Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 601-17.5 Collection of delinquent court-ordered payments

The judiciary may contract with a collection agency bonded under chapter 443B or with a licensed attorney to collect any delinquent court-ordered penalties, fines, restitution, sanctions, and court costs, including

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juvenile monetary assessments. Any fees or costs associated with the collection efforts shall be added to the amount due and retained by the collection agency as its payment; provided that no fees or costs shall exceed fifty per cent of the amount collected.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 291C-171.5 Collection of fines and costs

(a) Unless discharged by payment or service of imprisonment in default of a fine, a fine may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action.(b)

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Costs may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action, but shall not be deemed part of the penalty, and no person shall be imprisoned under this section in default of payment of costs. (c) The state attorney general may institute proceedings to collect the fine, and costs, including interest and attorney's fees, as a civil judgment in the court of appropriate jurisdiction.

Civil judgment All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-643(1) Disposition of funds

(1) The defendant shall pay a fine or any installment thereof to the cashier or clerk of the district or circuit court. In the event of default in payment, the

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clerk shall notify the prosecuting attorney and, if the defendant is on probation, the probation officer.

Other All Yes
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 291D-10 Restriction on driver's license and motor vehicle registration

(a) When the person issued a notice of traffic infraction not involving parking fails to pay the total amount of fines, fees, surcharges, costs, or monetary assessments that has been

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ordered, the court shall cause an entry to be made in the driver's license record so as to prevent the person from acquiring or renewing the person's driver's license until the outstanding amount is paid or the notice of traffic infraction is otherwise disposed of pursuant to this chapter.(b) In all cases where the registered owner of a motor vehicle to which a notice of traffic infraction has been issued fails to pay the total amount of fines, fees, surcharges, costs, or monetary assessments that have been ordered, the court shall cause an entry to be made in the motor vehicle's record so as to prevent issuance or renewal of the motor vehicle's certificate of registration and transfer of title to the motor vehicle until the outstanding amount is paid or the notice of traffic infraction is otherwise disposed of pursuant to this chapter; provided that if the traffic infraction involves an unpaid parking violation, this subsection shall not prevent the issuance or renewal of the motor vehicle's certificate of registration and transfer of title to the motor vehicle to another person, in which case the clerk of the court shall issue a clearance to effectuate the registration and transfer of title; and provided further that in no event shall a clearance: (1) Absolve the registered owner of the motor vehicle at the time the parking violation was incurred from paying the fine; (2) Prevent any subsequent issuance or renewal of the motor vehicle's certificate of registration and transfer of title to the motor vehicle; or (3) Otherwise encumber the title of that motor vehicle.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 291D-9(c) Adjudication of Traffic Infractions: Monetary assessments

(c) In addition to any monetary assessment imposed for a traffic infraction, the court may impose additional assessments for: (1) Failure to pay a monetary assessment by the scheduled date

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of payment; or (2) The cost of service of a penal summons issued pursuant to this chapter.

Increased fine Traffic No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(1) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(1) When a defendant is sentenced pursuant to section 706-605, granted a conditional discharge pursuant to section 712-1255, or granted a deferred plea pursuant to chapter 853, and the defendant

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is ordered to pay a fee, fine, or restitution, whether as an independent order, as part of a judgment and sentence, or as a condition of probation or deferred plea, and the defendant defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, the court, upon the motion of the prosecuting attorney or upon its own motion, may require the defendant to show cause why the defendant's default should not be treated as contumacious and may issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for the defendant's appearance. Unless the defendant shows that the defendant's default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court, or to a failure on the defendant's part to make a good faith effort to obtain the funds required for the payment, the court shall find that the defendant's default was contumacious and may order the defendant committed until the fee, fine, restitution, or a specified part thereof is paid.

Incarceration All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(4) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(4) If it appears that the defendant's default in the payment of a fee, fine, or restitution is not contumacious, the court may make an order allowing the defendant additional

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time for payment, reducing the amount of each installment, or revoking the fee, fine, or the unpaid portion thereof in whole or in part, or converting the unpaid portion of the fee or fine to community service. A defendant shall not be discharged from an order to pay restitution until the full amount of the restitution has actually been collected or accounted for.

Community service All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(5) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(5) Unless discharged by payment or, in the case of a fee or fine, service of imprisonment pursuant to subsection (3), an order to pay a fee, fine, or restitution,

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whether as an independent order, as a part of a judgment and sentence, or as a condition of probation or deferred plea pursuant to chapter 853, may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action. The State or the victim named in the order may collect the restitution, including costs, interest, and attorney's fees, pursuant to section 706-646. The State may collect the fee or fine, including costs, interest, and attorney's fees pursuant to section 706-647.

Civil judgment All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-642(2) Time and method of payment

(2) When a defendant sentenced to pay a fine is also sentenced to probation, the court may make the payment of the fine a condition of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(3) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(3) The term of imprisonment for nonpayment of fee, fine, or restitution shall be specified in the order of commitment, and shall not exceed one day for each $25 of

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the fee or fine, thirty days if the fee or fine was imposed upon conviction of a violation or a petty misdemeanor, or one year in any other case, whichever is the shorter period. A person committed for nonpayment of a fee or fine shall be given credit toward payment of the fee or fine for each day of imprisonment, at the rate of $25 per day.

Incarceration All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-630 Probation: Discharge of defendant

Upon the termination of the period of the probation or the earlier discharge of the defendant, the defendant shall be relieved of any obligations imposed by the order of the

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court and shall have satisfied the disposition of the court, except as to any action under this chapter to collect unpaid fines, restitution, attorney’s fees, costs, or interest.

