Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-802(E) Fines for misdemeanors

A judgment that the defendant shall pay a fine, with or without the alternative of imprisonment, shall constitute a lien in like manner as a judgment for money rendered in

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a civil action.

Property liens Misdemeanor Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-804(L) Restitution for offense causing economic loss; fine for reimbursement of public monies; notification of arrearage; review hearing

Notwithstanding any other law, a restitution lien is created in favor of a victim of the defendant ordered to make restitution. Monies received monthly from the defendant shall be applied

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first to satisfy the restitution order entered by the court and the payment of any restitution in arrears. Any monies that are owed by this state to a person who is under a restitution order shall be assigned first to discharge the restitution order, including any tax refund that is owed to the defendant.

Property liens All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-804(M) Restitution for offense causing economic loss; fine for reimbursement of public monies; notification of arrearage; review hearing

If the defendant, the state or persons entitled to restitution pursuant to a court order disagree with the manner of payment established in subsection E of this section, the defendant,

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court or person entitled to restitution may petition the court at any time to change the manner in which the restitution is paid. Before modifying the order pertaining to the manner in which the restitution is paid, the court shall give notice and an opportunity to be heard to the defendant, the state and, on request, persons entitled to restitution pursuant to a court order.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-805(E) Restitution and Fines: Jurisdiction

A criminal restitution order may be recorded and is enforceable as any civil judgment, except that a criminal restitution order does not require renewal pursuant to section 12-1611 or 12-1612.

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Enforcement of a criminal restitution order by any person or by the state on behalf of any person who is entitled to restitution includes the collection of interest that accrues at a rate of ten percent a year. Enforcement of a criminal restituion order by the state includes the collection of interest that accrues at a rate of four percent a year. A criminal restitution order does not expire until paid in full. A filing fee, A recording fee or any other charge is not required for recording a criminal restitution order.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-808(A) Time and method of payment of fine; conditions of probation; no limitation on restitution and other assessments

If a defendant is sentenced to pay a fine alone or in addition to any other sentence, the court or a probation officer or a staff member designated by the

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court may grant permission for payment to be made within a specified period of time or in specified installments. If no such permission is embodied in the sentence the fine shall be payable immediately.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-808(B) Time and method of payment of fines; conditions of probation; no limitation on restitution and other assessments

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine, restitution, penalty, assessment, incarceration cost or surcharge is also sentenced to probation, the court shall make payment of the fine, restitution, penalty,

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assessment, incarceration cost or surcharge a condition of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(1) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

D. If the court finds that the defendant has willfully failed to pay fine, a surcharge, a fee, an assessment, restitution or incarceration costs or finds that the defendant has intentionally refused

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to make a good faith effort to obtain the  monies required for the payment, the court shall find that the default constitutes contempt and may do any of the  following: 1. Order the defendant incarcerated in the county jail until the fine, surcharge, fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs, or a specified part of the fine, surcharge,  fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs, is paid.

Incarceration All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(2) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

D. If the court finds that the defendant has willfully failed to pay fine, a surcharge, fee, an assessment, restitution or incarceration costs or finds that the defendant has intentionally refused to make

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a good faith effort to obtain the  monies required for the payment, the court shall find that the default constitutes contempt and may do any of the  following: 2. Refer the defendant for revocation of probation, parole or community supervision and as authorized by law.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(3) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

3. Enter an order pursuant to section 13-812. The levy or execution for the collection of a fine, a surcharge, a fee, an assessment, restitution or incarceration costs does not discharge a defendant who is incarcerated

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for nonpayment of the fine, surcharge, fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs until the amount of the fine, surcharge, fee, assessment, restitution or incarceration costs is collected.

Property liens All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(4) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

If the court finds that the defendant has wilfully failed to pay a fine, a fee, restitution or incarceration costs or finds that the defendant has intentionally refused to make

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a good faith effort to obtain the monies required for the payment, the court shall find that the default constitutes contempt and may do one of the following:4. Order the defendant to perform community restitution

Community service All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-812 Garnishment for nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

A. After a hearing on an order to show cause pursuant to § 13-810, subsection A or B or after a hearing on a petition to revoke probation pursuant to

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§ 13-804, subsection E or the rules of criminal procedure, the court may issue a writ of criminal garnishment for any fine, fee, restitution or incarceration costs.B. The court may order garnishment for monies that are owed to a victim or the court, the clerk of the court or the prosecuting attorney pursuant to a court order to pay any fine, fee, restitution or incarceration costs. A writ of criminal garnishment applies to any of the following: 1. The defendant's earnings as defined in § 12-1598. 2. Indebtedness that is owed to a defendant by a garnishee for amounts that are not earnings. 3. Monies that are held by a garnishee on behalf of a defendant. 4. The defendant's personal property that is in the possession of a garnishee. 5. If the garnishee is a corporation, shares or securities of a corporation or a proprietary interest in a corporation that belongs to a defendant. 6. The defendant's earnings or monies that are held by the state department of corrections while the defendant is in the custody of the department.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-912(A) Restoration of civil rights for first offenders; exception

Any person who has not previously been convicted of any other felony shall automatically be restored any civil rights that were lost or suspended by the conviction if the person

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both:1. Completes a term of probation or receives an absolute discharge from imprisonment. 2. Pays any fine or restitution imposed.

