Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.335(4)(B) Ability to pay determination for infraction offenses the court may exercise its discretion to: . . . (B) Allow the defendant to complete community service in lieu of paying the total fine (if available) Community service Misdemeanor No
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.335(4)(A) Ability to pay determination for infraction offenses the court may exercise its discretion to: (A) Provide for payment on an installment plan Payment plan/installment plan Misdemeanor No
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California CA ST J ADMIN STANDARDS Standard 4.40 Traffic infraction procedures
to insure the prompt and efficient disposition of traffic infraction cases, each court should:(1) Authorize the clerk, within limits set by the court, to grant defendants extensions of time for
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the posting of bail and payment of fines.
Payment plan/installment plan Traffic No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 166(e)(2) Contempt of court; Stalking; Punishments

...If probation is granted upon conviction of a violation of subdivision (c), the conditions of probation may include, in lieu of a fine, one or both of the following requirements:(A)

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That the defendant make payments to a battered women’s shelter, up to a maximum of one thousand dollars ($1,000). (B) That the defendant provide restitution to reimburse the victim for reasonable costs of counseling and other reasonable expenses that the court finds are the direct result of the defendant’s offense.

Collection fee/interest Misdemeanor No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 594(c), (f) Vandalism; Punishment

(c) Upon conviction of any person under this section for acts of vandalism consisting of defacing property with graffiti or other inscribed materials, the court shall, when appropriate and feasible, in

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addition to any punishment imposed under subdivision (b), order the defendant to clean up, repair, or replace the damaged property himself or herself, or order the defendant, and his or her parents or guardians if the defendant is a minor, to keep the damaged property or another specified property in the community free of graffiti for up to one year. Participation of a parent or guardian is not required under this subdivision if the court deems this participation to be detrimental to the defendant, or if the parent or guardian is a single parent who must care for young children. If the court finds that graffiti cleanup is inappropriate, the court shall consider other types of community service, where feasible....

(f) The court may order any person ordered to perform community service or graffiti removal pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) to undergo counseling.

Community service Misdemeanor Yes
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1465.7(f) Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: State surcharge; Transmittal to General Fund; Construction with Vehicle Code provisions

When amounts owed by an offender as a result of a conviction are paid in installment payments, payments shall be credited pursuant to Section 1203.1d. The amount of the surcharge

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established by this section shall be transmitted to the State Treasury prior to the county retaining or disbursing the remaining amount of the fines, penalties, and forfeitures imposed.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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California Veh. Code § 42003(a) Penalties - Public Offense: Payment of fines; Consideration of defendant’s ability to pay

A judgment that a person convicted of an infraction be punished by a fine may also provide for the payment to be made within a specified time or in specified

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installments.

Payment plan/installment plan Traffic No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1462.5 Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: Proration of fines, penalties, forfeitures, and fees

Each installment or partial payment of a fine, penalty, forfeiture or fee shall be prorated among the state and local shares according to the uniform accounting system established by the

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State Controller pursuant to Section 71380 of the Government Code. In cases subject to Section 1463.18 of the Penal Code, proration shall not occur until the minimum amounts have been transferred to the Restitution Fund as provided in that section.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1463.010(f) Proceedings in Misdemeanor and Infraction Cases: Enforcement of court orders; Guidelines for collection program; Annual report; Business license suspension program; Amnesty

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Judicial Council, after consultation with the Franchise Tax Board with respect to collections under Section 19280 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, may

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provide for an amnesty program involving the collection of outstanding fees, fines, forfeitures, penalties, and assessments, applicable either statewide or within one or more counties. The amnesty program shall provide that some or all of the interest or collections costs imposed on outstanding fees, fines, forfeitures, penalties, and assessments may be waived if the remaining amounts due are paid within the amnesty period.

Collection fee/interest All No
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.435(b) Sentencing on revocation of probation, mandatory supervision, and postrelease community supervision

(b) On revocation and termination of probation under section 1203.2, when the sentencing judge determines that the defendant will be committed to prison or county jail under section 1170(h):(1) If

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the imposition of sentence was previously suspended, the judge must impose judgment and sentence after considering any findings previously made and hearing and determining the matters enumerated in rule 4.433(c).The length of the sentence must be based on circumstances existing at the time probation was granted, and subsequent events may not be considered in selecting the base term or in deciding whether to strike the additional punishment for enhancements charged and found.

Incarceration All No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 273a(c)(3)(B) Endangering child or causing or permitting child to suffer physical pain, mental suffering, or injury; Conditions of probation

(B) The terms of probation for offenders shall not be lifted until all reasonable fees due to the counseling program have been paid in full, but in no case shall

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probation be extended beyond the term provided in subdivision (a) of Section 1203.1. If the court finds that the defendant does not have the ability to pay the fees based on the defendant’s changed circumstances, the court may reduce or waive the fees.

