Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-8.1 Fee For Legal Defense Services as Condition of Probation

In any case in which a defendant receives legal defense services pursuant to Chapter 12 of Title 17 where the defendant has not paid the application fee required by Code

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Section 15-21A-6 and the court has not waived such fee at the time of sentencing, the court shall impose such fee as a condition of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-10-20(c) Collection of Fines and Restitution in Criminal Cases

If the fine or restitution is not paid in full, such judgment may be enforced by instituting any procedure for execution upon the writ of fieri facias through levy, foreclosure,

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garnishment, and all other actions provided for the enforcement of judgments in the State of Georgia and in other states and foreign nations where such judgment is afforded full faith and credit under the Uniform Foreign Money Judgments Act or domestication thereof.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-102(f)(4) Fixing of Sentence; Supervision or Probation of Sentence; Change in Sentence; Eligibility For Parole; Prohibited Modifications; Exceptions

(A) For failure to report to probation or failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community

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service, modification of the terms of probation, or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall consider whether a failure to pay court imposed financial obligations was willful. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed 120 days in confinement, whichever is less; and (B) For failure to comply with any other general provision of probation or suspension, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community service or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed two years in confinement, whichever is less.

Community service All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-102(f)(2) Probation and Supervision; Determination of Fees, Fines, and Restitution; Converting Moneys Owed to Community Service or Educational Advancement; Community Jurisdiction; Revocation; Transfer

(A)  When the sole basis for a probation revocation is for failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees, the probationer shall be scheduled to appear on the

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court's next available court calendar for a hearing on such issue. No prehearing arrest warrant shall be issued under such circumstances. Absent a waiver, the court shall not revoke a probationary sentence for failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees without holding a hearing, inquiring into the reasons for the probationer's failure to pay, and, if a probationary sentence is revoked, making an express written determination that the probationer has not made sufficient bona fide efforts to pay and the probationer's failure to pay was willful or that adequate alternative types of punishment do not exist. Should the probationer fail to appear at such hearing, the court may, in its discretion, revoke the probated sentence. (B)  A person otherwise found eligible to have his or her probation modified or terminated pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not be deemed ineligible for modification or termination of probation solely due to his or her failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-103 Pay-Only Probation; Discharge or Termination of Probation

(a)  As used in this Code section, the term "pay-only probation" means a defendant has been placed under probation supervision solely because such defendant is unable to pay the court imposed

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fines and statutory surcharges when such defendant's sentence is imposed. Such term shall not include circumstances when restitution has been imposed or other probation services are deemed appropriate by the court; (b)  When pay-only probation is imposed, the total maximum fee collected shall be capped so as not to exceed three months of ordinary probation supervision fees at a monthly rate not to exceed the rate set forth in the contract between the court and the provider of services, notwithstanding the number of cases for which a fine and statutory surcharge were imposed or that the defendant was sentenced to serve consecutive sentences; provided, however, that collection of such fee shall terminate as soon as all court imposed fines and statutory surcharges are paid in full; and provided, further, that when all such fines and statutory surcharges are paid in full, the probation officer or private probation officer, as the case may be, shall submit an order to the court terminating the probated sentence within 30 days of fulfillment of such conditions. Within 90 days of receiving such order, the court shall issue an order terminating such probated sentence or issue an order stating why such probated sentence shall continue; (c)  If pay-only probation is subsequently converted to a sentence that requires community service, on petition by a probation officer or private probation officer and with the probationer having an opportunity for a hearing, the court may reinstate probation supervision fees as necessary to monitor the probationer's compliance with community service obligations; (d)  When a defendant is serving pay-only probation, upon motion by the defendant, the court may discharge such defendant from further supervision or otherwise terminate probation when it is satisfied that its action would be in the best interest of justice and the welfare of society.

Increased fine All Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 40-6-189(a)-(c) Classification as Super Speeder; Fees

(a)  As used in this Code section, the term "department" means the Department of Driver Services;  (b)  In addition to any other fines or penalties imposed by any local jurisdiction or the

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department, the department shall administer and collect a fee of $200.00 from any driver who is convicted of driving at a speed of 85 miles per hour or more on any road or highway or 75 miles per hour or more on any two-lane road or highway, as defined in Code Section 40-6-187. Such a driver, upon conviction, shall be classified as a "super speeder;"  (c)  The department shall notify offenders of the imposition of a fee under this Code section within 30 days after receipt of a qualifying ticket and notice of conviction. Failure to pay the fee imposed by this Code section within 90 days after receipt of the notice shall result in the suspension of the driver's license or driving privileges of the offender, and, in addition to the existing fees and penalties, a fee of $50.00 shall be assessed, payable upon the application for reinstatement of the driver's license or driving privileges. Notice shall be provided by the department to the offender by first-class mail to the address shown on the records of the department. Such mailed notice shall be adequate notification of the fee imposed by this Code section and of the offender's ability to avoid a driver's license suspension by paying the fee prior to the effective date of the suspension. No other notice shall be required to make the driver's license suspension effective.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment, Increased fine Traffic Yes
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-34(e)(3)(A)(iii);(e)(3)(B) Sentencing Hearings and Determinations; Presentence Investigations; Payment of Fees, Fines, and Costs; Post-Conviction, Presentence Bond; Continuing Jurisdiction; Transferal of Probation Supervision

