Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3220A Prisoner Payment of Fees at Time of Filing of Action -- Partial Payment of Fees -- Dismissal of Action

(4)  If the court permits the prisoner's action to proceed on partial payment of court fees, the court shall assess and, when funds exist, collect a partial payment of any court

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fees as set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, an initial partial filing fee of twenty percent (20%) of the greater of: (a)  The average monthly deposits to the prisoner's inmate account; or (b)  The average monthly balance for the six (6) month period immediately preceding the filing of the action;   (5)  After payment of the initial partial filing fee, the prisoner shall be required to make monthly payments of twenty percent (20%) of the preceding month's income credited to the prisoner's inmate account until the full amount of all applicable court fees set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, are paid. The agency or entity having custody of the prisoner shall forward payments from the prisoner's inmate account to the clerk of the court each time the amount in the prisoner's inmate account exceeds ten dollars ($ 10.00) until the full amount of all applicable court fees set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, are paid.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201E Drug Court and Mental Health Court Fee -- Drug Court and Mental Health Court Fund

Each person admitted into a drug court or mental health court shall pay a drug court and mental health court fee in an amount not to exceed three hundred dollars

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($ 300) per month or a lesser amount as set by the administrative district judge for participants in the drug court and mental health court. ... Any failure to pay the drug court and mental health court fee may constitute grounds for termination from drug court or mental health court by the court, provided this shall not be the exclusive remedy for collection of the fee. If a participant is terminated from the drug court or mental health court prior to successful completion of the program and a judgment of conviction is entered against the defendant, any unpaid drug court and mental health court fee shall be ordered by the court in the judgment of conviction, provided the court may order such fee to be waived if the court determines that the person is indigent and unable to pay the fee. Such fee shall be in addition to all other fines and fees levied, and the payment of such fee may also be ordered as a term and condition of probation.

Other All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201D(1) County Misdemeanor Probation Supervision Fee

Any person under a supervised probation program for a misdemeanor offense shall be required to pay an amount not more than the maximum monthly felony probation or parole supervision fee

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set forth in section 20-225, Idaho Code, per month, or such lesser sum as determined by the administrative judge of the judicial district, as a misdemeanor probation supervision fee. Any failure to pay such fee shall constitute grounds for the revocation of probation by the court, but this shall not be the exclusive remedy for its collection. The court for good cause may exempt a person from the payment of all or any part of the foregoing fee.

Other All No
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Idaho Idaho code § 18-303 Common Law Offenses -- Punishment -- Imprisonment for Nonpayment of Fine

All offenses recognized by the common law as crimes and not herein enumerated are punishable, in case of felony, by imprisonment in the state prison for a term not less

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than one (1) year nor more than five (5) years; and in case of misdemeanors, by imprisonment in the county jail for a term not exceeding six (6) months or less than one (1) month, or by fine not exceeding $500, or both such fine and imprisonment. And whenever any fine is imposed for any felony or misdemeanor, whether such be by statute or at common law and the party upon whom the fine is imposed has the ability to pay said fine, the party upon whom the fine is imposed shall be committed to the county jail, when not sentenced to the state prison, until the fine is paid.

Incarceration All Yes
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Idaho Idaho code § 19-5304(4) Restitution for Crime Victims — Orders to be Separate — When Restitution is not Appropriate — Other Remedies — Evidentiary Hearings — Definitions

If a separate written order of restitution is issued, an order of restitution shall be for an amount certain and shall be due and owing at the time of sentencing

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or at the date the amount of restitution is determined, whichever is later. An order of restitution may provide for interest from the date of the economic loss or injury.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Idaho Idaho code § 19-5305 Collection of Judgments

(1) After forty-two (42) days from the entry of the order of restitution or at the conclusion of a hearing to reconsider an order of restitution, whichever occurs later, an

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order of restitution may be recorded as a judgment and the victim may execute as provided by law for civil judgments. (2) The clerk of the district court may take action to collect on the order of restitution on behalf of the victim and, with the approval of the administrative district judge, may use the procedures set forth in section 19-4708, Idaho Code, for the collection of the restitution.

