Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.335(4)(B) Ability to pay determination for infraction offenses the court may exercise its discretion to: . . . (B) Allow the defendant to complete community service in lieu of paying the total fine (if available) Community service Misdemeanor No
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.335(4)(A) Ability to pay determination for infraction offenses the court may exercise its discretion to: (A) Provide for payment on an installment plan Payment plan/installment plan Misdemeanor No
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California CA ST J ADMIN STANDARDS Standard 4.40 Traffic infraction procedures
to insure the prompt and efficient disposition of traffic infraction cases, each court should:(1) Authorize the clerk, within limits set by the court, to grant defendants extensions of time for
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the posting of bail and payment of fines.
Payment plan/installment plan Traffic No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 166(e)(2) Contempt of court; Stalking; Punishments

...If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of subdivision (c), the conditions of probation may include, in lieu of a fine, one or both of the following requirements:(A)

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That the defendant make payments to a battered women’s shelter, up to a maximum of one thousand dollars ($1,000). (B) That the defendant provide restitution to reimburse the victim for reasonable costs of counseling and other reasonable expenses that the court finds are the direct result of the defendant’s offense.

Collection fee/interest Misdemeanor No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 594(c), (f) Vandalism; Punishment

(c) Upon conviction of any person under this section for acts of vandalism consisting of defacing property with graffiti or other inscribed materials, the court shall, when appropriate and feasible, in

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addition to any punishment imposed under subdivision (b), order the defendant to clean up, repair, or replace the damaged property himself or herself, or order the defendant, and his or her parents or guardians if the defendant is a minor, to keep the damaged property or another specified property in the community free of graffiti for up to one year. Participation of a parent or guardian is not required under this subdivision if the court deems this participation to be detrimental to the defendant, or if the parent or guardian is a single parent who must care for young children. If the court finds that graffiti cleanup is inappropriate, the court shall consider other types of community service, where feasible....

(f) The court may order any person ordered to perform community service or graffiti removal pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) to undergo counseling.

Community service Misdemeanor Yes
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1465.7(f) Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: State surcharge; Transmittal to General Fund; Construction with Vehicle Code provisions

When amounts owed by an offender as a result of a conviction are paid in installment payments, payments shall be credited pursuant to Section 1203.1d. The amount of the surcharge

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established by this section shall be transmitted to the State Treasury prior to the county retaining or disbursing the remaining amount of the fines, penalties, and forfeitures imposed.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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California Veh. Code § 42003(a) Penalties - Public Offense: Payment of fines; Consideration of defendant’s ability to pay

A judgment that a person convicted of an infraction be punished by a fine may also provide for the payment to be made within a specified time or in specified

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installments.

Payment plan/installment plan Traffic No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1462.5 Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: Proration of fines, penalties, forfeitures, and fees

Each installment or partial payment of a fine, penalty, forfeiture or fee shall be prorated among the state and local shares according to the uniform accounting system established by the

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State Controller pursuant to Section 71380 of the Government Code. In cases subject to Section 1463.18 of the Penal Code, proration shall not occur until the minimum amounts have been transferred to the Restitution Fund as provided in that section.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1463.010(f) Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: Enforcement of court orders; Guidelines for collection program; Annual report; Business license suspension program; Amnesty

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Judicial Council, after consultation with the Franchise Tax Board with respect to collections under Section 19280 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, may

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provide for an amnesty program involving the collection of outstanding fees, fines, forfeitures, penalties, and assessments, applicable either statewide or within one or more counties. The amnesty program shall provide that some or all of the interest or collections costs imposed on outstanding fees, fines, forfeitures, penalties, and assessments may be waived if the remaining amounts due are paid within the amnesty period.

Collection fee/interest All No
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.435(b) Sentencing on revocation of probation, mandatory supervision, and postrelease community supervision

(b) On revocation and termination of probation under section 1203.2, when the sentencing judge determines that the defendant will be committed to prison or county jail under section 1170(h):(1) If

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the imposition of sentence was previously suspended, the judge must impose judgment and sentence after considering any findings previously made and hearing and determining the matters enumerated in rule 4.433(c).The length of the sentence must be based on circumstances existing at the time probation was granted, and subsequent events may not be considered in selecting the base term or in deciding whether to strike the additional punishment for enhancements charged and found.

Incarceration All No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 273a(c)(3)(B) Endangering child or causing or permitting child to suffer physical pain, mental suffering, or injury; Conditions of probation

(B) The terms of probation for offenders shall not be lifted until all reasonable fees due to the counseling program have been paid in full, but in no case shall

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probation be extended beyond the term provided in subdivision (a) of Section 1203.1. If the court finds that the defendant does not have the ability to pay the fees based on the defendant’s changed circumstances, the court may reduce or waive the fees.

Condition or extension of supervision Misdemeanor, Felony No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1202.43(b) Payment of restitution fine

(b) A restitution fine shall be deemed a debt of the defendant owing to the state for the purposes of Sections 12418 and 12419.5 of the Government Code, excepting any

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amounts the defendant has paid to the victim as a result of the crime. Upon request by the Controller, the district attorney of a county or the Attorney General may take any necessary action to recover amounts owing on a restitution fine. The amount of the recovery shall be increased by a sum sufficient to cover any costs incurred by any state or local agency in the administration of this section. The remedies provided by this subdivision are in addition to any other remedies provided by law for the enforcement of a judgment.