(iii)  "Significant financial hardship" means a reasonable probability that an individual will be unable to satisfy his or her financial obligations for two or more consecutive months;  (B)  The court shall waive,

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modify, or convert fines, statutory surcharges, probation supervision fees, and any other moneys assessed by the court or a provider of probation services upon a determination by the court prior to or subsequent to sentencing that a defendant has a significant financial hardship or inability to pay or that there are any other extenuating factors which prohibit payment or collection; provided, however, that the imposition of sanctions for failure to pay such sums shall be within the discretion of the court through judicial process or hearings.

All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-34.2(a) Delinquency of Defendant in Payment of Fines, Costs, or Restitution or Reparation; Costs of Garnishment

In the event that a defendant is delinquent in the payment of fines, costs, or restitution or reparation, as was ordered by the court as a condition of probation, the

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defendant's officer shall be authorized, but shall not be required, to execute a sworn affidavit wherein the amount of arrearage is set out. In addition, the affidavit shall contain a succinct statement as to what efforts DCS has made in trying to collect the delinquent amount. The affidavit shall then be submitted to the sentencing court for approval. Upon signature and approval of the court, such arrearage shall then be collectable through issuance of a writ of fieri facias by the clerk of the sentencing court; and DCS may enforce such collection through any judicial or other process or procedure which may be used by the holder of a writ of execution arising from a civil action.

Civil judgment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 15-9-62(a) Issuance of Writ of Fieri Facias for Fees; Defenses

Whenever any costs are due the judge of the probate court by executors, administrators, or guardians, upon failure to pay the same on demand made, he is empowered to issue

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a writ of fieri facias at any regular term of court against the executors, administrators, or guardians for the amount due for costs at the time of the demand.

Civil judgment All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 17-6-1.1(1);(2) Electronic Pretrial Release and Monitoring Program for Defendants; Requirements; Procedures; Fees

(1)  As an additional condition of electronic pretrial release and monitoring, a defendant authorized to participate in such program by the court shall pay a reasonable, nonrefundable fee for program enrollment,

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equipment use, and monitoring to the provider of such program. If a bonding company, bonding agent, or probation service provider is the provider, the fees earned in the capacity of being such a provider shall be in addition to the fees allowed in Code Sections 17-6-30, 42-8-34, and 42-8-102; (2)  The fees connected with the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program shall be timely paid by a defendant as a condition of his or her ongoing participation in the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program in accordance with the terms for such programs as approved by the court. Failure to make timely payments shall constitute a violation of the terms of the electronic pretrial release and monitoring program and shall result in the defendant's immediate return to custody.

Incarceration All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 33-37-5-22 (b) Applicability — Late Payment Fee — Requirement to Pay — Defendant Not Indigent

A court may adopt a local rule to impose a late payment fee under this section on defendants described in subsection (a).

Increased fine All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 35-38-1-18 (d)(2)-(3) Payment of Fines

(d) Upon any default in the payment of the fine:... (2) the court may direct that the person, if the person is not indigent, be committed to the county jail

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and credited toward payment at the rate of twenty dollars ($20) for each twenty-four (24) hour period the person is confined, until the amount paid plus the amount credited equals the entire amount due; or (3) the court may institute contempt proceedings or order the convicted person’s wages, salary, and other income garnished in accordance with IC 24-4.5-5-105 to enforce the court’s order for payment of the fine.

Incarceration, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 35-38-2-1.7 (d) Payment of Probation User’s Fee — Lien — Garnishment

If a court orders a person to pay a probation user's fee under section 1 or 1.5 of this chapter, the court may garnish the wages, salary, and other income

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earned by the person to enforce the order.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 33-37-4-10 Itemized Fee Bills — Duty of Sheriff to Collect

(a) Not later than seventy-five (75) days after judgment is entered in an action, the clerk shall issue an itemized fee bill for the collection of fees that were charged

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against the party in that action and that remain unpaid. The clerk shall present the fee bill for collection to the sheriff of a county in which the debtor party resides or in which the debtor party has property.(b) The sheriff shall do the following: (1) Collect the amount due under the fee bill. (2) Return the fee bill to the clerk not more than sixty (60) days after the day the fee bill was issued. (c) After presented to the sheriff, a fee bill has the effect of an execution and operates as a lien upon the real and personal property of the debtor. (d) A successor of an officer may issue fee bills for the fees of the officer's predecessors in office in the manner provided under this chapter. A clerk may issue the fee bills of the sheriff or the former sheriffs of the county in the same manner.

