Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 601-17.5 Collection of delinquent court-ordered payments

The judiciary may contract with a collection agency bonded under chapter 443B or with a licensed attorney to collect any delinquent court-ordered penalties, fines, restitution, sanctions, and court costs, including

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juvenile monetary assessments. Any fees or costs associated with the collection efforts shall be added to the amount due and retained by the collection agency as its payment; provided that no fees or costs shall exceed fifty per cent of the amount collected.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 291C-171.5 Collection of fines and costs

(a) Unless discharged by payment or service of imprisonment in default of a fine, a fine may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action.(b)

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Costs may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action, but shall not be deemed part of the penalty, and no person shall be imprisoned under this section in default of payment of costs. (c) The state attorney general may institute proceedings to collect the fine, and costs, including interest and attorney's fees, as a civil judgment in the court of appropriate jurisdiction.

Civil judgment All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-643(1) Disposition of funds

(1) The defendant shall pay a fine or any installment thereof to the cashier or clerk of the district or circuit court. In the event of default in payment, the

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clerk shall notify the prosecuting attorney and, if the defendant is on probation, the probation officer.

Other All Yes
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 291D-10 Restriction on driver's license and motor vehicle registration

(a) When the person issued a notice of traffic infraction not involving parking fails to pay the total amount of fines, fees, surcharges, costs, or monetary assessments that has been

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ordered, the court shall cause an entry to be made in the driver's license record so as to prevent the person from acquiring or renewing the person's driver's license until the outstanding amount is paid or the notice of traffic infraction is otherwise disposed of pursuant to this chapter.(b) In all cases where the registered owner of a motor vehicle to which a notice of traffic infraction has been issued fails to pay the total amount of fines, fees, surcharges, costs, or monetary assessments that have been ordered, the court shall cause an entry to be made in the motor vehicle's record so as to prevent issuance or renewal of the motor vehicle's certificate of registration and transfer of title to the motor vehicle until the outstanding amount is paid or the notice of traffic infraction is otherwise disposed of pursuant to this chapter; provided that if the traffic infraction involves an unpaid parking violation, this subsection shall not prevent the issuance or renewal of the motor vehicle's certificate of registration and transfer of title to the motor vehicle to another person, in which case the clerk of the court shall issue a clearance to effectuate the registration and transfer of title; and provided further that in no event shall a clearance: (1) Absolve the registered owner of the motor vehicle at the time the parking violation was incurred from paying the fine; (2) Prevent any subsequent issuance or renewal of the motor vehicle's certificate of registration and transfer of title to the motor vehicle; or (3) Otherwise encumber the title of that motor vehicle.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 291D-9(c) Adjudication of Traffic Infractions: Monetary assessments

(c) In addition to any monetary assessment imposed for a traffic infraction, the court may impose additional assessments for: (1) Failure to pay a monetary assessment by the scheduled date

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of payment; or (2) The cost of service of a penal summons issued pursuant to this chapter.

Increased fine Traffic No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(1) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(1) When a defendant is sentenced pursuant to section 706-605, granted a conditional discharge pursuant to section 712-1255, or granted a deferred plea pursuant to chapter 853, and the defendant

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is ordered to pay a fee, fine, or restitution, whether as an independent order, as part of a judgment and sentence, or as a condition of probation or deferred plea, and the defendant defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, the court, upon the motion of the prosecuting attorney or upon its own motion, may require the defendant to show cause why the defendant's default should not be treated as contumacious and may issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for the defendant's appearance. Unless the defendant shows that the defendant's default was not attributable to an intentional refusal to obey the order of the court, or to a failure on the defendant's part to make a good faith effort to obtain the funds required for the payment, the court shall find that the defendant's default was contumacious and may order the defendant committed until the fee, fine, restitution, or a specified part thereof is paid.

Incarceration All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(4) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(4) If it appears that the defendant's default in the payment of a fee, fine, or restitution is not contumacious, the court may make an order allowing the defendant additional

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time for payment, reducing the amount of each installment, or revoking the fee, fine, or the unpaid portion thereof in whole or in part, or converting the unpaid portion of the fee or fine to community service. A defendant shall not be discharged from an order to pay restitution until the full amount of the restitution has actually been collected or accounted for.