Condition or extension of supervision Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(1) Fine and costs; commitment until paid; installments; deduction from bond; suspension or revocation of motor vehicle operator’s license.

(1)(a) In all cases in which courts or magistrates have now or may hereafter have the power to punish offenses, either in whole or in part, by requiring the offender

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to pay fines or costs, or both, such courts or magistrates may make it a part of the sentence that the party stand committed and be imprisoned in the jail of the proper county until the fines or costs are paid or secured to be paid or the offender is otherwise discharged according to law if the court or magistrate determines that the offender has the financial ability to pay such fines or costs.

Incarceration All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(2) Fine and costs; commitment until paid; installments; deduction from bond; suspension or revocation of motor vehicle operator’s license

(2) If the court or magistrate determines, pursuant to subsection (1) of this section, that an offender is financially unable to pay such fines or costs in one lump sum but

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is financially capable of paying in installments, the court or magistrate shall make arrangements suitable to the court or magistrate and to the offender by which the offender may pay in installments. The court or magistrate shall enter an order specifying the terms of such arrangements and the dates on which payments are to be made. When the judgment of conviction provides for the suspension or revocation of a motor vehicle operator’s license and the court authorizes the payment of fines or costs by installments, the revocation or suspension shall be effective as of the date of judgment.

Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(3) Alternative to lump sum/installment payments

As an alternative to a lump-sum payment or as an alternative or in conjunction with installment payments, the court or magistrate may deduct fines or costs from a bond posted

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by the offender to the extent that such bond is not otherwise encumbered by a valid lien, levy, execution, or assignment to counsel of record or the person who posted the bond.

Other All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206.01 Fine and costs; payment of installments; violation; penalty

Installments provided for in section 29-2206 shall be paid pursuant to the order entered by the court or magistrate. Any person who fails to comply with the terms of such order shall

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be liable for punishment for contempt, unless such person has the leave of the court or magistrate in regard to such noncompliance or such person requests a hearing pursuant to section 29-2412 and establishes at such hearing that he or she is financially unable to pay.

Incarceration, Increased fine All Yes
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2412 (3) Fine and costs; nonpayment; commutation upon confinement; credit; amount

(1) (a) Any person arrested and brought into custody on a warrant for failure to pay fines or costs, for failure to appear before a court or magistrate on the due date

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of such fines or costs, or for failure to comply with the terms of an order pursuant to sections 29-2206 and 29-2206.01, shall be entitled to a hearing on the first regularly scheduled court date following the date of arrest.

(b) If the court or magistrate determines that the person is financially able to pay the fines or costs and the person refuses to pay, the court or magistrate may: (i) Order the person to be confined in the jail of the proper county until the fines or costs are paid or secured to be paid or the person is otherwise discharged pursuant to subsection (4) of this section; or (ii) Enter an order pursuant to subdivision (1)(d) of this section discharging the person of such fines or costs and order the person to complete community service for a specified number of hours pursuant to sections 29-2277 to 29-2279;

(3) Nothing in this section shall authorize any person to be discharged from imprisonment before the expiration of the time for which he or she may be sentenced to be imprisoned as part of his or her punishment

(4) (a) Any person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs or for default on an installment shall be entitled to a credit on the fines, costs, or installment of one hundred fifty dollars for each day so held.

(b) In no case shall a person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs be held in such custody for more days than the maximum number to which he or she could have been sentenced if the penalty set by law includes the possibility of confinement.

Community service, Incarceration All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2404 Misdemeanor cases; fines and costs; judgment; levy; commitment

In all cases of misdemeanor in which courts or magistrates shall have power to fine any offender, and shall render judgment for such fine, it shall be lawful to issue

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executions for the same, with the costs taxed against the offender, to be levied on the goods and chattels of any such offender, and, for want of the same, upon the body of the offender, who shall, following a determination that the offender has the financial ability to pay such fine pursuant to section 29-2412, be committed to the jail of the proper county until the fine and costs be paid, or secured to be paid, or the offender be otherwise discharged according to law.

Collection fee/interest, Incarceration Misdemeanor Yes
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Nebraska (2)Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1011 Violations; liability for expenses

Even if reimbursement for expenses is not ordered under subsection (1) of this section, the defendant shall be liable for all unreimbursed expenses incurred by a public or private agency

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in conjunction with the care, impoundment, seizure, or disposal of an animal. The expenses shall be a lien upon the animal.

Property liens All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2262(2)(l)-(m),(s)-(t) Probation; conditions

(2) The court may, as a condition of a sentence of probation, require the offender:
(l) To pay a fine in one or more payments as ordered;
(m) To pay

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for tests to determine the presence of drugs or alcohol, psychological evaluations, offender assessment screens, and rehabilitative services required in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of offenders if such offender has the financial ability to pay for such services;
(s) To make restitution as described in sections 29-2280 and 29-2281; or
(t) To pay for all costs imposed by the court, including court costs and the fees imposed pursuant to section 29-2262.06.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2262.06(1),(5) Fees; waiver; when; failure to pay; effect

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, whenever a district court or county court sentences an adult offender to probation, the court shall require the probationer to pay a

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one-time administrative enrollment fee and thereafter a monthly probation programming fee.
(5) If a probationer defaults in the payment of monthly probation programming fees or any installment thereof, the court may revoke his or her probation for nonpayment, except that probation shall not be revoked nor shall the offender be imprisoned for such nonpayment if the probationer is financially unable to make the payment, if he or she so states to the court in writing under oath, and if the court so finds after a hearing.

Condition or extension of supervision All No