Condition or extension of supervision Misdemeanor, Felony No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1202.43(b) Payment of restitution fine

(b) A restitution fine shall be deemed a debt of the defendant owing to the state for the purposes of Sections 12418 and 12419.5 of the Government Code, excepting any

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amounts the defendant has paid to the victim as a result of the crime. Upon request by the Controller, the district attorney of a county or the Attorney General may take any necessary action to recover amounts owing on a restitution fine. The amount of the recovery shall be increased by a sum sufficient to cover any costs incurred by any state or local agency in the administration of this section. The remedies provided by this subdivision are in addition to any other remedies provided by law for the enforcement of a judgment.

Collection fee/interest Misdemeanor, Felony No
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California Cal. Pen. Code § 1205(b) Judgment imposing fine; Imprisonment pending payment; Default; Fee for processing accounts receivable; Limitation

(b) Except as otherwise provided in case of fines imposed, as a condition of probation, the defendant shall pay the fine to the clerk of the court, or to the

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judge if there is no clerk, unless the defendant is taken into custody for nonpayment of the fine, in which event payments made while he or she is in custody shall be made to the officer who holds the defendant in custody, and all amounts paid shall be paid over by the officer to the court that rendered the judgment. The clerk shall report to the court every default in payment of a fine or any part of that fine, or if there is no clerk, the court shall take notice of the default. If time has been given for payment of a fine or it has been made payable in installments, the court shall, upon any default in payment, immediately order the arrest of the defendant and order him or her to show cause why he or she should not be imprisoned until the fine or installment is satisfied in full. If the fine or installment is payable forthwith and it is not paid, the court shall, without further proceedings, immediately commit the defendant to the custody of the proper officer to be held in custody until the fine or installment is satisfied in full.

Incarceration Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Minnesota Minn. Stat. Ann. § 609.101(5)(c) Surcharge on Fines, Assessments; Minimum Fines

The court also may authorize payment of the fine in installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Minnesota Minn. Stat. Ann. § 609.135(1)(d),(1a) Stay of Imposition or Execution of Sentence

(d) If the court orders a fine, day-fine, or restitution as an intermediate sanction, payment is due on the date imposed unless the court otherwise establishes a due date or

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a payment plan.

Subd. 1a. Failure to pay restitution. If the court orders payment of restitution as a condition of probation and if the defendant fails to pay the restitution in accordance with the payment schedule or structure established by the court or the probation officer, the prosecutor or the defendant's probation officer may, on the prosecutor's or the officer's own motion or at the request of the victim, ask the court to hold a hearing to determine whether or not the conditions of probation should be changed or probation should be revoked. The defendant's probation officer shall ask for the hearing if the restitution ordered has not been paid prior to 60 days before the term of probation expires. The court shall schedule and hold this hearing and take appropriate action, including action under subdivision 2, paragraph (g), before the defendant's term of probation expires. Nothing in this subdivision limits the court's ability to refer the case to collections under section 609.104 when a defendant fails to pay court-ordered restitution.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Minnesota Minn. Stat. Ann. § 480.15(10c)(c) State Court Administrator: Powers and Duties

As determined by the state court administrator, collection costs shall be added to the debts referred to a public or private collection entity for collection.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Minnesota Minn. Stat. Ann. § 609.3455(8)(c) Dangerous sex offenders; life sentences; conditional release

If the offender fails to meet any condition of release, the commissioner may revoke the offender's conditional release and order that the offender serve all or a part of the

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remaining portion of the conditional release term in prison. An offender, while on supervised release, is not entitled to credit against the offender's conditional release term for time served in confinement for a violation of release.

Condition or extension of supervision, Incarceration All No
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Minnesota Minn. Stat. Ann. § 628.29(4) Pretrial diversion program for writers of dishonored checks

Program components. (a) At a minimum, the pretrial diversion program must require offenders to:
(1) successfully complete an appropriate educational class or classes at their own expense which includes information

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on writing checks and managing money;
(2) make full restitution to the victim of the offense; and
(3) pay appropriate penalties under section 604.113, subdivision 2, paragraph (a).
 

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Minnesota M.S.A. § 609.135(1) Stay of imposition or execution of sentence

Except when a sentence of life imprisonment is required by law, or when a mandatory minimum sentence is required by section 609.11, any court may stay imposition or execution of

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sentence and:
(1) may order intermediate sanctions without placing the defendant on probation; or
(2) may place the defendant on probation with or without supervision and on the terms the court prescribes, including intermediate sanctions when practicable . . .
(b) For purposes of this subdivision, subdivision 6, and section 609.14, the term “intermediate sanctions” includes but is not limited to incarceration in a local jail or workhouse, home detention, electronic monitoring, intensive probation, sentencing to service, reporting to a day reporting center, chemical dependency or mental health treatment or counseling, restitution, fines, day-fines, community work service, work service in a restorative justice program, work in lieu of or to work off fines and, with the victim's consent, work in lieu of or to work off restitution.

Condition or extension of supervision All No