Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-8.1 Fee For Legal Defense Services as Condition of Probation

In any case in which a defendant receives legal defense services pursuant to Chapter 12 of Title 17 where the defendant has not paid the application fee required by Code

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Section 15-21A-6 and the court has not waived such fee at the time of sentencing, the court shall impose such fee as a condition of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-20(c) Collection of Fines and Restitution in Criminal Cases

If the fine or restitution is not paid in full, such judgment may be enforced by instituting any procedure for execution upon the writ of fieri facias through levy, foreclosure,

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garnishment, and all other actions provided for the enforcement of judgments in the State of Georgia and in other states and foreign nations where such judgment is afforded full faith and credit under the Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Act or domestication thereof.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-102(f)(4) Fixing of Sentence; Supervision or Probation of Sentence; Change in Sentence; Eligibility For Parole; Prohibited Modifications; Exceptions

(A) For failure to report to probation or failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community

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service, modification of the terms of probation, or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall consider whether a failure to pay court imposed financial obligations was willful. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed 120 days in confinement, whichever is less; and (B) For failure to comply with any other general provision of probation or suspension, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community service or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed two years in confinement, whichever is less.

Community service All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-102(f)(2) Probation and Supervision; Determination of Fees, Fines, and Restitution; Converting Moneys Owed to Community Service or Educational Advancement; Community Jurisdiction; Revocation; Transfer

(A)  When the sole basis for a probation revocation is for failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees, the probationer shall be scheduled to appear on the

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court's next available court calendar for a hearing on such issue. No prehearing arrest warrant shall be issued under such circumstances. Absent a waiver, the court shall not revoke a probationary sentence for failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees without holding a hearing, inquiring into the reasons for the probationer's failure to pay, and, if a probationary sentence is revoked, making an express written determination that the probationer has not made sufficient bona fide efforts to pay and the probationer's failure to pay was willful or that adequate alternative types of punishment do not exist. Should the probationer fail to appear at such hearing, the court may, in its discretion, revoke the probated sentence. (B)  A person otherwise found eligible to have his or her probation modified or terminated pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not be deemed ineligible for modification or termination of probation solely due to his or her failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-103 Pay-Only Probation; Discharge or Termination of Probation

(a)  As used in this Code section, the term "pay-only probation" means a defendant has been placed under probation supervision solely because such defendant is unable to pay the court imposed

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fines and statutory surcharges when such defendant's sentence is imposed. Such term shall not include circumstances when restitution has been imposed or other probation services are deemed appropriate by the court; (b)  When pay-only probation is imposed, the total maximum fee collected shall be capped so as not to exceed three months of ordinary probation supervision fees at a monthly rate not to exceed the rate set forth in the contract between the court and the provider of services, notwithstanding the number of cases for which a fine and statutory surcharge were imposed or that the defendant was sentenced to serve consecutive sentences; provided, however, that collection of such fee shall terminate as soon as all court imposed fines and statutory surcharges are paid in full; and provided, further, that when all such fines and statutory surcharges are paid in full, the probation officer or private probation officer, as the case may be, shall submit an order to the court terminating the probated sentence within 30 days of fulfillment of such conditions. Within 90 days of receiving such order, the court shall issue an order terminating such probated sentence or issue an order stating why such probated sentence shall continue; (c)  If pay-only probation is subsequently converted to a sentence that requires community service, on petition by a probation officer or private probation officer and with the probationer having an opportunity for a hearing, the court may reinstate probation supervision fees as necessary to monitor the probationer's compliance with community service obligations; (d)  When a defendant is serving pay-only probation, upon motion by the defendant, the court may discharge such defendant from further supervision or otherwise terminate probation when it is satisfied that its action would be in the best interest of justice and the welfare of society.