Collection fee/interest Misdemeanor, Felony No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1205(b) Judgment imposing fine; Imprisonment pending payment; Default; Fee for processing accounts receivable; Limitation

(b) Except as otherwise provided in case of fines imposed, as a condition of probation, the defendant shall pay the fine to the clerk of the court, or to the

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judge if there is no clerk, unless the defendant is taken into custody for nonpayment of the fine, in which event payments made while he or she is in custody shall be made to the officer who holds the defendant in custody, and all amounts paid shall be paid over by the officer to the court that rendered the judgment. The clerk shall report to the court every default in payment of a fine or any part of that fine, or if there is no clerk, the court shall take notice of the default. If time has been given for payment of a fine or it has been made payable in installments, the court shall, upon any default in payment, immediately order the arrest of the defendant and order him or her to show cause why he or she should not be imprisoned until the fine or installment is satisfied in full. If the fine or installment is payable forthwith and it is not paid, the court shall, without further proceedings, immediately commit the defendant to the custody of the proper officer to be held in custody until the fine or installment is satisfied in full.

Incarceration Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-18-114 Record and disbursement of wages; exemption from process; confidentiality of amount

(a) Wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender while in an adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed

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for the purposes provided in this subsection and in the order specified: (i) Personal necessities; (ii) Room and board to the program operator at a rate to be established by the department; (iii) Support of dependent relations; (iv) Court ordered restitution, fines, sanctions and reimbursement for the services of public defender or court appointed counsel, the surcharge imposed under W.S. 1-40-119, victims compensation obligations under W.S. 1-40-112(g) and the surcharge imposed under W.S. 7-13-1616; (v) Repealed by Laws 1999, ch. 62, § 2. (vi) Costs of health insurance; and (vii) Remaining funds shall be paid to the inmate, parolee or offender upon parole or final discharge.

(b) Wages earned by offenders, other than parolees or inmates, while in a residential adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed only for the purposes and in the order specified in subsection (a) of this section unless otherwise ordered by the sentencing court. Any remaining funds shall be paid to the offender upon his satisfactory discharge from the program. Upon revocation of an offender's probation, the program operator shall forward any remaining funds to the court or to the institution to which the offender is sentenced as directed by the court.

(c) Program operators shall keep an accurate record and account of all wages earned by inmates, parolees and offenders pursuant to the rules promulgated by the department.

(d) The earnings of inmates under this act are not subject to garnishment, attachment or execution.

(e) Information relating to the amount of wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender in an adult community corrections program is confidential and is not subject to public inspection.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-16-101 Persons subject to required work

(a) The sentencing court may require the following persons to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104: (i) Persons sentenced to a definite term of imprisonment in the county jail,

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whether or not a fine is imposed as a part of the sentence; (ii) Persons committed to jail pursuant to W.S. 6-10-105 for refusal to pay a fine or costs; and (iii) Persons for whom work is imposed as a condition of probation pursuant to W.S. 7-13-304(b). (b) No person charged with a crime and awaiting the action of the grand jury or awaiting trial shall be required to perform work pursuant to W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104.

Condition or extension of supervision, Work program/jail industry program All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day

A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or

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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-11-504 Commitment until fine and costs paid

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine or costs defaults in payment, the court may order the defendant to show cause why he should not be committed to jail.

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If the court finds that the defendant's default is willful or is due to a failure on defendant's part to make a good faith effort to obtain the funds required for the payment and the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, the court may order him committed until the fine or costs, or a specified part thereof, is paid. The defendant shall be given a credit for each day of imprisonment at the rate provided by W.S. 6 10 105, and may earn additional credits against his fine or costs for work performed as provided by W.S. 7 16 101 through 7 16 104.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-16-104 Labor by prisoners. County jail. Credits.

7-16-104. Credits. (a) The sentencing court may reduce the term of a sentence, fine, costs or attorney fees of a prisoner sentenced to imprisonment or placed on probation, for work

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performed under W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104.

(b) If a reduction is ordered pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the reduction shall be: (i) At the rate of one (1) day for each eight (8) hours of work performed under W.S. 7-16-101 through 7-16-104, provided the reduction in sentence shall not exceed one-half (1/2) of the original sentence; (ii) In an amount equal to the federal minimum hourly wage for each hour of work performed provided that the total amount of reduction in the fine, costs or attorney fees shall not exceed one-half (1/2) of the total amount of the fine, costs and attorney fees.

(c) The court shall direct whether the credits under subsection (b) of this section shall apply against the prisoner's term of imprisonment, his fine, court costs, attorney fees or other fees imposed by the court.

(d) A person committed to county jail for refusal to pay a fine or costs shall, in addition to the credit allowed by W.S. 6-10-105, be granted a credit against his fine or costs in an amount equal to the federal minimum hourly wage for each hour of work performed.

Work program/jail industry program All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day

A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or

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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.

Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 31-9-305 Payment of judgments in installments; failure to meet payments

(a) A judgment debtor upon notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying the judgment in installments and

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the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

(b) The division shall not suspend a license, registration or a nonresident's operating privilege, and shall restore any license, registration or nonresident's operating privilege suspended following nonpayment of a judgment, when the judgment debtor gives proof of financial responsibility and obtains an order permitting the payment of the judgment in installments, and while the payment of any installment is not in default.

(c) If the judgment debtor fails to pay any installment as specified by the order, then upon notice of default, the division shall suspend the license, registration or nonresident's operating privilege of the judgment debtor until the judgment is fully satisfied, as provided in this act.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment, Payment plan/installment plan All No