Property liens All Yes
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 9-30-11-3 Notice to Three - Time Violator

If it appears from the records of a court that has jurisdiction to enforce ordinances that regulate parking violations that three (3) judgments concerning a motor vehicle have not been

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paid before the deadlines established by a statute, an ordinance, or a court order, the clerk of the court shall send a notice to the person who is the registered owner of the motor vehicle. The notice must inform the person of the following:(1) That the clerk will send a referral to the bureau if the judgments are not paid within thirty (30) days after a notice was mailed. (2) That the referral will result in the suspension of the motor vehicle's registration if the judgments are not paid.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-50-5-3 (b); (h) Restitution Orders

(b) A restitution order under subsection (a), (i), (j), (l), or (m), is a judgment lien that:(1) attaches to the property of the person subject to the order; (2) may

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be perfected; (3) may be enforced to satisfy any payment that is delinquent under the restitution order by the person in whose favor the order is issued or the person's assignee; and (4) expires; in the same manner as a judgment lien created in a civil proceeding ... (h) The attorney general may pursue restitution ordered by the court under subsections (a) and (c) on behalf of the victim services division of the Indiana criminal justice institute established under IC 5-2-6-8.

Civil judgment, Property liens All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-33-8-3.3 (h) - (m) Pretrial Services Fees

(i) A probation department or pretrial services agency may petition a court to: (1) impose a pretrial services fee on a defendant; or (2) increase a defendant’s pretrial services fee; if the financial

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ability of the defendant to pay a pretrial services fee changes while the defendant is on bail and supervised by a probation officer or pretrial services agency.   (j) An order to pay a pretrial services fee under this section: (1) is a judgment lien that, upon the defendant’s conviction (A) attaches to the property of the defendant; (B) may be perfected; (C) may be enforced to satisfy any payment that is delinquent under this section; and (D) expires; in the same manner as a judgment lien created in a civil proceeding; (2) is not discharged by the disposition of charges against the defendant or by the completion of a sentence, if any, imposed on the defendant; (3) is not discharged by the liquidation of a defendant’s estate by a receiver under IC 32-30-5; and (4) is immediately terminated if a defendant is acquitted or if charges against the defendant are dropped.    (k) If a court orders a defendant to pay a pretrial services fee, the court may, upon the defendant’s conviction, enforce the order by garnishing the wages, salary, and other income earned by the defendant.   (l) In addition to other methods of payment allowed by law, a probation department or pretrial services agency may accept payment of a pretrial services fee by credit card (as defined in IC 14-11-1-7(a)). The liability for payment is not discharged until the probation department or pretrial services agency receives payment or credit from the institution responsible for making the payment or credit.   (m) The probation department or pretrial services agency may contract with a bank or credit card vendor for acceptance of a bank or credit card. However, if there is a vendor transaction charge or discount fee, whether billed to the probation department or pretrial services agency, or charged directly to the account of the probation department or pretrial services agency, the probation department or pretrial services agency may collect a credit card service fee from the person using the bank or credit card. The fee collected under this subsection is a permitted additional charge to the fee or fees the defendant may be required to pay under subsection (e).

Collection fee/interest, Increased fine, Property liens, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 33-37-2-3 (a)(4); (d) Indigency Hearing — Suspension of Costs — Default — Fees for Representation — Rights and Protections

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), when the court imposes costs, it shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the convicted person is indigent. If the person is not indigent,

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the court shall order the person to pay: ... (4) the entire amount of the costs at some later date, less any amount credited under subsections (g) through (i) for the performance of: (A) allowable community service work ordered by the court as part of the person’s sentence or as part of the person’s probation; or (B) uncompensated volunteer work approved by the court at a nonprofit or municipal corporation that benefits the community, even if the volunteer work is not ordered by the court. ... (d) Upon any default in the payment of the costs: (1) an attorney representing the county may bring an action on a debt for the unpaid amount; (2) the court may direct that the person, if the person is not indigent, be committed to the county jail and credited toward payment at the rate of twenty dollars ($20) for each twenty-four (24) hour period the person is confined, until the amount paid plus the amount credited equals the entire amount due; or (3) the court may institute contempt proceedings to enforce the court's order for payment of the costs.

Civil judgment, Community service, Incarceration All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 604-A:9(I) Repayment

The state may collect from the defendant a service charge of up to 10 percent of the total amount of fees and expenses owed by such defendant.

Collection fee/interest All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 263:56-a Suspension or Revocation for Default, Noncompliance, or Nonpayment of Fine

Whenever any defendant: . . . (b) Fails to pay a fine or other penalty imposed in connection with a conviction of any offense which a court has determined he

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is able to pay, or issues a bad check in payment of a fine or other penalty; or (c) Fails to comply with a similar order of the director or a court on any matter within the director's or court's jurisdiction, his driver's license or resident or nonresident driving privilege and in any motor vehicle case or related case the resident plates and motor vehicle registration shall be suspended or revoked only upon written consent of the director, effective 30 days after such default or failure, except as provided in subparagraph I(d) of this section.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic No