Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3220A Prisoner Payment of Fees at Time of Filing of Action -- Partial Payment of Fees -- Dismissal of Action

(4)  If the court permits the prisoner's action to proceed on partial payment of court fees, the court shall assess and, when funds exist, collect a partial payment of any court

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fees as set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, an initial partial filing fee of twenty percent (20%) of the greater of: (a)  The average monthly deposits to the prisoner's inmate account; or (b)  The average monthly balance for the six (6) month period immediately preceding the filing of the action;   (5)  After payment of the initial partial filing fee, the prisoner shall be required to make monthly payments of twenty percent (20%) of the preceding month's income credited to the prisoner's inmate account until the full amount of all applicable court fees set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, are paid. The agency or entity having custody of the prisoner shall forward payments from the prisoner's inmate account to the clerk of the court each time the amount in the prisoner's inmate account exceeds ten dollars ($ 10.00) until the full amount of all applicable court fees set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, are paid.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201E Drug Court and Mental Health Court Fee -- Drug Court and Mental Health Court Fund

Each person admitted into a drug court or mental health court shall pay a drug court and mental health court fee in an amount not to exceed three hundred dollars

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($ 300) per month or a lesser amount as set by the administrative district judge for participants in the drug court and mental health court. ... Any failure to pay the drug court and mental health court fee may constitute grounds for termination from drug court or mental health court by the court, provided this shall not be the exclusive remedy for collection of the fee. If a participant is terminated from the drug court or mental health court prior to successful completion of the program and a judgment of conviction is entered against the defendant, any unpaid drug court and mental health court fee shall be ordered by the court in the judgment of conviction, provided the court may order such fee to be waived if the court determines that the person is indigent and unable to pay the fee. Such fee shall be in addition to all other fines and fees levied, and the payment of such fee may also be ordered as a term and condition of probation.

Other All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201D(1) County Misdemeanor Probation Supervision Fee

Any person under a supervised probation program for a misdemeanor offense shall be required to pay an amount not more than the maximum monthly felony probation or parole supervision fee

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set forth in section 20-225, Idaho Code, per month, or such lesser sum as determined by the administrative judge of the judicial district, as a misdemeanor probation supervision fee. Any failure to pay such fee shall constitute grounds for the revocation of probation by the court, but this shall not be the exclusive remedy for its collection. The court for good cause may exempt a person from the payment of all or any part of the foregoing fee.

Other All No
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Idaho Idaho code § 18-303 Common Law Offenses -- Punishment -- Imprisonment for Nonpayment of Fine

All offenses recognized by the common law as crimes and not herein enumerated are punishable, in case of felony, by imprisonment in the state prison for a term not less

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than one (1) year nor more than five (5) years; and in case of misdemeanors, by imprisonment in the county jail for a term not exceeding six (6) months or less than one (1) month, or by fine not exceeding $500, or both such fine and imprisonment. And whenever any fine is imposed for any felony or misdemeanor, whether such be by statute or at common law and the party upon whom the fine is imposed has the ability to pay said fine, the party upon whom the fine is imposed shall be committed to the county jail, when not sentenced to the state prison, until the fine is paid.

Incarceration All Yes
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Idaho Idaho code § 19-5304(4) Restitution for Crime Victims — Orders to be Separate — When Restitution is not Appropriate — Other Remedies — Evidentiary Hearings — Definitions

If a separate written order of restitution is issued, an order of restitution shall be for an amount certain and shall be due and owing at the time of sentencing

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or at the date the amount of restitution is determined, whichever is later. An order of restitution may provide for interest from the date of the economic loss or injury.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Idaho Idaho code § 19-5305 Collection of Judgments

(1) After forty-two (42) days from the entry of the order of restitution or at the conclusion of a hearing to reconsider an order of restitution, whichever occurs later, an

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order of restitution may be recorded as a judgment and the victim may execute as provided by law for civil judgments. (2) The clerk of the district court may take action to collect on the order of restitution on behalf of the victim and, with the approval of the administrative district judge, may use the procedures set forth in section 19-4708, Idaho Code, for the collection of the restitution.

Civil judgment, Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201(4) Clerk of District Court -- Fees

Provided further, an additional handling fee of two dollars ($ 2.00) shall be imposed on each monthly installment of criminal or infraction fines, forfeitures, and other costs paid on a

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monthly basis.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Idaho Idaho Code § 20-225 Payment for Cost of Supervision

Any person under state probation or parole supervision shall be required to contribute not more than seventy-five dollars ($ 75.00) per month as determined by the board of correction. Costs

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of supervision are the direct and indirect costs incurred by the department of correction to supervise probationers and parolees, including tests to determine drug and alcohol use, books and written materials to support rehabilitation efforts, and monitoring of physical location through the use of technology. Any failure to pay such contribution shall constitute grounds for the revocation of probation by the court or the revocation of parole by the commission for pardons and parole. The division of probation and parole in the department of correction may exempt a person from the payment of all or any part of the foregoing contribution if it finds any of the following factors to exist: (1)  The offender has diligently attempted but been unable to obtain employment. (2)  The offender has a disability affecting employment, as determined by a physical, psychological or psychiatric examination acceptable to the division of probation and parole.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 20-624 Imprisonment for Fine

Whenever any defendant is confined solely for willful non-payment of any fine, the court, may, in lieu of payment, confine such person at the rate of thirty-five dollars ($ 35.00)

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per day until the fine imposed is satisfied.

Incarceration, Increased fine All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 19-5304 Restitution for Crime Victims -- Orders to be Separate -- When Restitution is not Appropriate -- Other Remedies -- Evidentiary Hearings -- Definitions

Unless the court determines that an order of restitution would be inappropriate or undesirable, it shall order a defendant found guilty of any crime which results in an economic loss

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to the victim to make restitution to the victim. An order of restitution shall be a separate written order in addition to any other sentence the court may impose, including incarceration, and may be complete, partial, or nominal. The court may also include restitution as a term and condition of judgment of conviction; however, if a court orders restitution in the judgment of conviction and in a separate written order, a defendant shall not be required to make restitution in an amount beyond that authorized by this chapter. Restitution shall be ordered for any economic loss which the victim actually suffers. The existence of a policy of insurance covering the victim's loss shall not absolve the defendant of the obligation to pay restitution.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 19-4708(1);(2) Collection of Debts Owed to Courts -- Contracts for Collection

(1)  The supreme court, or the clerks of the district court with the approval of the administrative district judge, may enter into contracts in accordance with this section for collection services

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for debts owed to courts. The cost of collection shall be paid by the defendant or juvenile offender as an administrative surcharge when the defendant or juvenile offender fails to pay any amount ordered by the court and the court utilizes the services of a contracting agent pursuant to this section;  (2)  As used in this section: (a)  "Contracting agent" means a person, firm or other entity who contracts to provide collection services. (b)  "Cost of collection" means the fee specified in contracts to be paid to or retained by a contracting agent for collection services. (c)  "Debts owed to courts" means any assessment of fines, court costs, surcharges, penalties, fees, restitution, moneys expended in providing counsel and other defense services to indigent defendants or juvenile offenders or other charges which a court judgment or disposition has ordered to be paid to the court in civil, criminal, or juvenile cases, and which remain unpaid in whole or in part, and includes any interest or penalties on such unpaid amounts as provided for in the judgment or by law.

