Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-8.1 Fee For Legal Defense Services as Condition of Probation

In any case in which a defendant receives legal defense services pursuant to Chapter 12 of Title 17 where the defendant has not paid the application fee required by Code

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Section 15-21A-6 and the court has not waived such fee at the time of sentencing, the court shall impose such fee as a condition of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-20(c) Collection of Fines and Restitution in Criminal Cases

If the fine or restitution is not paid in full, such judgment may be enforced by instituting any procedure for execution upon the writ of fieri facias through levy, foreclosure,

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garnishment, and all other actions provided for the enforcement of judgments in the State of Georgia and in other states and foreign nations where such judgment is afforded full faith and credit under the Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Act or domestication thereof.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-102(f)(4) Fixing of Sentence; Supervision or Probation of Sentence; Change in Sentence; Eligibility For Parole; Prohibited Modifications; Exceptions

(A) For failure to report to probation or failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community

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service, modification of the terms of probation, or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall consider whether a failure to pay court imposed financial obligations was willful. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed 120 days in confinement, whichever is less; and (B) For failure to comply with any other general provision of probation or suspension, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community service or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed two years in confinement, whichever is less.

Community service All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-102(f)(2) Probation and Supervision; Determination of Fees, Fines, and Restitution; Converting Moneys Owed to Community Service or Educational Advancement; Community Jurisdiction; Revocation; Transfer

(A)  When the sole basis for a probation revocation is for failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees, the probationer shall be scheduled to appear on the

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court's next available court calendar for a hearing on such issue. No prehearing arrest warrant shall be issued under such circumstances. Absent a waiver, the court shall not revoke a probationary sentence for failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees without holding a hearing, inquiring into the reasons for the probationer's failure to pay, and, if a probationary sentence is revoked, making an express written determination that the probationer has not made sufficient bona fide efforts to pay and the probationer's failure to pay was willful or that adequate alternative types of punishment do not exist. Should the probationer fail to appear at such hearing, the court may, in its discretion, revoke the probated sentence. (B)  A person otherwise found eligible to have his or her probation modified or terminated pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not be deemed ineligible for modification or termination of probation solely due to his or her failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-103 Pay-Only Probation; Discharge or Termination of Probation

(a)  As used in this Code section, the term "pay-only probation" means a defendant has been placed under probation supervision solely because such defendant is unable to pay the court imposed

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fines and statutory surcharges when such defendant's sentence is imposed. Such term shall not include circumstances when restitution has been imposed or other probation services are deemed appropriate by the court; (b)  When pay-only probation is imposed, the total maximum fee collected shall be capped so as not to exceed three months of ordinary probation supervision fees at a monthly rate not to exceed the rate set forth in the contract between the court and the provider of services, notwithstanding the number of cases for which a fine and statutory surcharge were imposed or that the defendant was sentenced to serve consecutive sentences; provided, however, that collection of such fee shall terminate as soon as all court imposed fines and statutory surcharges are paid in full; and provided, further, that when all such fines and statutory surcharges are paid in full, the probation officer or private probation officer, as the case may be, shall submit an order to the court terminating the probated sentence within 30 days of fulfillment of such conditions. Within 90 days of receiving such order, the court shall issue an order terminating such probated sentence or issue an order stating why such probated sentence shall continue; (c)  If pay-only probation is subsequently converted to a sentence that requires community service, on petition by a probation officer or private probation officer and with the probationer having an opportunity for a hearing, the court may reinstate probation supervision fees as necessary to monitor the probationer's compliance with community service obligations; (d)  When a defendant is serving pay-only probation, upon motion by the defendant, the court may discharge such defendant from further supervision or otherwise terminate probation when it is satisfied that its action would be in the best interest of justice and the welfare of society.

