Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 14-4-10 Hard labor; additional sentence

Whenever any convict is sentenced by the court and required to do hard labor for the county, an additional sentence not to exceed 10 months in any case for the

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payment of costs of conviction may be imposed, and the court must determine a reasonable time required to work out such costs. The costs of conviction of county convicts shall be the same as provided by law now in force in the respective counties.

Incarceration All No
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 15-18-62 Costs and Fines: willful nonpayment by defendant

In cases of willful nonpayment of the fine and costs, the defendant shall either be imprisoned in the county jail or, at the discretion of the court, sentenced to hard

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labor for the county as follows:(1) If the fine and costs do not exceed two hundred fifty dollars ($250), no more than 10 days; (2) If the fine and costs exceed two hundred fifty dollars ($250) but do not exceed five hundred dollars ($500), no more than 20 days; (3) If the fine and costs exceed five hundred dollars ($500), but do not exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000), no more than 30 days; and (4) For every additional one hundred dollars ($100) or fractional part thereof, 4 days.

Incarceration All Yes
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 15-18-144 Restitution Withholding: Attachment of property

Any provision of any law of this state to the contrary notwithstanding and in addition to any other remedy which is or may be hereafter provided by law for the

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enforcement or collection of a restitution order, any decree, judgment, or order requiring the payment of restitution may include, upon motion of the victim, district attorney, the Attorney General, or the court, an order requiring that any asset or other income or any portion thereof to which a defendant is or may be entitled be withheld or attached, and such order may also require any person in real or constructive possession, custody, or control thereof to pay over, deliver, convey, transfer, or assign the same to the clerk of the court for disbursement, transfer, or assignment to the victim in accordance with the defendant's restitution obligation. If the prison authority reasonably believes that the defendant's outgoing mail contains any object or any item that has monetary value, the object or item shall be seized and transferred to the court of original jurisdiction. If the court determines that the item or object seized has monetary value, the item or object shall be transferred to the Crime Victims Compensation Fund for disbursement, transfer, or assignment to the victim for satisfaction of the defendant's outstanding restitution obligations. If the court determines that the item or object seized does not have any monetary value, the court shall return such to the prison to be promptly placed in the U.S. mail.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-23-7 Drug testing program

Any person who fails to complete treatment and pay for it shall be charged with violation of probation or parole

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-19-311(c) Additional fees on bail bond

Upon the failure to pay the fee in paragraph a. of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) and upon a finding of contempt in subsection (d), the bondsman, surety, guaranty, or

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individuals required to pay the fee shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) in addition to the fee imposed in paragraph a. of subdivision (1) of subsection (a). The fine shall not be remitted, waived, or reduced unless the person(s) fined can show cause to the court that he or she cannot pay the fine in the reasonably foreseeable future. I

Increased fine All Yes
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Alabama Ala.Code 1975 § 12-18-72 Restitution to victim's of crimes: Condition of probation or parole; default.

(a) When a defendant whose sentence has been suspended and placed on probation by the court, and ordered to make restitution, defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment,

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the court on motion of the victim or the district attorney or upon its own motion shall require the defendant to show cause why his default should not be treated as violation of a condition of his probation.

(b) When the defendant is sentenced to the penitentiary by the court, and the court orders restitution, it shall be made a condition of his parole that restitution be made. When the parolee defaults in the payment thereof or any installment, the parole board on motion of the victim or the district attorney or the supervising parole officer, may require the defendant to show cause why his default should not be treated as a violation of a condition of parole, and the board may declare the parolee delinquent and after due process may revoke his parole.

Extension of probation/supervision Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-802(E) Fines for misdemeanors

A judgment that the defendant shall pay a fine, with or without the alternative of imprisonment, shall constitute a lien in like manner as a judgment for money rendered in

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a civil action.

Property liens Misdemeanor Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-804(L) Restitution for offense causing economic loss; fine for reimbursement of public monies; notification of arrearage; review hearing

Notwithstanding any other law, a restitution lien is created in favor of a victim of the defendant ordered to make restitution. Monies received monthly from the defendant shall be applied

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first to satisfy the restitution order entered by the court and the payment of any restitution in arrears. Any monies that are owed by this state to a person who is under a restitution order shall be assigned first to discharge the restitution order, including any tax refund that is owed to the defendant.

Property liens All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-804(M) Restitution for offense causing economic loss; fine for reimbursement of public monies; notification of arrearage; review hearing

If the defendant, the state or persons entitled to restitution pursuant to a court order disagree with the manner of payment established in subsection E of this section, the defendant,

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court or person entitled to restitution may petition the court at any time to change the manner in which the restitution is paid. Before modifying the order pertaining to the manner in which the restitution is paid, the court shall give notice and an opportunity to be heard to the defendant, the state and, on request, persons entitled to restitution pursuant to a court order.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-805(E) Restitution and Fines: Jurisdiction

A criminal restitution order may be recorded and is enforceable as any civil judgment, except that a criminal restitution order does not require renewal pursuant to section 12-1611 or 12-1612.

