Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3220A Prisoner Payment of Fees at Time of Filing of Action -- Partial Payment of Fees -- Dismissal of Action

(4)  If the court permits the prisoner's action to proceed on partial payment of court fees, the court shall assess and, when funds exist, collect a partial payment of any court

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fees as set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, an initial partial filing fee of twenty percent (20%) of the greater of: (a)  The average monthly deposits to the prisoner's inmate account; or (b)  The average monthly balance for the six (6) month period immediately preceding the filing of the action;   (5)  After payment of the initial partial filing fee, the prisoner shall be required to make monthly payments of twenty percent (20%) of the preceding month's income credited to the prisoner's inmate account until the full amount of all applicable court fees set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, are paid. The agency or entity having custody of the prisoner shall forward payments from the prisoner's inmate account to the clerk of the court each time the amount in the prisoner's inmate account exceeds ten dollars ($ 10.00) until the full amount of all applicable court fees set forth in sections 31-3201 and 31-3201A, Idaho Code, are paid.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201E Drug Court and Mental Health Court Fee -- Drug Court and Mental Health Court Fund

Each person admitted into a drug court or mental health court shall pay a drug court and mental health court fee in an amount not to exceed three hundred dollars

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($ 300) per month or a lesser amount as set by the administrative district judge for participants in the drug court and mental health court. ... Any failure to pay the drug court and mental health court fee may constitute grounds for termination from drug court or mental health court by the court, provided this shall not be the exclusive remedy for collection of the fee. If a participant is terminated from the drug court or mental health court prior to successful completion of the program and a judgment of conviction is entered against the defendant, any unpaid drug court and mental health court fee shall be ordered by the court in the judgment of conviction, provided the court may order such fee to be waived if the court determines that the person is indigent and unable to pay the fee. Such fee shall be in addition to all other fines and fees levied, and the payment of such fee may also be ordered as a term and condition of probation.

Other All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201D(1) County Misdemeanor Probation Supervision Fee

Any person under a supervised probation program for a misdemeanor offense shall be required to pay an amount not more than the maximum monthly felony probation or parole supervision fee

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set forth in section 20-225, Idaho Code, per month, or such lesser sum as determined by the administrative judge of the judicial district, as a misdemeanor probation supervision fee. Any failure to pay such fee shall constitute grounds for the revocation of probation by the court, but this shall not be the exclusive remedy for its collection. The court for good cause may exempt a person from the payment of all or any part of the foregoing fee.

Other All No
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Idaho Idaho code § 18-303 Common Law Offenses -- Punishment -- Imprisonment for Nonpayment of Fine

All offenses recognized by the common law as crimes and not herein enumerated are punishable, in case of felony, by imprisonment in the state prison for a term not less

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than one (1) year nor more than five (5) years; and in case of misdemeanors, by imprisonment in the county jail for a term not exceeding six (6) months or less than one (1) month, or by fine not exceeding $500, or both such fine and imprisonment. And whenever any fine is imposed for any felony or misdemeanor, whether such be by statute or at common law and the party upon whom the fine is imposed has the ability to pay said fine, the party upon whom the fine is imposed shall be committed to the county jail, when not sentenced to the state prison, until the fine is paid.

Incarceration All Yes
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Idaho Idaho code § 19-5304(4) Restitution for Crime Victims — Orders to be Separate — When Restitution is not Appropriate — Other Remedies — Evidentiary Hearings — Definitions

If a separate written order of restitution is issued, an order of restitution shall be for an amount certain and shall be due and owing at the time of sentencing

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or at the date the amount of restitution is determined, whichever is later. An order of restitution may provide for interest from the date of the economic loss or injury.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Idaho Idaho code § 19-5305 Collection of Judgments

(1) After forty-two (42) days from the entry of the order of restitution or at the conclusion of a hearing to reconsider an order of restitution, whichever occurs later, an

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order of restitution may be recorded as a judgment and the victim may execute as provided by law for civil judgments. (2) The clerk of the district court may take action to collect on the order of restitution on behalf of the victim and, with the approval of the administrative district judge, may use the procedures set forth in section 19-4708, Idaho Code, for the collection of the restitution.

Civil judgment, Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Idaho Idaho Code § 31-3201(4) Clerk of District Court -- Fees

Provided further, an additional handling fee of two dollars ($ 2.00) shall be imposed on each monthly installment of criminal or infraction fines, forfeitures, and other costs paid on a

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monthly basis.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Idaho Idaho Code § 20-225 Payment for Cost of Supervision

Any person under state probation or parole supervision shall be required to contribute not more than seventy-five dollars ($ 75.00) per month as determined by the board of correction. Costs

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of supervision are the direct and indirect costs incurred by the department of correction to supervise probationers and parolees, including tests to determine drug and alcohol use, books and written materials to support rehabilitation efforts, and monitoring of physical location through the use of technology. Any failure to pay such contribution shall constitute grounds for the revocation of probation by the court or the revocation of parole by the commission for pardons and parole. The division of probation and parole in the department of correction may exempt a person from the payment of all or any part of the foregoing contribution if it finds any of the following factors to exist: (1)  The offender has diligently attempted but been unable to obtain employment. (2)  The offender has a disability affecting employment, as determined by a physical, psychological or psychiatric examination acceptable to the division of probation and parole.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 20-624 Imprisonment for Fine

Whenever any defendant is confined solely for willful non-payment of any fine, the court, may, in lieu of payment, confine such person at the rate of thirty-five dollars ($ 35.00)

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per day until the fine imposed is satisfied.

Incarceration, Increased fine All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 19-5304 Restitution for Crime Victims -- Orders to be Separate -- When Restitution is not Appropriate -- Other Remedies -- Evidentiary Hearings -- Definitions

Unless the court determines that an order of restitution would be inappropriate or undesirable, it shall order a defendant found guilty of any crime which results in an economic loss

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to the victim to make restitution to the victim. An order of restitution shall be a separate written order in addition to any other sentence the court may impose, including incarceration, and may be complete, partial, or nominal. The court may also include restitution as a term and condition of judgment of conviction; however, if a court orders restitution in the judgment of conviction and in a separate written order, a defendant shall not be required to make restitution in an amount beyond that authorized by this chapter. Restitution shall be ordered for any economic loss which the victim actually suffers. The existence of a policy of insurance covering the victim's loss shall not absolve the defendant of the obligation to pay restitution.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Idaho Idaho Code § 19-4708(1);(2) Collection of Debts Owed to Courts -- Contracts for Collection

(1)  The supreme court, or the clerks of the district court with the approval of the administrative district judge, may enter into contracts in accordance with this section for collection services

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for debts owed to courts. The cost of collection shall be paid by the defendant or juvenile offender as an administrative surcharge when the defendant or juvenile offender fails to pay any amount ordered by the court and the court utilizes the services of a contracting agent pursuant to this section;  (2)  As used in this section: (a)  "Contracting agent" means a person, firm or other entity who contracts to provide collection services. (b)  "Cost of collection" means the fee specified in contracts to be paid to or retained by a contracting agent for collection services. (c)  "Debts owed to courts" means any assessment of fines, court costs, surcharges, penalties, fees, restitution, moneys expended in providing counsel and other defense services to indigent defendants or juvenile offenders or other charges which a court judgment or disposition has ordered to be paid to the court in civil, criminal, or juvenile cases, and which remain unpaid in whole or in part, and includes any interest or penalties on such unpaid amounts as provided for in the judgment or by law.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 55-50-507 Community Service Work
By a majority vote of the applicable local legislative body, any county or city may, by resolution or ordinance, establish a program that allows any person who is indigent and
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who has been convicted of driving while the person's license is cancelled, suspended, or revoked in violation of § 55-50-504(a) to complete community service work in lieu of paying the fines and other costs imposed for the conviction. The community service program shall be administered and monitored by the appropriate entity that administers court-ordered community service within the applicable jurisdiction.
Community service All No
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 41-2-129(b)(4) Compensation and salaries; work release (4) If the prisoner is gainfully self-employed, the prisoner shall pay for such board, in default of which the prisoner's privilege under §§ 41-2-127 -- 41-2-132 shall be automatically forfeited. Other All Yes
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 41-2-128(5) Prisoners who may apply for release -- Procedure.
(5) (A) The judge shall, at the time of sentencing, cause the sentencing order to reflect the defendant's cost of incarceration and treatment and shall affix to the order,
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taking into consideration the defendant's ability to pay, the time and manner in which the costs are to be paid. The court shall enter the necessary orders requiring that the costs of incarceration and treatment be paid or secured, including, but not limited to, orders of probation that include, as a condition thereof, the payment of costs covered by this subdivision (c)(5).
Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-24-104(b) Revocation of Driver's License
Whenever a court orders a defendant to pay a fine, imposed as a result of a traffic violation, in installment payments, the court shall revoke the defendant's privilege to operate
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a motor vehicle in this state upon the failure of the defendant to comply with the order of the court. If the defendant's privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked for the failure to comply with the court order, the privilege shall remain so revoked until the total amount of the fine imposed is paid.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-24-104(a) Imprisonment
If the defendant fails to pay the fine as directed, or is unable to pay the fine and so represents upon application to the court, the court, after inquiring into
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and making further investigation, if any, which it may deem necessary with regard to the defendant's financial and family situation and the reasons for nonpayment of the fine, including whether the nonpayment was contumacious or was due to indigency, may enter any order that it could have entered under § 40-24-101, or may reduce the fine to an amount that the defendant is able to pay, or may direct that the defendant be imprisoned until the fine, or any portion of it, remaining unpaid or remaining undischarged after a pro rata credit for any time that may already have been served in lieu of payments, is paid. The court shall determine and specify, in the light of defendant's situation and means and of defendant's conduct with regard to the nonpayment of the fine, the period of any imprisonment in default of payment of the fine within the limits of the penalties for a Class C misdemeanor.
Incarceration All No
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-24-101(a) Installments
(a) When any court of this state, including municipal courts for violation of municipal ordinances, imposes a fine upon an individual, the court may direct as follows: (1) That the
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defendant pay the entire amount at the time sentence is pronounced; (2) That the defendant pay the entire amount at some later date; (3) That the defendant pay the fine in specified portions or installments at designated periodic intervals and that the portions be remitted to a designated official, who shall report to the court in the event of any failure to comply with the order; or (4) Where the defendant is sentenced to a period of probation as well as a fine, that payment of the fine be a condition of the sentence.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-24-105(a) Collection; fines, costs and litigation taxes; license revocation
Unless discharged by payment or service of imprisonment in default of a fine, a fine may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action. The
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trial court may also enforce all orders assessing any fine remaining in default by contempt upon a finding by the court that the defendant has the present ability to pay the fine and willfully refuses to pay. Costs and litigation taxes due may be collected in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action, but shall not be deemed part of the penalty, and no person shall be imprisoned under this section in default of payment of costs or litigation taxes. The following shall be the allocation formula for moneys paid into court: the first moneys paid in any case shall first be credited toward payment of litigation taxes and once litigation taxes have been paid, the next moneys shall be credited toward payment of costs; then additional moneys shall be credited toward payment of the fine.
Property liens All No
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-24-105(b) Collection; fines, costs and litigation taxes; license revocation
A license issued under title 55 for any operator or chauffeur shall be revoked by the commissioner of safety if the licensee has not paid all litigation taxes, court costs,
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and fines assessed as a result of disposition of any offense under the criminal laws of this state within one (1) year of the date of disposition of the offense. The license shall remain revoked until such time as the person whose license has been revoked provides proof to the commissioner of safety that all litigation taxes, court costs, and fines have been paid.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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Tennessee Tenn. Code Ann. § 40-24-105(d)(2) Collection; fines, costs and litigation taxes; license revocation
On or after January 1, 2015, if an agent is used, the agent's collection fee shall be added to the total amount owed. The agent's collection fee shall not exceed
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forty percent (40%) of any amounts actually collected. When moneys are paid into court, the allocation formula outlined in subsection (a) shall be followed, except up to forty percent (40%) may be withheld for the collection agent, with the remainder being allocated according to the formula.
Collection fee/interest All Yes