Other All Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-801(B) Fines for felonies

A judgment that the defendant shall pay a fine, with or without the alternative of imprisonment, shall constitute a lien in like manner as a judgment for money rendered in

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a civil action.

Property liens Felony No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 28-1601(A) Failure to pay civil penalty; suspension or restriction of driving privilege; collection procedure

A. A person shall pay all civil penalties within thirty days from entry of judgment, except that if payment within thirty days will place an undue economic burden on a person,

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the court may extend the time for payment or may provide for installment payments. If the civil penalty is not paid or an installment payment is not made when due, the court may declare the entire civil penalty due and, if so, the court shall do either of the following:

1. Notify the department and the department shall promptly suspend the person’s driving privilege or the person’s application or privilege to apply for a driving privilege until the civil penalty is paid.

2. Order that the person’s driving privilege be restricted as described in section 28-144 until the civil penalty is paid and notify the department of the restriction.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-821(B) Fines for drug offenses

The court may suspend the imposition of a fine pursuant to this section if the person agrees to enter a residential drug rehabilitation program approved by the court and to

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pay for all or a part of the costs associated with the rehabilitation program. On successfully completing the program, the person may apply to the court for a reduction in the amount of the fine imposed pursuant to this section. If the person establishes to the satisfaction of the court that the person successfully completed the program, the court may reduce the fine by the amount the person paid to participate in the rehabilitation program. If the person fails to complete the program, the court shall enforce the collection of the entire fine that was imposed pursuant to subsection A.

Work program/jail industry program All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 28-3308 Mandatory Suspension; Failure to Appear

On notification by the court that a person failed to appear as directed for a scheduled court appearance after service of a criminal complaint alleging a violation of a provision

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of this title, the department shall suspend the person’s driver license or nonresident operating privilege until the person appears. If the person appears and does not pay the person’s fines, surcharges or assessments, on notification by the court the department shall suspend the person’s driving privileges or restrict the person’s driving privileges as described in section 28-144 until the fines, surcharges and assessments are paid.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-806 Restitution Lien

A. The state or any person entitled to restitution pursuant to a court order may file inaccordance with this section a  restitution lien. A filing fee, recording fee or any

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other charge is not required for filing a restitution lien.

Property liens All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 22-429(C) Judgment; imprisonment for fine; limitation; lien

A sentence that the defendant pay a fine, with or without the alternative of imprisonment, shall constitute a lien in like manner as a judgment for money rendered in a

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civil action.

Property liens All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-18-114 Record and disbursement of wages; exemption from process; confidentiality of amount

(a) Wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender while in an adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed

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for the purposes provided in this subsection and in the order specified: (i) Personal necessities; (ii) Room and board to the program operator at a rate to be established by the department; (iii) Support of dependent relations; (iv) Court ordered restitution, fines, sanctions and reimbursement for the services of public defender or court appointed counsel, the surcharge imposed under W.S. 1-40-119, victims compensation obligations under W.S. 1-40-112(g) and the surcharge imposed under W.S. 7-13-1616; (v) Repealed by Laws 1999, ch. 62, § 2. (vi) Costs of health insurance; and (vii) Remaining funds shall be paid to the inmate, parolee or offender upon parole or final discharge.

(b) Wages earned by offenders, other than parolees or inmates, while in a residential adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed only for the purposes and in the order specified in subsection (a) of this section unless otherwise ordered by the sentencing court. Any remaining funds shall be paid to the offender upon his satisfactory discharge from the program. Upon revocation of an offender's probation, the program operator shall forward any remaining funds to the court or to the institution to which the offender is sentenced as directed by the court.

(c) Program operators shall keep an accurate record and account of all wages earned by inmates, parolees and offenders pursuant to the rules promulgated by the department.

(d) The earnings of inmates under this act are not subject to garnishment, attachment or execution.

(e) Information relating to the amount of wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender in an adult community corrections program is confidential and is not subject to public inspection.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-16-101 Persons subject to required work

(a) The sentencing court may require the following persons to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104: (i) Persons sentenced to a definite term of imprisonment in the county jail,

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whether or not a fine is imposed as a part of the sentence; (ii) Persons committed to jail pursuant to W.S. 6-10-105 for refusal to pay a fine or costs; and (iii) Persons for whom work is imposed as a condition of probation pursuant to W.S. 7-13-304(b). (b) No person charged with a crime and awaiting the action of the grand jury or awaiting trial shall be required to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104.

Condition or extension of supervision, Work program/jail industry program All No