Civil judgment, Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201(4) Clerk of District Court -- Fees

Provided further, an additional handling fee of two dollars ($ 2.00) shall be imposed on each monthly installment of criminal or infraction fines, forfeitures, and other costs paid on a

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monthly basis.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Idaho Idaho Code § 20-225 Payment for Cost of Supervision

Any person under state probation or parole supervision shall be required to contribute not more than seventy-five dollars ($ 75.00) per month as determined by the board of correction. Costs

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of supervision are the direct and indirect costs incurred by the department of correction to supervise probationers and parolees, including tests to determine drug and alcohol use, books and written materials to support rehabilitation efforts, and monitoring of physical location through the use of technology. Any failure to pay such contribution shall constitute grounds for the revocation of probation by the court or the revocation of parole by the commission for pardons and parole. The division of probation and parole in the department of correction may exempt a person from the payment of all or any part of the foregoing contribution if it finds any of the following factors to exist: (1)  The offender has diligently attempted but been unable to obtain employment. (2)  The offender has a disability affecting employment, as determined by a physical, psychological or psychiatric examination acceptable to the division of probation and parole.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 20-624 Imprisonment for Fine

Whenever any defendant is confined solely for willful non-payment of any fine, the court, may, in lieu of payment, confine such person at the rate of thirty-five dollars ($ 35.00)

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per day until the fine imposed is satisfied.

Incarceration, Increased fine All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 19-5304 Restitution for Crime Victims -- Orders to be Separate -- When Restitution is not Appropriate -- Other Remedies -- Evidentiary Hearings -- Definitions

Unless the court determines that an order of restitution would be inappropriate or undesirable, it shall order a defendant found guilty of any crime which results in an economic loss

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to the victim to make restitution to the victim. An order of restitution shall be a separate written order in addition to any other sentence the court may impose, including incarceration, and may be complete, partial, or nominal. The court may also include restitution as a term and condition of judgment of conviction; however, if a court orders restitution in the judgment of conviction and in a separate written order, a defendant shall not be required to make restitution in an amount beyond that authorized by this chapter. Restitution shall be ordered for any economic loss which the victim actually suffers. The existence of a policy of insurance covering the victim's loss shall not absolve the defendant of the obligation to pay restitution.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 19-4708(1);(2) Collection of Debts Owed to Courts -- Contracts for Collection

(1)  The supreme court, or the clerks of the district court with the approval of the administrative district judge, may enter into contracts in accordance with this section for collection services

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for debts owed to courts. The cost of collection shall be paid by the defendant or juvenile offender as an administrative surcharge when the defendant or juvenile offender fails to pay any amount ordered by the court and the court utilizes the services of a contracting agent pursuant to this section;  (2)  As used in this section: (a)  "Contracting agent" means a person, firm or other entity who contracts to provide collection services. (b)  "Cost of collection" means the fee specified in contracts to be paid to or retained by a contracting agent for collection services. (c)  "Debts owed to courts" means any assessment of fines, court costs, surcharges, penalties, fees, restitution, moneys expended in providing counsel and other defense services to indigent defendants or juvenile offenders or other charges which a court judgment or disposition has ordered to be paid to the court in civil, criminal, or juvenile cases, and which remain unpaid in whole or in part, and includes any interest or penalties on such unpaid amounts as provided for in the judgment or by law.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(1) Fine and costs; commitment until paid; installments; deduction from bond; suspension or revocation of motor vehicle operator’s license.

(1)(a) In all cases in which courts or magistrates have now or may hereafter have the power to punish offenses, either in whole or in part, by requiring the offender

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to pay fines or costs, or both, such courts or magistrates may make it a part of the sentence that the party stand committed and be imprisoned in the jail of the proper county until the fines or costs are paid or secured to be paid or the offender is otherwise discharged according to law if the court or magistrate determines that the offender has the financial ability to pay such fines or costs.

Incarceration All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(2) Fine and costs; commitment until paid; installments; deduction from bond; suspension or revocation of motor vehicle operator’s license

(2) If the court or magistrate determines, pursuant to subsection (1) of this section, that an offender is financially unable to pay such fines or costs in one lump sum but

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is financially capable of paying in installments, the court or magistrate shall make arrangements suitable to the court or magistrate and to the offender by which the offender may pay in installments. The court or magistrate shall enter an order specifying the terms of such arrangements and the dates on which payments are to be made. When the judgment of conviction provides for the suspension or revocation of a motor vehicle operator’s license and the court authorizes the payment of fines or costs by installments, the revocation or suspension shall be effective as of the date of judgment.

Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206(3) Alternative to lump sum/installment payments

As an alternative to a lump-sum payment or as an alternative or in conjunction with installment payments, the court or magistrate may deduct fines or costs from a bond posted

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by the offender to the extent that such bond is not otherwise encumbered by a valid lien, levy, execution, or assignment to counsel of record or the person who posted the bond.

Other All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2206.01 Fine and costs; payment of installments; violation; penalty

Installments provided for in section 29-2206 shall be paid pursuant to the order entered by the court or magistrate. Any person who fails to comply with the terms of such order shall

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be liable for punishment for contempt, unless such person has the leave of the court or magistrate in regard to such noncompliance or such person requests a hearing pursuant to section 29-2412 and establishes at such hearing that he or she is financially unable to pay.

Incarceration, Increased fine All Yes
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2412 (3) Fine and costs; nonpayment; commutation upon confinement; credit; amount

(1) (a) Any person arrested and brought into custody on a warrant for failure to pay fines or costs, for failure to appear before a court or magistrate on the due date

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of such fines or costs, or for failure to comply with the terms of an order pursuant to sections 29-2206 and 29-2206.01, shall be entitled to a hearing on the first regularly scheduled court date following the date of arrest.

(b) If the court or magistrate determines that the person is financially able to pay the fines or costs and the person refuses to pay, the court or magistrate may: (i) Order the person to be confined in the jail of the proper county until the fines or costs are paid or secured to be paid or the person is otherwise discharged pursuant to subsection (4) of this section; or (ii) Enter an order pursuant to subdivision (1)(d) of this section discharging the person of such fines or costs and order the person to complete community service for a specified number of hours pursuant to sections 29-2277 to 29-2279;

(3) Nothing in this section shall authorize any person to be discharged from imprisonment before the expiration of the time for which he or she may be sentenced to be imprisoned as part of his or her punishment

(4) (a) Any person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs or for default on an installment shall be entitled to a credit on the fines, costs, or installment of one hundred fifty dollars for each day so held.

(b) In no case shall a person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs be held in such custody for more days than the maximum number to which he or she could have been sentenced if the penalty set by law includes the possibility of confinement.

Community service, Incarceration All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2404 Misdemeanor cases; fines and costs; judgment; levy; commitment

In all cases of misdemeanor in which courts or magistrates shall have power to fine any offender, and shall render judgment for such fine, it shall be lawful to issue

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executions for the same, with the costs taxed against the offender, to be levied on the goods and chattels of any such offender, and, for want of the same, upon the body of the offender, who shall, following a determination that the offender has the financial ability to pay such fine pursuant to section 29-2412, be committed to the jail of the proper county until the fine and costs be paid, or secured to be paid, or the offender be otherwise discharged according to law.

Collection fee/interest, Incarceration Misdemeanor Yes
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Nebraska (2)Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1011 Violations; liability for expenses

Even if reimbursement for expenses is not ordered under subsection (1) of this section, the defendant shall be liable for all unreimbursed expenses incurred by a public or private agency

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in conjunction with the care, impoundment, seizure, or disposal of an animal. The expenses shall be a lien upon the animal.

Property liens All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2262(2)(l)-(m),(s)-(t) Probation; conditions

(2) The court may, as a condition of a sentence of probation, require the offender:
(l) To pay a fine in one or more payments as ordered;
(m) To pay

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for tests to determine the presence of drugs or alcohol, psychological evaluations, offender assessment screens, and rehabilitative services required in the identification, evaluation, and treatment of offenders if such offender has the financial ability to pay for such services;
(s) To make restitution as described in sections 29-2280 and 29-2281; or
(t) To pay for all costs imposed by the court, including court costs and the fees imposed pursuant to section 29-2262.06.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2262.06(1),(5) Fees; waiver; when; failure to pay; effect

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, whenever a district court or county court sentences an adult offender to probation, the court shall require the probationer to pay a

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one-time administrative enrollment fee and thereafter a monthly probation programming fee.
(5) If a probationer defaults in the payment of monthly probation programming fees or any installment thereof, the court may revoke his or her probation for nonpayment, except that probation shall not be revoked nor shall the offender be imprisoned for such nonpayment if the probationer is financially unable to make the payment, if he or she so states to the court in writing under oath, and if the court so finds after a hearing.

Condition or extension of supervision All No