Increased fine All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 40-6-189(a)-(c) Classification as Super Speeder; Fees

(a)  As used in this Code section, the term "department" means the Department of Driver Services;  (b)  In addition to any other fines or penalties imposed by any local jurisdiction or the

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department, the department shall administer and collect a fee of $200.00 from any driver who is convicted of driving at a speed of 85 miles per hour or more on any road or highway or 75 miles per hour or more on any two-lane road or highway, as defined in Code Section 40-6-187. Such a driver, upon conviction, shall be classified as a "super speeder;"  (c)  The department shall notify offenders of the imposition of a fee under this Code section within 30 days after receipt of a qualifying ticket and notice of conviction. Failure to pay the fee imposed by this Code section within 90 days after receipt of the notice shall result in the suspension of the driver's license or driving privileges of the offender, and, in addition to the existing fees and penalties, a fee of $50.00 shall be assessed, payable upon the application for reinstatement of the driver's license or driving privileges. Notice shall be provided by the department to the offender by first-class mail to the address shown on the records of the department. Such mailed notice shall be adequate notification of the fee imposed by this Code section and of the offender's ability to avoid a driver's license suspension by paying the fee prior to the effective date of the suspension. No other notice shall be required to make the driver's license suspension effective.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment, Increased fine Traffic Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-34(e)(3)(A)(iii);(e)(3)(B) Sentencing Hearings and Determinations; Presentence Investigations; Payment of Fees, Fines, and Costs; Post-Conviction, Presentence Bond; Continuing Jurisdiction; Transferal of Probation Supervision

(iii)  "Significant financial hardship" means a reasonable probability that an individual will be unable to satisfy his or her financial obligations for two or more consecutive months;  (B)  The court shall waive,

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modify, or convert fines, statutory surcharges, probation supervision fees, and any other moneys assessed by the court or a provider of probation services upon a determination by the court prior to or subsequent to sentencing that a defendant has a significant financial hardship or inability to pay or that there are any other extenuating factors which prohibit payment or collection; provided, however, that the imposition of sanctions for failure to pay such sums shall be within the discretion of the court through judicial process or hearings.

All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-34.2(a) Delinquency of Defendant in Payment of Fines, Costs, or Restitution or Reparation; Costs of Garnishment

In the event that a defendant is delinquent in the payment of fines, costs, or restitution or reparation, as was ordered by the court as a condition of probation, the

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defendant's officer shall be authorized, but shall not be required, to execute a sworn affidavit wherein the amount of arrearage is set out. In addition, the affidavit shall contain a succinct statement as to what efforts DCS has made in trying to collect the delinquent amount. The affidavit shall then be submitted to the sentencing court for approval. Upon signature and approval of the court, such arrearage shall then be collectable through issuance of a writ of fieri facias by the clerk of the sentencing court; and DCS may enforce such collection through any judicial or other process or procedure which may be used by the holder of a writ of execution arising from a civil action.

Civil judgment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 15-9-62(a) Issuance of Writ of Fieri Facias for Fees; Defenses

Whenever any costs are due the judge of the probate court by executors, administrators, or guardians, upon failure to pay the same on demand made, he is empowered to issue

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a writ of fieri facias at any regular term of court against the executors, administrators, or guardians for the amount due for costs at the time of the demand.

Civil judgment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-6-1.1(1);(2) Electronic Pretrial Release and Monitoring Program for Defendants; Requirements; Procedures; Fees

(1)  As an additional condition of electronic pretrial release and monitoring, a defendant authorized to participate in such program by the court shall pay a reasonable, nonrefundable fee for program enrollment,

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equipment use, and monitoring to the provider of such program. If a bonding company, bonding agent, or probation service provider is the provider, the fees earned in the capacity of being such a provider shall be in addition to the fees allowed in Code Sections 17-6-30, 42-8-34, and 42-8-102; (2)  The fees connected with the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program shall be timely paid by a defendant as a condition of his or her ongoing participation in the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program in accordance with the terms for such programs as approved by the court. Failure to make timely payments shall constitute a violation of the terms of the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program and shall result in the defendant's immediate return to custody.

Incarceration All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 604-A:9(I) Repayment

The state may collect from the defendant a service charge of up to 10 percent of the total amount of fees and expenses owed by such defendant.

