Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.335(4)(B) Ability to pay determination for infraction offenses the court may exercise its discretion to: . . . (B) Allow the defendant to complete community service in lieu of paying the total fine (if available) Community service Misdemeanor No
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.335(4)(A) Ability to pay determination for infraction offenses the court may exercise its discretion to: (A) Provide for payment on an installment plan Payment plan/installment plan Misdemeanor No
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California CA ST J ADMIN STANDARDS Standard 4.40 Traffic infraction procedures
to insure the prompt and efficient disposition of traffic infraction cases, each court should:(1) Authorize the clerk, within limits set by the court, to grant defendants extensions of time for
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the posting of bail and payment of fines.
Payment plan/installment plan Traffic No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 166(e)(2) Contempt of court; Stalking; Punishments

...If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of subdivision (c), the conditions of probation may include, in lieu of a fine, one or both of the following requirements:(A)

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That the defendant make payments to a battered women’s shelter, up to a maximum of one thousand dollars ($1,000). (B) That the defendant provide restitution to reimburse the victim for reasonable costs of counseling and other reasonable expenses that the court finds are the direct result of the defendant’s offense.

Collection fee/interest Misdemeanor No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 594(c), (f) Vandalism; Punishment

(c) Upon conviction of any person under this section for acts of vandalism consisting of defacing property with graffiti or other inscribed materials, the court shall, when appropriate and feasible, in

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addition to any punishment imposed under subdivision (b), order the defendant to clean up, repair, or replace the damaged property himself or herself, or order the defendant, and his or her parents or guardians if the defendant is a minor, to keep the damaged property or another specified property in the community free of graffiti for up to one year. Participation of a parent or guardian is not required under this subdivision if the court deems this participation to be detrimental to the defendant, or if the parent or guardian is a single parent who must care for young children. If the court finds that graffiti cleanup is inappropriate, the court shall consider other types of community service, where feasible....

(f) The court may order any person ordered to perform community service or graffiti removal pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) to undergo counseling.

Community service Misdemeanor Yes
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1465.7(f) Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: State surcharge; Transmittal to General Fund; Construction with Vehicle Code provisions

When amounts owed by an offender as a result of a conviction are paid in installment payments, payments shall be credited pursuant to Section 1203.1d. The amount of the surcharge

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established by this section shall be transmitted to the State Treasury prior to the county retaining or disbursing the remaining amount of the fines, penalties, and forfeitures imposed.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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California Veh. Code § 42003(a) Penalties - Public Offense: Payment of fines; Consideration of defendant’s ability to pay

A judgment that a person convicted of an infraction be punished by a fine may also provide for the payment to be made within a specified time or in specified

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installments.

Payment plan/installment plan Traffic No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1462.5 Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: Proration of fines, penalties, forfeitures, and fees

Each installment or partial payment of a fine, penalty, forfeiture or fee shall be prorated among the state and local shares according to the uniform accounting system established by the

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State Controller pursuant to Section 71380 of the Government Code. In cases subject to Section 1463.18 of the Penal Code, proration shall not occur until the minimum amounts have been transferred to the Restitution Fund as provided in that section.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1463.010(f) Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: Enforcement of court orders; Guidelines for collection program; Annual report; Business license suspension program; Amnesty

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Judicial Council, after consultation with the Franchise Tax Board with respect to collections under Section 19280 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, may

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provide for an amnesty program involving the collection of outstanding fees, fines, forfeitures, penalties, and assessments, applicable either statewide or within one or more counties. The amnesty program shall provide that some or all of the interest or collections costs imposed on outstanding fees, fines, forfeitures, penalties, and assessments may be waived if the remaining amounts due are paid within the amnesty period.

