonpayment. The court may issue a warrant of arrest, bench warrant, or order to show cause for the defendant's appearance.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-25.5 Hearing required prior to imprisonment or jailing for failure to pay fine, costs, and restitution--Burden of proof--Computation of time to be served

No defendant may be imprisoned or jailed for failure to pay a fine, costs, or restitution or have any suspended prison or jail sentence revoked without a prior hearing. At

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the hearing, the defendant has the burden of proof to establish to the reasonable satisfaction of the magistrate or circuit judge that the defendant did not willfully fail to pay the fine, costs, or restitution or that the defendant did make a bona fide effort to pay the fine, costs, or restitution.
Failure by the defendant to make such a showing is grounds for being imprisoned or jailed. If the sentence provided for payment of fine or costs only, the term of jail or imprisonment may be no longer than the number of days equal to the total amount of the fine or costs imposed divided by sixty. For purposes of making this computation, any fraction of less than one day shall be dropped from the term of imprisonment. In no event may such imprisonment for failure to pay the fine, costs, and restitution together with all other time served or to be served exceed the maximum allowed by statute.
If the defendant establishes that nonpayment was not willful or that the defendant did make a bona fide effort to pay, the defendant may not be imprisoned or jailed for nonpayment. The magistrate or circuit judge shall consider other alternatives which take into account the state's interest in punishment and deterrence.
The court shall make findings in its decision.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-28-8 Failure to comply as violation of conditions of probation--Modification of plan by court--Contempt

Failure of the defendant to comply with § 23A-28-3 or to comply with the plan of restitution as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of the conditions

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of probation. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or extend the period of time for restitution, regardless of whether the defendant is no longer on probation. If the defendant fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the defendant may be held in contempt of the court's order.

Condition or extension of supervision, Extension of probation/supervision, Incarceration, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-28-7 Compliance with restitution plan as condition of probation or suspension--Payments to clerk

Compliance with the plan of restitution as approved or modified by the court shall be a condition of the defendant's probation or suspension. Restitution payments shall be made to the

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office of the clerk unless otherwise ordered by the court.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-18-114 Record and disbursement of wages; exemption from process; confidentiality of amount

(a) Wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender while in an adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed

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for the purposes provided in this subsection and in the order specified: (i) Personal necessities; (ii) Room and board to the program operator at a rate to be established by the department; (iii) Support of dependent relations; (iv) Court ordered restitution, fines, sanctions and reimbursement for the services of public defender or court appointed counsel, the surcharge imposed under W.S. 1-40-119, victims compensation obligations under W.S. 1-40-112(g) and the surcharge imposed under W.S. 7-13-1616; (v) Repealed by Laws 1999, ch. 62, § 2. (vi) Costs of health insurance; and (vii) Remaining funds shall be paid to the inmate, parolee or offender upon parole or final discharge.

(b) Wages earned by offenders, other than parolees or inmates, while in a residential adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed only for the purposes and in the order specified in subsection (a) of this section unless otherwise ordered by the sentencing court. Any remaining funds shall be paid to the offender upon his satisfactory discharge from the program. Upon revocation of an offender's probation, the program operator shall forward any remaining funds to the court or to the institution to which the offender is sentenced as directed by the court.

(c) Program operators shall keep an accurate record and account of all wages earned by inmates, parolees and offenders pursuant to the rules promulgated by the department.

(d) The earnings of inmates under this act are not subject to garnishment, attachment or execution.

(e) Information relating to the amount of wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender in an adult community corrections program is confidential and is not subject to public inspection.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-16-101 Persons subject to required work

(a) The sentencing court may require the following persons to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104: (i) Persons sentenced to a definite term of imprisonment in the county jail,

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whether or not a fine is imposed as a part of the sentence; (ii) Persons committed to jail pursuant to W.S. 6-10-105 for refusal to pay a fine or costs; and (iii) Persons for whom work is imposed as a condition of probation pursuant to W.S. 7-13-304(b). (b) No person charged with a crime and awaiting the action of the grand jury or awaiting trial shall be required to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104.

Condition or extension of supervision, Work program/jail industry program All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day

A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or

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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-11-504 Commitment until fine and costs paid

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine or costs defaults in payment, the court may order the defendant to show cause why he should not be committed to jail.

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If the court finds that the defendant's default is willful or is due to a failure on defendant's part to make a good faith effort to obtain the funds required for the payment and the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, the court may order him committed until the fine or costs, or a specified part thereof, is paid. The defendant shall be given a credit for each day of imprisonment at the rate provided by W.S. 6 10 105, and may earn additional credits against his fine or costs for work performed as provided by W.S. 7 16 101 through 7 16 104.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-16-104 Labor by prisoners. County jail. Credits.

7-16-104. Credits. (a) The sentencing court may reduce the term of a sentence, fine, costs or attorney fees of a prisoner sentenced to imprisonment or placed on probation, for work

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performed under W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104.

(b) If a reduction is ordered pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the reduction shall be: (i) At the rate of one (1) day for each eight (8) hours of work performed under W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104, provided the reduction in sentence shall not exceed one-half (1/2) of the original sentence; (ii) In an amount equal to the federal minimum hourly wage for each hour of work performed provided that the total amount of reduction in the fine, costs or attorney fees shall not exceed one-half (1/2) of the total amount of the fine, costs and attorney fees.

(c) The court shall direct whether the credits under subsection (b) of this section shall apply against the prisoner's term of imprisonment, his fine, court costs, attorney fees or other fees imposed by the court.

(d) A person committed to county jail for refusal to pay a fine or costs shall, in addition to the credit allowed by W.S. 6-10-105, be granted a credit against his fine or costs in an amount equal to the federal minimum hourly wage for each hour of work performed.

Work program/jail industry program All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day

A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or

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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.

Incarceration All No