Increased fine All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 40-6-189(a)-(c) Classification as Super Speeder; Fees

(a)  As used in this Code section, the term "department" means the Department of Driver Services;  (b)  In addition to any other fines or penalties imposed by any local jurisdiction or the

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department, the department shall administer and collect a fee of $200.00 from any driver who is convicted of driving at a speed of 85 miles per hour or more on any road or highway or 75 miles per hour or more on any two-lane road or highway, as defined in Code Section 40-6-187. Such a driver, upon conviction, shall be classified as a "super speeder;"  (c)  The department shall notify offenders of the imposition of a fee under this Code section within 30 days after receipt of a qualifying ticket and notice of conviction. Failure to pay the fee imposed by this Code section within 90 days after receipt of the notice shall result in the suspension of the driver's license or driving privileges of the offender, and, in addition to the existing fees and penalties, a fee of $50.00 shall be assessed, payable upon the application for reinstatement of the driver's license or driving privileges. Notice shall be provided by the department to the offender by first-class mail to the address shown on the records of the department. Such mailed notice shall be adequate notification of the fee imposed by this Code section and of the offender's ability to avoid a driver's license suspension by paying the fee prior to the effective date of the suspension. No other notice shall be required to make the driver's license suspension effective.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment, Increased fine Traffic Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-34(e)(3)(A)(iii);(e)(3)(B) Sentencing Hearings and Determinations; Presentence Investigations; Payment of Fees, Fines, and Costs; Post-Conviction, Presentence Bond; Continuing Jurisdiction; Transferal of Probation Supervision

(iii)  "Significant financial hardship" means a reasonable probability that an individual will be unable to satisfy his or her financial obligations for two or more consecutive months;  (B)  The court shall waive,

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modify, or convert fines, statutory surcharges, probation supervision fees, and any other moneys assessed by the court or a provider of probation services upon a determination by the court prior to or subsequent to sentencing that a defendant has a significant financial hardship or inability to pay or that there are any other extenuating factors which prohibit payment or collection; provided, however, that the imposition of sanctions for failure to pay such sums shall be within the discretion of the court through judicial process or hearings.

All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-34.2(a) Delinquency of Defendant in Payment of Fines, Costs, or Restitution or Reparation; Costs of Garnishment

In the event that a defendant is delinquent in the payment of fines, costs, or restitution or reparation, as was ordered by the court as a condition of probation, the

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defendant's officer shall be authorized, but shall not be required, to execute a sworn affidavit wherein the amount of arrearage is set out. In addition, the affidavit shall contain a succinct statement as to what efforts DCS has made in trying to collect the delinquent amount. The affidavit shall then be submitted to the sentencing court for approval. Upon signature and approval of the court, such arrearage shall then be collectable through issuance of a writ of fieri facias by the clerk of the sentencing court; and DCS may enforce such collection through any judicial or other process or procedure which may be used by the holder of a writ of execution arising from a civil action.

Civil judgment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 15-9-62(a) Issuance of Writ of Fieri Facias for Fees; Defenses

Whenever any costs are due the judge of the probate court by executors, administrators, or guardians, upon failure to pay the same on demand made, he is empowered to issue

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a writ of fieri facias at any regular term of court against the executors, administrators, or guardians for the amount due for costs at the time of the demand.

Civil judgment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-6-1.1(1);(2) Electronic Pretrial Release and Monitoring Program for Defendants; Requirements; Procedures; Fees

(1)  As an additional condition of electronic pretrial release and monitoring, a defendant authorized to participate in such program by the court shall pay a reasonable, nonrefundable fee for program enrollment,

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equipment use, and monitoring to the provider of such program. If a bonding company, bonding agent, or probation service provider is the provider, the fees earned in the capacity of being such a provider shall be in addition to the fees allowed in Code Sections 17-6-30, 42-8-34, and 42-8-102; (2)  The fees connected with the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program shall be timely paid by a defendant as a condition of his or her ongoing participation in the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program in accordance with the terms for such programs as approved by the court. Failure to make timely payments shall constitute a violation of the terms of the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program and shall result in the defendant's immediate return to custody.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-60 Installment payments

A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which such judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments

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and the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-62 Failure to pay installments--Suspension of licenses.

In the event the judgment debtor referred to in § 32-35-61 fails to pay any installment as specified by such order, then upon notice of such default, the Department of

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Public Safety shall forthwith suspend the license or nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall forthwith suspend the registration of the judgment debtor until such judgment is satisfied, as provided in this chapter.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-23-4.10 Costs payable to county--Nonpayment punishable by contempt.