Collection fee/interest All No
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.435(b) Sentencing on revocation of probation, mandatory supervision, and postrelease community supervision

(b) On revocation and termination of probation under section 1203.2, when the sentencing judge determines that the defendant will be committed to prison or county jail under section 1170(h):(1) If

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the imposition of sentence was previously suspended, the judge must impose judgment and sentence after considering any findings previously made and hearing and determining the matters enumerated in rule 4.433(c).The length of the sentence must be based on circumstances existing at the time probation was granted, and subsequent events may not be considered in selecting the base term or in deciding whether to strike the additional punishment for enhancements charged and found.

Incarceration All No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 273a(c)(3)(B) Endangering child or causing or permitting child to suffer physical pain, mental suffering, or injury; Conditions of probation

(B) The terms of probation for offenders shall not be lifted until all reasonable fees due to the counseling program have been paid in full, but in no case shall

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probation be extended beyond the term provided in subdivision (a) of Section 1203.1. If the court finds that the defendant does not have the ability to pay the fees based on the defendant’s changed circumstances, the court may reduce or waive the fees.

Condition or extension of supervision Misdemeanor, Felony No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1202.43(b) Payment of restitution fine

(b) A restitution fine shall be deemed a debt of the defendant owing to the state for the purposes of Sections 12418 and 12419.5 of the Government Code, excepting any

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amounts the defendant has paid to the victim as a result of the crime. Upon request by the Controller, the district attorney of a county or the Attorney General may take any necessary action to recover amounts owing on a restitution fine. The amount of the recovery shall be increased by a sum sufficient to cover any costs incurred by any state or local agency in the administration of this section. The remedies provided by this subdivision are in addition to any other remedies provided by law for the enforcement of a judgment.

Collection fee/interest Misdemeanor, Felony No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1205(b) Judgment imposing fine; Imprisonment pending payment; Default; Fee for processing accounts receivable; Limitation

(b) Except as otherwise provided in case of fines imposed, as a condition of probation, the defendant shall pay the fine to the clerk of the court, or to the

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judge if there is no clerk, unless the defendant is taken into custody for nonpayment of the fine, in which event payments made while he or she is in custody shall be made to the officer who holds the defendant in custody, and all amounts paid shall be paid over by the officer to the court that rendered the judgment. The clerk shall report to the court every default in payment of a fine or any part of that fine, or if there is no clerk, the court shall take notice of the default. If time has been given for payment of a fine or it has been made payable in installments, the court shall, upon any default in payment, immediately order the arrest of the defendant and order him or her to show cause why he or she should not be imprisoned until the fine or installment is satisfied in full. If the fine or installment is payable forthwith and it is not paid, the court shall, without further proceedings, immediately commit the defendant to the custody of the proper officer to be held in custody until the fine or installment is satisfied in full.

Incarceration Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 1907.25(B) Blocking of motor vehicle registration or transfer or registration for failure to pay fine or costs
If a person is charged with an offense in county court and either fails to appear in court at the required time and place to answer the charge or pleads
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guilty to or is found guilty of the offense and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay any fine or costs imposed by the court, the court may enter information relative to the person's failure to pay any outstanding amount of the fine or costs on a form prescribed or approved by the registrar of motor vehicles pursuant to division (C) of this section and send the form to the registrar. Upon receipt of the form, the registrar shall take any measures necessary to ensure that neither the registrar nor any deputy registrar accepts any application for the registration or transfer of registration of any motor vehicle owned or leased by the person. However, for a motor vehicle leased by the person, the registrar shall not implement this requirement until the registrar adopts procedures for that implementation under section 4503.39 of the Revised Code. The period of denial relating to the issuance or transfer of a certificate of registration for a motor vehicle imposed under this section remains in effect until the person pays any fine or costs imposed by the court relative to the offense. When the fine or costs have been paid in full, the court shall inform the registrar of the payment by entering information relative to the payment on a notice of payment form prescribed or approved by the registrar pursuant to division (C) of this section and sending the form to the registrar.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.14(A) Satisfaction of fine

(A) If a fine is imposed as a sentence or a part of a sentence, the court or magistrate that imposed the fine may order that the offender be committed to

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the jail or workhouse until the fine is paid or secured to be paid, or the offender is otherwise legally discharged, if the court or magistrate determines at a hearing that the offender is able, at that time, to pay the fine but refuses to do so. The hearing required by this section shall be conducted at the time of sentencing.