Community service All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(5) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(5) Unless discharged by payment or, in the case of a fee or fine, service of imprisonment pursuant to subsection (3), an order to pay a fee, fine, or restitution,

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whether as an independent order, as a part of a judgment and sentence, or as a condition of probation or deferred plea pursuant to chapter 853, may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action. The State or the victim named in the order may collect the restitution, including costs, interest, and attorney's fees, pursuant to section 706-646. The State may collect the fee or fine, including costs, interest, and attorney's fees pursuant to section 706-647.

Civil judgment All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-642(2) Time and method of payment

(2) When a defendant sentenced to pay a fine is also sentenced to probation, the court may make the payment of the fine a condition of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(3) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(3) The term of imprisonment for nonpayment of fee, fine, or restitution shall be specified in the order of commitment, and shall not exceed one day for each $25 of

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the fee or fine, thirty days if the fee or fine was imposed upon conviction of a violation or a petty misdemeanor, or one year in any other case, whichever is the shorter period. A person committed for nonpayment of a fee or fine shall be given credit toward payment of the fee or fine for each day of imprisonment, at the rate of $25 per day.

Incarceration All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-630 Probation: Discharge of defendant

Upon the termination of the period of the probation or the earlier discharge of the defendant, the defendant shall be relieved of any obligations imposed by the order of the

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court and shall have satisfied the disposition of the court, except as to any action under this chapter to collect unpaid fines, restitution, attorney’s fees, costs, or interest.

Condition or extension of supervision Misdemeanor, Felony No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 1907.25(B) Blocking of motor vehicle registration or transfer or registration for failure to pay fine or costs
If a person is charged with an offense in county court and either fails to appear in court at the required time and place to answer the charge or pleads
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guilty to or is found guilty of the offense and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay any fine or costs imposed by the court, the court may enter information relative to the person's failure to pay any outstanding amount of the fine or costs on a form prescribed or approved by the registrar of motor vehicles pursuant to division (C) of this section and send the form to the registrar. Upon receipt of the form, the registrar shall take any measures necessary to ensure that neither the registrar nor any deputy registrar accepts any application for the registration or transfer of registration of any motor vehicle owned or leased by the person. However, for a motor vehicle leased by the person, the registrar shall not implement this requirement until the registrar adopts procedures for that implementation under section 4503.39 of the Revised Code. The period of denial relating to the issuance or transfer of a certificate of registration for a motor vehicle imposed under this section remains in effect until the person pays any fine or costs imposed by the court relative to the offense. When the fine or costs have been paid in full, the court shall inform the registrar of the payment by entering information relative to the payment on a notice of payment form prescribed or approved by the registrar pursuant to division (C) of this section and sending the form to the registrar.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.14(A) Satisfaction of fine

(A) If a fine is imposed as a sentence or a part of a sentence, the court or magistrate that imposed the fine may order that the offender be committed to

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the jail or workhouse until the fine is paid or secured to be paid, or the offender is otherwise legally discharged, if the court or magistrate determines at a hearing that the offender is able, at that time, to pay the fine but refuses to do so. The hearing required by this section shall be conducted at the time of sentencing.

Incarceration All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2949.15 Writs of execution to issue

If a nonindigent person convicted of a felony fails to pay the costs of prosecution pursuant to section 2949.14 of the Revised Code, the clerk of the court of common

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pleas shall forthwith issue to the sheriff of the county in which the indictment was found, and to the sheriff of any other county in which the person has property, executions against his property for fines and the costs of prosecution, which shall be served and returned within ten days, with the proceedings of such sheriff or the certification that there is no property upon which to levy, indorsed thereon. When a levy is made upon property under such execution, a writ shall forthwith be issued by the clerk for the sale thereof, and such sheriff shall sell the property and make return thereof, and after paying the costs of conviction, execution, and sale, pay the balance to the person authorized to receive it.