In addition to any other penalty, assessment, or fine provided by law, the court shall order any person convicted of a crime for a violation of § 32-23-1 to remit

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costs in the amount of fifty dollars to the clerk of courts. The clerk of courts shall forward any amount collected pursuant to this section to the county treasurer for deposit in the county general fund. Failure to remit the amount to the clerk of courts in the time specified by the court is punishable by contempt proceedings.

Incarceration All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-47-6 Failure to comply with plan of restitution or of financial obligation constitutes violation of conditions — Modification of plan — Contempt

Failure of any individual in this system to comply with the plan of restitution or plan for financial obligations as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of

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the conditions within this system. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or financial obligation, extend the period of time for restitution or financial obligation, or continue the individual in the administrative financial accountability system. If the individual fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the individual may be held in contempt of the court’s order.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-10 Funds of defendant — Order for reimbursement — Applicability — Credit against lien

If the court finds that funds are available for payment from or on behalf of a defendant to carry out, in whole or in part, the provisions of this chapter,

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the court may order that the funds be paid, as court costs or as a condition of probation, to the court for deposit with the county or municipal treasurer, to be placed in the county or municipal general fund or in the public defender fund in those counties establishing the office pursuant to subdivision 23A-40-7(1) as a reimbursement to the county or municipality to carry out the provisions of this section. The court may also order payment to be made in the form of installments or wage assignments, in amounts set by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge, either during the time a charge is pending or after the disposition of the charge, regardless of whether the defendant has been acquitted or the case has been dismissed by the prosecution or by order of the court. The provisions of this section also apply to persons who have had counsel appointed under chapters 26-7A, 26-8A, 26-8B, and 26-8C. The reimbursement is a credit against any lien created by the provisions of this chapter against the property of the defendant.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-11 Lien for cost of provision of counsel — Limitation

A lien, enforceable as provided by this chapter, upon all the property, both real and personal, of any person, including the parents of a minor child, for whom legal counsel

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or a public defender has been appointed under the provisions of § 23A-40-6, subdivisions 23A-40-7(2) and (3), or § 26-7A-31 may be filed. The services rendered and expenses incurred are a claim against the person and that person's estate, enforceable according to law in an amount to be determined by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge and paid by the county or municipality chargeable for them. A lien on the parents of a minor child pursuant to this section may not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars plus an amount equal to any taxable court costs.

Property liens All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-52 Suspension of license for failure to pay judgment

The Department of Public Safety upon receipt of a certified copy of a judgment shall forthwith suspend the license and any nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall

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forthwith suspend the registration of any person against whom such judgment was rendered except as provided in §§ 32-35-53 to 32-35-56, inclusive.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-57 Length of suspension pursuant to Section 32-35-52

A license, registration, and nonresident's operating privilege suspended pursuant to § 32-35-52 shall remain so suspended and shall not be renewed, nor shall any such license or registration be thereafter

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issued in the name of such person, including any such person not previously licensed, unless and until every such judgment is stayed, satisfied in full, or to the extent provided in § 32-35-59, and until the said person gives proof of financial responsibility subject to the exemptions stated in §§ 32-35-54, 32-35-55, and 32-35-61.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 216-15-7
Resistance to judicial process as misdemeanorEvery person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a
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Class 2 misdemeanor.

Every person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-18.3 Conditions required on probation or suspension of sentence

The conditions of probation imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-12 or 23A-27-13 or the conditions of a suspension of execution imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-18 may provide in addition to any

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other conditions, as an explicit condition of probation, suspended imposition of sentence, or suspended execution of sentence that the defendant:
(1) Pay a fine or perform community service work as directed by the court; or
(2) Receive treatment for chemical dependency at any South Dakota treatment facility accredited pursuant to § 34-20A-27 and reimburse the county for costs of treatment ordered by the court; or
(3) Make restitution pursuant to the provisions of chapter 23A-28.

Condition or extension of supervision All No