Incarceration All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2949.15 Writs of execution to issue

If a nonindigent person convicted of a felony fails to pay the costs of prosecution pursuant to section 2949.14 of the Revised Code, the clerk of the court of common

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pleas shall forthwith issue to the sheriff of the county in which the indictment was found, and to the sheriff of any other county in which the person has property, executions against his property for fines and the costs of prosecution, which shall be served and returned within ten days, with the proceedings of such sheriff or the certification that there is no property upon which to levy, indorsed thereon. When a levy is made upon property under such execution, a writ shall forthwith be issued by the clerk for the sale thereof, and such sheriff shall sell the property and make return thereof, and after paying the costs of conviction, execution, and sale, pay the balance to the person authorized to receive it.

Property liens All Yes
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.23(A)(1)(a)(i) Judgment for costs and jury fees

(A)(1)(a) In all criminal cases, including violations of ordinances, the judge or magistrate shall include in the sentence the costs of prosecution, including any costs under section 2947.231 of the

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Revised Code, and render a judgment against the defendant for such costs. If the judge or magistrate imposes a community control sanction or other nonresidential sanction, the judge or magistrate, when imposing the sanction, shall notify the defendant of both of the following: (i) If the defendant fails to pay that judgment or fails to timely make payments towards that judgment under a payment schedule approved by the court, the court may order the defendant to perform community service until the judgment is paid or until the court is satisfied that the defendant is in compliance with the approved payment schedule.

Community service All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.25(C)(2) Community control sanctions

(C)(2) The sentencing court shall require as a condition of any community control sanction that the offender abide by the law and not leave the state without the permission of

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the court or the offender's probation officer. In the interests of doing justice, rehabilitating the offender, and ensuring the offender's good behavior, the court may impose additional requirements on the offender. The offender's compliance with the additional requirements also shall be a condition of the community control sanction imposed upon the offender.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2949.09 Execution for fine and costs

When a judge or magistrate renders judgment for a fine, an execution may issue for such judgment and costs of prosecution, to be levied on the property, or in default

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thereof, upon the body of the defendant for nonpayment of the fine. The officer holding such writ may arrest such defendant in any county and commit him to the jail of the county in which such writ issued, until such fine is paid or secured to be paid or he is otherwise legally discharged.

Property liens All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 4510.22 Forfeiture for failure to appear or pay fine; denial of vehicle registration

If a person who has a current valid Ohio driver's, commercial driver's license, or temporary instruction permit is charged with a violation of any provision in sections 4503.11, 4503.12, 4503.182,

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4503.21, 4507.02, 4507.05, 4507.35, 4510.11, 4510.111, 4510.12, 4510.16, 4510.21, 4511.01 to 4511.76, 4511.81, 4511.82, 4511.84, 4513.01 to 4513.65, or 4549.01 to 4549.65 of the Revised Code or with a violation of any substantially equivalent municipal ordinance and if the person either fails to appear in court at the required time and place to answer the charge or pleads guilty to or is found guilty of the violation and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay the fine imposed by the court, the court may declare the forfeiture of the person's license. Thirty days after such a declaration of forfeiture, the court shall inform the registrar of motor vehicles of the forfeiture by entering information relative to the forfeiture on a form approved and furnished by the registrar and sending the form to the registrar. The court also shall forward the person's license, if it is in the possession of the court, to the registrar. The registrar shall impose a class F suspension of the person's driver's or commercial driver's license, or temporary instruction permit for the period of time specified in division (B)(6) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code on any person who is named in a declaration received by the registrar under this section. The registrar shall send written notification of the suspension to the person at the person's last known address and, if the person is in possession of the license, order the person to surrender the person's license or permit to the registrar within forty-eight hours.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Misdemeanor No