Property liens All Yes
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2947.23(A)(1)(a)(i) Judgment for costs and jury fees

(A)(1)(a) In all criminal cases, including violations of ordinances, the judge or magistrate shall include in the sentence the costs of prosecution, including any costs under section 2947.231 of the

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Revised Code, and render a judgment against the defendant for such costs. If the judge or magistrate imposes a community control sanction or other nonresidential sanction, the judge or magistrate, when imposing the sanction, shall notify the defendant of both of the following: (i) If the defendant fails to pay that judgment or fails to timely make payments towards that judgment under a payment schedule approved by the court, the court may order the defendant to perform community service until the judgment is paid or until the court is satisfied that the defendant is in compliance with the approved payment schedule.

Community service All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.25(C)(2) Community control sanctions

(C)(2) The sentencing court shall require as a condition of any community control sanction that the offender abide by the law and not leave the state without the permission of

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the court or the offender's probation officer. In the interests of doing justice, rehabilitating the offender, and ensuring the offender's good behavior, the court may impose additional requirements on the offender. The offender's compliance with the additional requirements also shall be a condition of the community control sanction imposed upon the offender.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2949.09 Execution for fine and costs

When a judge or magistrate renders judgment for a fine, an execution may issue for such judgment and costs of prosecution, to be levied on the property, or in default

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thereof, upon the body of the defendant for nonpayment of the fine. The officer holding such writ may arrest such defendant in any county and commit him to the jail of the county in which such writ issued, until such fine is paid or secured to be paid or he is otherwise legally discharged.

Property liens All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 4510.22 Forfeiture for failure to appear or pay fine; denial of vehicle registration

If a person who has a current valid Ohio driver's, commercial driver's license, or temporary instruction permit is charged with a violation of any provision in sections 4503.11, 4503.12, 4503.182,

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4503.21, 4507.02, 4507.05, 4507.35, 4510.11, 4510.111, 4510.12, 4510.16, 4510.21, 4511.01 to 4511.76, 4511.81, 4511.82, 4511.84, 4513.01 to 4513.65, or 4549.01 to 4549.65 of the Revised Code or with a violation of any substantially equivalent municipal ordinance and if the person either fails to appear in court at the required time and place to answer the charge or pleads guilty to or is found guilty of the violation and fails within the time allowed by the court to pay the fine imposed by the court, the court may declare the forfeiture of the person's license. Thirty days after such a declaration of forfeiture, the court shall inform the registrar of motor vehicles of the forfeiture by entering information relative to the forfeiture on a form approved and furnished by the registrar and sending the form to the registrar. The court also shall forward the person's license, if it is in the possession of the court, to the registrar. The registrar shall impose a class F suspension of the person's driver's or commercial driver's license, or temporary instruction permit for the period of time specified in division (B)(6) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code on any person who is named in a declaration received by the registrar under this section. The registrar shall send written notification of the suspension to the person at the person's last known address and, if the person is in possession of the license, order the person to surrender the person's license or permit to the registrar within forty-eight hours.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Misdemeanor No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.28(G)(3) Financial sanctions; court costs

(G) Each court imposing a financial sanction upon an offender under this section may designate the clerk of the court or another person to collect the financial sanction. The clerk,

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or another person authorized by law or the court to collect the financial sanction may do the following: (3) To defray administrative costs, charge a reasonable fee to an offender who elects a payment plan rather than a lump sum payment of any financial sanction.

Increased fine, Payment plan/installment plan Misdemeanor No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2929.18(D)(2)(c) Proceeding in the aid of execution

. . . Once the financial sanction is imposed as a judgment or order under this division, the victim, private provider, state, or political subdivision may do any of the

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following: (c) A proceeding in aid of execution under Chapter 2333. of the Revised Code, including: (i) A proceeding for the examination of the judgment debtor under sections 2333.09 to 2333.12 and sections 2333.15 to 2333.27 of the Revised Code; (ii) A proceeding for attachment of the person of the judgment debtor under section 2333.28 of the Revised Code; (iii) A creditor's suit under section 2333.01 of the Revised Code.

Civil judgment Felony No