Collection fee/interest All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2B:12-23 Community Service
a. A person, sentenced by a municipal court to pay a fine, who defaults in payment may be ordered to perform community service in lieu of incarceration or other modification
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of the sentence with the person's consent. b. The county or municipal official in charge of the community service program shall report to the municipal court any failure of a person subject to a court work order to report for work or to perform the assigned work. Upon receipt of the report, the court may revoke its community service order and impose any sentence consistent with the original sentence.
Community service All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2B:12-23.1 Community Service
Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, if a municipal court finds that a person does not have the ability to pay a penalty in full on the date
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of the hearing or has failed to pay a previously imposed penalty, the court may order the person to perform community service in lieu of the payment of a penalty; or, order the payment of the penalty in installments for a period of time determined by the court. If a person defaults on any payment and a municipal court finds that the defendant does not have the ability to pay, the court may: (1) reduce the penalty, suspend the penalty, or modify the installment plan; (2) order that credit be given against the amount owed for each day of confinement, if the court finds that the person has served jail time for the default; (3) revoke any unpaid portion of the penalty, if the court finds that the circumstances that warranted the imposition have changed or that it would be unjust to require payment; (4) order the person to perform community service in lieu of payment of the penalty; or (5) impose any other alternative permitted by law in lieu of payment of the penalty. b. For the purposes of this section, “penalty” means any fine, statutorily-mandated assessment, surcharge or other financial penalty imposed by a municipal court, except restitution or a surcharge assessed pursuant to subsection f. of section 1 of P.L.2000, c. 75 (C.39:4-97.2).
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
When a defendant sentenced to pay an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), a penalty imposed pursuant to section 11 of P.L.2001, c. 81 (C.2C:43-3.6),
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a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c. 73 (C.2C:14-10), monthly probation fee, fine, a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5), other court-imposed financial obligations or to make restitution or pay child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, upon the motion of the person authorized by law to collect the payment, the motion of the prosecutor, the motion of the victim entitled to payment of restitution, the motion of the Victims of Crime Compensation Office, the motion of the State or county Office of Victim and Witness Advocacy or upon its own motion, the court shall recall him, or issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for his appearance. The court shall afford the person notice and an opportunity to be heard on the issue of default. Failure to make any payment when due shall be considered a default. The standard of proof shall be by a preponderance of the evidence, and the burden of establishing good cause for a default shall be on the person who has defaulted. (1) If the court finds that the person has defaulted without good cause, the court shall: (a) Order the suspension of the driver's license or the nonresident reciprocity driving privilege of the person
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
When a defendant sentenced to pay an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), a penalty imposed pursuant to section 11 of P.L.2001, c. 81 (C.2C:43-3.6),
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a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c. 73 (C.2C:14-10), monthly probation fee, fine, a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5), other court-imposed financial obligations or to make restitution or pay child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, upon the motion of the person authorized by law to collect the payment, the motion of the prosecutor, the motion of the victim entitled to payment of restitution, the motion of the Victims of Crime Compensation Office, the motion of the State or county Office of Victim and Witness Advocacy or upon its own motion, the court shall recall him, or issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for his appearance. The court shall afford the person notice and an opportunity to be heard on the issue of default. Failure to make any payment when due shall be considered a default. The standard of proof shall be by a preponderance of the evidence, and the burden of establishing good cause for a default shall be on the person who has defaulted. (1) If the court finds that the person has defaulted without good cause, the court shall: (a) Order the suspension of the driver's license or the nonresident reciprocity driving privilege of the person
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
When a defendant sentenced to pay an assessment imposed pursuant to section 2 of P.L.1979, c. 396 (C.2C:43-3.1), a penalty imposed pursuant to section 11 of P.L.2001, c. 81 (C.2C:43-3.6),
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a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.2005, c. 73 (C.2C:14-10), monthly probation fee, fine, a penalty imposed pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c. 295 (C.2C:43-3.5), other court-imposed financial obligations or to make restitution or pay child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court defaults in the payment thereof or of any installment, upon the motion of the person authorized by law to collect the payment, the motion of the prosecutor, the motion of the victim entitled to payment of restitution, the motion of the Victims of Crime Compensation Office, the motion of the State or county Office of Victim and Witness Advocacy or upon its own motion, the court shall recall him, or issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for his appearance. The court shall afford the person notice and an opportunity to be heard on the issue of default. Failure to make any payment when due shall be considered a default. The standard of proof shall be by a preponderance of the evidence, and the burden of establishing good cause for a default shall be on the person who has defaulted. (1) If the court finds that the person has defaulted without good cause, the court shall: (a) Order the suspension of the driver's license or the nonresident reciprocity driving privilege of the person
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
If the court finds that the person defaulted on payment of a court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court without good cause and finds
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that the default was willful, the court may, in addition to the action required by paragraph (1) of this subsection a., impose a term of imprisonment or participation in a labor assistance program or enforced community service to achieve the objective of the court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court. These options shall not reduce the amount owed by the person in default. The term of imprisonment or enforced community service or participation in a labor assistance program in such case shall be specified in the order of commitment. It need not be equated with any particular dollar amount but, in the case of a fine it shall not exceed one day for each $50 of the fine nor shall it exceed a period of 90 consecutive days. In no case shall the total period of imprisonment in the case of a disorderly persons offense for both the sentence of imprisonment and for failure to pay a fine exceed six months.
Incarceration All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
If the court finds that the person defaulted on payment of a court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court without good cause and finds
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that the default was willful, the court may, in addition to the action required by paragraph (1) of this subsection a., impose a term of imprisonment or participation in a labor assistance program or enforced community service to achieve the objective of the court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court. These options shall not reduce the amount owed by the person in default. The term of imprisonment or enforced community service or participation in a labor assistance program in such case shall be specified in the order of commitment. It need not be equated with any particular dollar amount but, in the case of a fine it shall not exceed one day for each $50 of the fine nor shall it exceed a period of 90 consecutive days. In no case shall the total period of imprisonment in the case of a disorderly persons offense for both the sentence of imprisonment and for failure to pay a fine exceed six months.
Incarceration All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
If the court finds that the person defaulted on payment of a court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court without good cause and finds
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that the default was willful, the court may, in addition to the action required by paragraph (1) of this subsection a., impose a term of imprisonment or participation in a labor assistance program or enforced community service to achieve the objective of the court-imposed financial obligation, restitution, or child support or other support or maintenance ordered by a court. These options shall not reduce the amount owed by the person in default. The term of imprisonment or enforced community service or participation in a labor assistance program in such case shall be specified in the order of commitment. It need not be equated with any particular dollar amount but, in the case of a fine it shall not exceed one day for each $50 of the fine nor shall it exceed a period of 90 consecutive days. In no case shall the total period of imprisonment in the case of a disorderly persons offense for both the sentence of imprisonment and for failure to pay a fine exceed six months.
Incarceration All No
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New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:46-2 Consequences of Nonpayment
Except where incarceration is ordered pursuant to paragraph (2) of this subsection a., if the court finds that the person has defaulted the court may take one or more of the
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following actions: (a) the court shall take appropriate action to modify or establish a reasonable schedule for payment; (b) in the case of a fine, if the court finds that the circumstances that warranted the fine have changed or that it would be unjust to require payment, the court may revoke or suspend the fine or the unpaid portion of the fine; or (c) if the defendant has served jail time for default on a court-imposed financial obligation, the court may order that credit for each day of confinement be given against the amount owed. The amount of the credit shall be determined at the discretion of the court but shall be not less than $50 for each day of confinement served.
Payment plan/installment plan All No