Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 14-4-10 Hard labor; additional sentence

Whenever any convict is sentenced by the court and required to do hard labor for the county, an additional sentence not to exceed 10 months in any case for the

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payment of costs of conviction may be imposed, and the court must determine a reasonable time required to work out such costs. The costs of conviction of county convicts shall be the same as provided by law now in force in the respective counties.

Incarceration All No
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 15-18-62 Costs and Fines: willful nonpayment by defendant

In cases of willful nonpayment of the fine and costs, the defendant shall either be imprisoned in the county jail or, at the discretion of the court, sentenced to hard

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labor for the county as follows:(1) If the fine and costs do not exceed two hundred fifty dollars ($250), no more than 10 days; (2) If the fine and costs exceed two hundred fifty dollars ($250) but do not exceed five hundred dollars ($500), no more than 20 days; (3) If the fine and costs exceed five hundred dollars ($500), but do not exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000), no more than 30 days; and (4) For every additional one hundred dollars ($100) or fractional part thereof, 4 days.

Incarceration All Yes
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 15-18-144 Restitution Withholding: Attachment of property

Any provision of any law of this state to the contrary notwithstanding and in addition to any other remedy which is or may be hereafter provided by law for the

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enforcement or collection of a restitution order, any decree, judgment, or order requiring the payment of restitution may include, upon motion of the victim, district attorney, the Attorney General, or the court, an order requiring that any asset or other income or any portion thereof to which a defendant is or may be entitled be withheld or attached, and such order may also require any person in real or constructive possession, custody, or control thereof to pay over, deliver, convey, transfer, or assign the same to the clerk of the court for disbursement, transfer, or assignment to the victim in accordance with the defendant's restitution obligation. If the prison authority reasonably believes that the defendant's outgoing mail contains any object or any item that has monetary value, the object or item shall be seized and transferred to the court of original jurisdiction. If the court determines that the item or object seized has monetary value, the item or object shall be transferred to the Crime Victims Compensation Fund for disbursement, transfer, or assignment to the victim for satisfaction of the defendant's outstanding restitution obligations. If the court determines that the item or object seized does not have any monetary value, the court shall return such to the prison to be promptly placed in the U.S. mail.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-23-7 Drug testing program

Any person who fails to complete treatment and pay for it shall be charged with violation of probation or parole

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-19-311(c) Additional fees on bail bond

Upon the failure to pay the fee in paragraph a. of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) and upon a finding of contempt in subsection (d), the bondsman, surety, guaranty, or

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individuals required to pay the fee shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) in addition to the fee imposed in paragraph a. of subdivision (1) of subsection (a). The fine shall not be remitted, waived, or reduced unless the person(s) fined can show cause to the court that he or she cannot pay the fine in the reasonably foreseeable future. I

Increased fine All Yes
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-18-72 Restitution to victim's of crimes: Condition of probation or parole; default.

(a) When a defendant whose sentence has been suspended and placed on probation by the court, and ordered to make restitution, defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment,

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the court on motion of the victim or the district attorney or upon its own motion shall require the defendant to show cause why his default should not be treated as violation of a condition of his probation.

(b) When the defendant is sentenced to the penitentiary by the court, and the court orders restitution, it shall be made a condition of his parole that restitution be made. When the parolee defaults in the payment thereof or any installment, the parole board on motion of the victim or the district attorney or the supervising parole officer, may require the defendant to show cause why his default should not be treated as a violation of a condition of parole, and the board may declare the parolee delinquent and after due process may revoke his parole.

Extension of probation/supervision Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4137 Contempt powers of Magisterial District Judges
(a) General rule.-- A magisterial district judge shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts of a magisterial district judge court in the
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following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in the presence of the court, thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a magisterial district judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to compensate the victim of the criminal conduct for the damage or injury sustained by the victim. (4) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (5) Violation of an order issued pursuant to 23 Pa.C.S. § 6110 (relating to emergency relief by minor judiciary). (c) Punishment - Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(5) shall be in accordance with that specified in 23 Pa.C.S. § 6114(b) (relating to contempt for violation of order or agreement). Punishment for contempt in subsection (a)(4) would be imprisonment for not more than 90 days.
Incarceration All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4137 Contempt powers of Magisterial District Judges
(a) General rule.-- A magisterial district judge shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts of a magisterial district judge court in the
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following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in the presence of the court, thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a magisterial district judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to compensate the victim of the criminal conduct for the damage or injury sustained by the victim. (4) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (5) Violation of an order issued pursuant to 23 Pa.C.S. § 6110 (relating to emergency relief by minor judiciary). (c) Punishment - Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(5) shall be in accordance with that specified in 23 Pa.C.S. § 6114(b) (relating to contempt for violation of order or agreement). Punishment for contempt in subsection (a)(4) would be imprisonment for not more than 90 days.
Increased fine All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4138 Contempt powers of Pittsburgh Magistrates Court
(a) General Rule.— The Pittsburgh Magistrates Court shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in
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the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrate Court. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrates Court directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Incarceration All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4138 Contempt powers of Pittsburgh Magistrates Court
(a) General Rule.— The Pittsburgh Magistrates Court shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in
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the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrate Court. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrates Court directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Incarceration All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4139 Contempt powers of Traffic Court of Philadelphia
(a) General rule.— The Traffic Court of Philadelphia shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person
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in the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a traffic court judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a traffic court judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Incarceration Traffic No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4139 Contempt powers of Traffic Court of Philadelphia
(a) General rule.— The Traffic Court of Philadelphia shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person
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in the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a traffic court judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a traffic court judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Increased fine Traffic No
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Pennsylvania Pa. R. Crim. P. 142 Procedures Governing Defaults in Payment of Fine Imposed as Punishment for Contempt; if found able to pay
(A) If a contemnor defaults on the payment of a fine imposed as punishment for contempt pursuant to Rule 140(A)(1) and (B)(3), the issuing authority shall notify the contemnor in
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person or by first class mail that within 10 days of the date on the default notice the contemnor must either: (1) pay the amount due as ordered, or (2) appear before the issuing authority to explain why the contemnor should not be imprisoned for nonpayment as provided by law, or a bench warrant for the contemnor's arrest shall be issued. (B) When the contemnor appears either in response to the paragraph (A)(2) notice or following an arrest with a warrant issued pursuant to paragraph (A), the issuing authority shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the contemnor is financially able to pay as ordered. (1) Upon a determination that the defendant is financially able to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may impose imprisonment for nonpayment, as provided by law. (2) Upon a determination that the contemnor is financially unable to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may order a schedule for installment payments. (C) A contemnor may appeal an issuing authority's determination pursuant to this rule by filing a notice of appeal within 30 days of the issuing authority's order. The appeal shall proceed as provided in Rule 141.
Incarceration All Yes
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Pennsylvania Pa. R. Crim. P. 142 Procedures Governing Defaults in Payment of Fine Imposed as Punishment for Contempt; if found unable to pay
(A) If a contemnor defaults on the payment of a fine imposed as punishment for contempt pursuant to Rule 140(A)(1) and (B)(3), the issuing authority shall notify the contemnor in
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person or by first class mail that within 10 days of the date on the default notice the contemnor must either: (1) pay the amount due as ordered, or (2) appear before the issuing authority to explain why the contemnor should not be imprisoned for nonpayment as provided by law, or a bench warrant for the contemnor's arrest shall be issued. (B) When the contemnor appears either in response to the paragraph (A)(2) notice or following an arrest with a warrant issued pursuant to paragraph (A), the issuing authority shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the contemnor is financially able to pay as ordered. (1) Upon a determination that the defendant is financially able to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may impose imprisonment for nonpayment, as provided by law. (2) Upon a determination that the contemnor is financially unable to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may order a schedule for installment payments. (C) A contemnor may appeal an issuing authority's determination pursuant to this rule by filing a notice of appeal within 30 days of the issuing authority's order. The appeal shall proceed as provided in Rule 141.
Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9758 Fine- installment plan
Except for fines imposed under Title 34 (relating to game), the court may permit installment payments as it considers appropriate to the circumstances of the defendant, in which case its
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order shall specify when each installment payment is due. Installment payments for fines imposed for summary offenses under Title 34 shall not exceed one year for summary offenses and, except for 34 Pa.C.S. § 2522 (relating to shooting at or causing injury to human beings), shall not exceed two years for misdemeanor offenses.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9728(a) Collection - interest
Except as provided in subsection (b)(5), all restitution, reparation, fees, costs, fines and penalties shall be collected by the county probation department or other agent designated by the county commissioners
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of the county with the approval of the president judge of the county for that purpose in any manner provided by law. However, such restitution, reparation, fees, costs, fines and penalties are part of a criminal action or proceeding and shall not be deemed debts. A sentence, pretrial disposition order or order entered under section 6352 (relating to disposition of delinquent child) for restitution, reparation, fees, costs, fines or penalties shall, together with interest and any additional costs that may accrue, be a judgment in favor of the probation department upon the person or the property of the person sentenced or subject to the order.
Collection fee/interest All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9728(b)(5) Collection - procedure
The county correctional facility to which the offender has been sentenced or the Department of Corrections shall be authorized to make monetary deductions from inmate personal accounts for the purpose
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of collecting restitution or any other court-ordered obligation or costs imposed 
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9728(e)(1) Preservation of assets - restitution
Upon the filing of a criminal complaint, information or indictment charging a criminal violation or a petition alleging delinquency for which restitution may be ordered and alleging that the property
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with respect to which the order is sought appears to be necessary to satisfy such restitution order and judgment
Property liens All No
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Pennsylvania Pa. R. Crim. P. 142 Defaults in Payment of Fine Imposed as Punishment for Contempt
(A) If a contemnor defaults on the payment of a fine imposed as punishment for contempt pursuant to Rule 140(A)(1) and (B)(3), the issuing authority shall notify the contemnor
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in person or by first class mail that within 10 days of the date on the default notice the contemnor must either: (1) pay the amount due as ordered, or (2) appear before the issuing authority to explain why the contemnor should not be imprisoned for nonpayment as provided by law, or a bench warrant for the contemnor’s arrest shall be issued. (B) When the contemnor appears either in response to the paragraph (A)(2) notice or following an arrest with a warrant issued pursuant to paragraph (A), the issuing authority shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the contemnor is financially able to pay as ordered. (1) Upon a determination that the defendant is financially able to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may impose imprisonment for nonpayment, as provided by law.
Incarceration All No
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Pennsylvania Pa. R. Crim. P. 142(b)(2) Defaults in Payment of Fine Imposed as Punishment for Contempt
(B) When the contemnor appears either in response to the paragraph (A)(2) notice or following an arrest with a warrant issued pursuant to paragraph (A), the issuing authority shall
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conduct a hearing to determine whether the contemnor is financially able to pay as ordered. . . . (2) Upon a determination that the contemnor is financially unable to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may order a schedule for installment payments.
Payment plan/installment plan All No