Collection fee/interest All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 263:56-a Suspension or Revocation for Default, Noncompliance, or Nonpayment of Fine

Whenever any defendant: . . . (b) Fails to pay a fine or other penalty imposed in connection with a conviction of any offense which a court has determined he

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is able to pay, or issues a bad check in payment of a fine or other penalty; or (c) Fails to comply with a similar order of the director or a court on any matter within the director's or court's jurisdiction, his driver's license or resident or nonresident driving privilege and in any motor vehicle case or related case the resident plates and motor vehicle registration shall be suspended or revoked only upon written consent of the director, effective 30 days after such default or failure, except as provided in subparagraph I(d) of this section.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 631:2-b Domestic Violence

In addition to any other penalty authorized by law, the court shall levy a fine of $50 for each conviction under this section. If the court determines that the defendant

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is unable to pay the fine on the date imposed, the court may defer payment or order periodic payments thereof. Fines imposed under this section shall not be subject to an additional penalty assessment. The clerk shall forward all fines collected under this paragraph to the department of health and human services for the purposes of RSA 173-B:15.

Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 504-A:13(I) Supervision and Service Charges

The court shall establish a supervision fee for probationers, and the parole board shall establish a supervision fee for parolees. The fee shall not be less than $40 a month,

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unless waived in whole or in part by the court, board or commissioner, and may be any greater amount as established by the court or board. This fee shall be considered a condition of release, and failure to satisfy this obligation shall be grounds for a violation hearing, unless the probationer or parolee has been found to be indigent and, for that reason, unable to pay the fee. Service charges for collection of fines and fees, other than supervision fees, shall be established at 10 percent of the funds collected.

Collection fee/interest, Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 490:26-a(II-a) Court Fees and Fines; Credit Card Payments

The supreme court may establish by rule an equitable fee of not less than $25 to be added to a fine whenever a court extends the time for the payment

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of the fine. An equitable fee assessed by a court under this paragraph shall be paid prior to or simultaneously with the payment of the fine.

Collection fee/interest All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 618:7 Execution

A writ of execution may be issued for any fine in a criminal case, notwithstanding the respondent may be committed or detained in a county correctional facility for nonpayment thereof,

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and if the fine is collected upon the execution, the convict shall not be further detained on account thereof.

Incarceration All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 618:6 Place of Committal

Any person sentenced to pay a fine shall be ordered to be imprisoned until sentence is performed, or he or she is otherwise legally discharged, in the county correctional facility

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in which the crime was committed. This section shall not be construed as authorizing the confinement of any juvenile under the age of 17 years in a county correctional facility for the nonpayment of a fine.

Incarceration All Yes
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 651:22 Jurisdiction Over and Disposition of Wages and Income

In any criminal case, in addition to such other terms and conditions as may be imposed by the court, a defendant who has received a suspended sentence or who has

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been released under RSA 651:19 may be required by the court to surrender to the department of corrections or other agency designated by the court all or part of his wages or other income, less standard payroll deduction required by law, earned during the time he is not confined under the sentence. The court may direct that, after deducting therefrom the cost of his maintenance while not confined, the balance be applied as needed for restitution payments made to authorized claimants pursuant to RSA 651:62 through 66 and for the support and maintenance of his dependents. Any balance after such applications shall be deposited in a savings account to be released to him or applied as needed for restitution payments or the support of his dependents as the court may order, or applied to the designated cost of room and board at the institution for the period of time during which the inmate is working before the expiration of his sentence. Upon expiration of his sentence the balance remaining shall be paid to him or his order.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 651:64(I),(III) Time and Method of Restitution

I. The time and method of restitution payments or performance of restitution services shall be specified by the department of corrections. Monetary restitution may be by lump sum, or by

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periodic installments in any amounts.

III. The department may garnish the offender's wages for the purpose of ensuring payment of victim restitution.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 651:67(I) Failure to Make Restitution

Any offender who is sentenced to make restitution under RSA 651:63, and who purposely violates the court's order by either failing to make restitution or by defaulting in the payment

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or performance of the restitution authorized, may be prosecuted for contempt.

Incarceration All No