Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.025(f) Sentencing Procedures

A sentence that the defendant pay money, either as a fine or in restitution or both, constitutes a lien in the same manner as a judgment for money entered in

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a civil action. Nothing in this section limits the authority of the court to otherwise enforce payment of a fine or restitution.

Property liens All Yes
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.035(d) Fines

If a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine, the court may grant permission for the payment to be made within a specified period of time or in specified installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.051(a) Enforcement of Fines and Restitution

If the defendant defaults in the payment of a fine or any installment or of restitution or any installment, the court may order the defendant to show cause why the

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defendant should not be sentenced to imprisonment for nonpayment and, if the payment was made a condition of the defendant's probation, may revoke the probation of the defendant subject to the limits set out in AS 12.55.110.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.051(a) Enforcement of Fines and Restitution

If the court does not find that the default was attributable to the defendant's inability to pay despite having made continuing good faith efforts to pay the fine or restitution,

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the court may order the defendant imprisoned subject to the limits set out in AS 12.55.110. A term of imprisonment imposed under this section may not exceed one day for each $50 of the unpaid portion of the fine or restitution or one year, whichever is shorter. Credit shall be given toward satisfaction of the order of the court for every day a person is incarcerated for nonpayment of a fine or restitution.

Incarceration All No
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.055(c) Community work

The court may offer a defendant convicted of an offense the option of performing community work in lieu of a fine, surcharge, or portion of a fine or surcharge if

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the court finds the defendant is unable to pay the fine. The value of community work in lieu of a fine is the state's minimum wage for each hour.

Community service All No
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Alaska AK Const. Art. 1, § 17 Imprisonment for Debt

There shall be no imprisonment for debt. This section does not prohibit civil arrest of absconding debtors.

Incarceration All Yes
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.041(d) Correctional Facility Surcharge

The court shall include a surcharge imposed under (a) of this section in the judgment of conviction. The court shall include the imposition of a surcharge under (c) of this

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section in the order revoking probation. For a surcharge that is not paid by the person as required by this section, the state shall seek reimbursement from the person's permanent fund dividend as provided under AS 43.23.065. For purposes of collection and priority of attachment under AS 43.23.065, a surcharge imposed under this section is accounted for in the same manner as a cost of imprisonment under AS 28.35.030(k) and 28.35.032(o). The state may enforce payment of a surcharge under this section under AS 09.35 as if it were a civil judgment enforceable by execution. This subsection does not limit the authority of the court to enforce surcharges.

Property liens All Yes
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.045(c) Restitution and Compensation

If a defendant is sentenced to pay restitution, the court may grant permission for the payment to be made within a specified period of time or in specified installments. If

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the defendant fails to make one or more payments required under this section, the victim or the state on the victim's behalf may enforce the total amount remaining under the order of restitution as provided in (l) of this section.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Alaska Alaska Stat. Ann. § 12.55.045(l) Restitution and Compensation

An order by the court that the defendant pay restitution is a civil judgment for the amount of the restitution. An order by the court that the defendant pay restitution

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when the court suspends imposition of sentence under AS 12.55.085 is a civil judgment for the amount of the restitution and remains enforceable and is not discharged when a conviction is set aside under AS 12.55.085. The victim or the state on behalf of the victim may enforce the judgment through any procedure authorized by law for the enforcement of a civil judgment. If the victim enforces or collects restitution through civil process, collection costs and full reasonable attorney fees shall be awarded. If the state on the victim's behalf enforces or collects restitution through civil process, collection costs and full reasonable attorney fees shall be awarded, up to a maximum of twice the amount of restitution owing at the time the civil process was initiated. This section does not limit the authority of the court to enforce orders of restitution.

Civil judgment All Yes
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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 12.55.039(b) Surcharge

A court may not fail to impose the surcharge required under this section. The surcharge may not be waived, deferred, or suspended. A court may allow a defendant who is

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unable to pay the surcharge required to be imposed under this section to perform community work under AS 12.55.055(c) in lieu of the surcharge.