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Enforcement of a criminal restitution order by any person or by the state on behalf of any person who is entitled to restitution includes the collection of interest that accrues at a rate of ten percent a year. Enforcement of a criminal restituion order by the state includes the collection of interest that accrues at a rate of four percent a year. A criminal restitution order does not expire until paid in full. A filing fee, A recording fee or any other charge is not required for recording a criminal restitution order.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-808(A) Time and method of payment of fine; conditions of probation; no limitation on restitution and other assessments

If a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine alone or in addition to any other sentence, the court or a probation officer or a staff member designated by the

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court may grant permission for payment to be made within a specified period of time or in specified installments. If no such permission is embodied in the sentence the fine shall be payable immediately.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-808(B) Time and method of payment of fines; conditions of probation; no limitation on restitution and other assessments

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine, restitution, penalty, assessment, incarceration cost or surcharge is also sentenced to probation, the court shall make payment of the fine, restitution, penalty,

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assessment, incarceration cost or surcharge a condition of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(1) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

D. If the court finds that the defendant has willfully failed to pay fine, a surcharge, a fee, an assessment, restitution or incarceration costs or finds that the defendant has intentionally refused

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to make a good faith effort to obtain the  monies required for the payment, the court shall find that the default constitutes contempt and may do any of the  following: 1. Order the defendant incarcerated in the county jail until the fine, surcharge, fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs, or a specified part of the fine, surcharge,  fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs, is paid.

Incarceration All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(2) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

D. If the court finds that the defendant has willfully failed to pay fine, a surcharge, fee, an assessment, restitution or incarceration costs or finds that the defendant has intentionally refused to make

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a good faith effort to obtain the  monies required for the payment, the court shall find that the default constitutes contempt and may do any of the  following: 2. Refer the defendant for revocation of probation, parole or community supervision and as authorized by law.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(3) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

3. Enter an order pursuant to section 13-812. The levy or execution for the collection of a fine, a surcharge, a fee, an assessment, restitution or incarceration costs does not discharge a defendant who is incarcerated

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for nonpayment of the fine, surcharge, fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs until the amount of the fine, surcharge, fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs is collected.

Property liens All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(4) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

If the court finds that the defendant has wilfully failed to pay a fine, a fee, restitution or incarceration costs or finds that the defendant has intentionally refused to make

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a good faith effort to obtain the monies required for the payment, the court shall find that the default constitutes contempt and may do one of the following:4. Order the defendant to perform community restitution

Community service All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-812 Garnishment for nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

A. After a hearing on an order to show cause pursuant to § 13-810, subsection A or B or after a hearing on a petition to revoke probation pursuant to

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§ 13-804, subsection E or the rules of criminal procedure, the court may issue a writ of criminal garnishment for any fine, fee, restitution or incarceration costs.B. The court may order garnishment for monies that are owed to a victim or the court, the clerk of the court or the prosecuting attorney pursuant to a court order to pay any fine, fee, restitution or incarceration costs. A writ of criminal garnishment applies to any of the following: 1. The defendant's earnings as defined in § 12-1598. 2. Indebtedness that is owed to a defendant by a garnishee for amounts that are not earnings. 3. Monies that are held by a garnishee on behalf of a defendant. 4. The defendant's personal property that is in the possession of a garnishee. 5. If the garnishee is a corporation, shares or securities of a corporation or a proprietary interest in a corporation that belongs to a defendant. 6. The defendant's earnings or monies that are held by the state department of corrections while the defendant is in the custody of the department.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-912(A) Restoration of civil rights for first offenders; exception

Any person who has not previously been convicted of any other felony shall automatically be restored any civil rights that were lost or suspended by the conviction if the person

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both:1. Completes a term of probation or receives an absolute discharge from imprisonment. 2. Pays any fine or restitution imposed.

Other All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-801(B) Fines for felonies

A judgment that the defendant shall pay a fine, with or without the alternative of imprisonment, shall constitute a lien in like manner as a judgment for money rendered in

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a civil action.

Property liens Felony No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 28-1601(A) Failure to pay civil penalty; suspension or restriction of driving privilege; collection procedure

A. A person shall pay all civil penalties within thirty days from entry of judgment, except that if payment within thirty days will place an undue economic burden on a person,

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the court may extend the time for payment or may provide for installment payments. If the civil penalty is not paid or an installment payment is not made when due, the court may declare the entire civil penalty due and, if so, the court shall do either of the following:

1. Notify the department and the department shall promptly suspend the person’s driving privilege or the person’s application or privilege to apply for a driving privilege until the civil penalty is paid.

2. Order that the person’s driving privilege be restricted as described in section 28-144 until the civil penalty is paid and notify the department of the restriction.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No