Community service All No
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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 12.55.039(c) Surcharge

The surcharge shall be paid within 10 days of imposition or such shorter period of time as ordered by the court. Failure to pay the surcharge is punishable as contempt

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of court. Proceedings to collect the surcharge may be instituted by the state, the municipality, or by the court on its own motion.

Civil judgment All Yes
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Alaska Alaska Stat. § 12.55.035(d) Fines

If a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine, the court may grant permission for the payment to be made within a specified period of time or in specified installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-60 Installment payments

A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which such judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments

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and the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-62 Failure to pay installments--Suspension of licenses.

In the event the judgment debtor referred to in § 32-35-61 fails to pay any installment as specified by such order, then upon notice of such default, the Department of

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Public Safety shall forthwith suspend the license or nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall forthwith suspend the registration of the judgment debtor until such judgment is satisfied, as provided in this chapter.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-23-4.10 Costs payable to county--Nonpayment punishable by contempt.

In addition to any other penalty, assessment, or fine provided by law, the court shall order any person convicted of a crime for a violation of § 32-23-1 to remit

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costs in the amount of fifty dollars to the clerk of courts. The clerk of courts shall forward any amount collected pursuant to this section to the county treasurer for deposit in the county general fund. Failure to remit the amount to the clerk of courts in the time specified by the court is punishable by contempt proceedings.

Incarceration All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-47-6 Failure to comply with plan of restitution or of financial obligation constitutes violation of conditions — Modification of plan — Contempt

Failure of any individual in this system to comply with the plan of restitution or plan for financial obligations as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of

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the conditions within this system. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or financial obligation, extend the period of time for restitution or financial obligation, or continue the individual in the administrative financial accountability system. If the individual fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the individual may be held in contempt of the court’s order.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-10 Funds of defendant — Order for reimbursement — Applicability — Credit against lien

If the court finds that funds are available for payment from or on behalf of a defendant to carry out, in whole or in part, the provisions of this chapter,

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the court may order that the funds be paid, as court costs or as a condition of probation, to the court for deposit with the county or municipal treasurer, to be placed in the county or municipal general fund or in the public defender fund in those counties establishing the office pursuant to subdivision 23A-40-7(1) as a reimbursement to the county or municipality to carry out the provisions of this section. The court may also order payment to be made in the form of installments or wage assignments, in amounts set by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge, either during the time a charge is pending or after the disposition of the charge, regardless of whether the defendant has been acquitted or the case has been dismissed by the prosecution or by order of the court. The provisions of this section also apply to persons who have had counsel appointed under chapters 26-7A, 26-8A, 26-8B, and 26-8C. The reimbursement is a credit against any lien created by the provisions of this chapter against the property of the defendant.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-11 Lien for cost of provision of counsel — Limitation

A lien, enforceable as provided by this chapter, upon all the property, both real and personal, of any person, including the parents of a minor child, for whom legal counsel

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or a public defender has been appointed under the provisions of § 23A-40-6, subdivisions 23A-40-7(2) and (3), or § 26-7A-31 may be filed. The services rendered and expenses incurred are a claim against the person and that person's estate, enforceable according to law in an amount to be determined by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge and paid by the county or municipality chargeable for them. A lien on the parents of a minor child pursuant to this section may not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars plus an amount equal to any taxable court costs.

Property liens All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-52 Suspension of license for failure to pay judgment

The Department of Public Safety upon receipt of a certified copy of a judgment shall forthwith suspend the license and any nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall

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forthwith suspend the registration of any person against whom such judgment was rendered except as provided in §§ 32-35-53 to 32-35-56, inclusive.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-57 Length of suspension pursuant to Section 32-35-52

A license, registration, and nonresident's operating privilege suspended pursuant to § 32-35-52 shall remain so suspended and shall not be renewed, nor shall any such license or registration be thereafter

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issued in the name of such person, including any such person not previously licensed, unless and until every such judgment is stayed, satisfied in full, or to the extent provided in § 32-35-59, and until the said person gives proof of financial responsibility subject to the exemptions stated in §§ 32-35-54, 32-35-55, and 32-35-61.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes