Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

Keyword search across all of the laws in the states. Subject-area tabs above allow you to narrow results. Click the advanced search for further refinement.

Every law can be saved to the Reform Builder  

See all poverty penalty and poverty trap policy recommendations in CJPP’s Policy Guide

Below are the poverty penalties and poverty traps that meet your search criteria. Many include a See related provisions prompt which searches our database for laws that may pertain to your result.

61 Results

Export results to Excel

State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-6-3(a)(7) Conditions of probation and of conditional discharge

(7) if he or she is at least 17 years of age and has been sentenced to probation or conditional discharge for a misdemeanor or felony in a county of 3,000,000

+ See more
or more inhabitants and has not been previously convicted of a misdemeanor or felony, may be required by the sentencing court to attend educational courses designed to prepare the defendant for a high school diploma and to work toward a high school diploma or to work toward passing high school equivalency testing or to work toward completing a vocational training program approved by the court. The person on probation or conditional discharge must attend a public institution of education to obtain the educational or vocational training required by this paragraph (7). The court shall revoke the probation or conditional discharge of a person who wilfully fails to comply with this paragraph (7). The person on probation or conditional discharge shall be required to pay for the cost of the educational courses or high school equivalency testing if a fee is charged for those courses or testing. 

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-6-3(i) Conditions of probation and of conditional discharge

(i) The court shall impose upon an offender sentenced to probation after January 1, 1989 or to conditional discharge after January 1, 1992 or to community service under the supervision of

+ See more
a probation or court services department after January 1, 2004, as a condition of such probation or conditional discharge or supervised community service, a fee of $50 for each month of probation or conditional discharge supervision or supervised community service ordered by the court, unless after determining the inability of the person sentenced to probation or conditional discharge or supervised community service to pay the fee, the court assesses a lesser fee.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 730 ILCS 5/5-6-3(b)(10)(iv) Conditions of probation and of conditional discharge

(iv) for persons convicted of any alcohol, cannabis or controlled substance violation who are placed on an approved monitoring device as a condition of probation or conditional discharge, the court shall

+ See more
impose a reasonable fee for each day of the use of the device, as established by the county board in subsection (g) of this Section, unless after determining the inability of the offender to pay the fee, the court assesses a lesser fee or no fee as the case may be. 

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/124A-10 Lien

The property, real and personal, of a person who is convicted of an offense shall be bound, and a lien is created on the property, both real and personal, of

+ See more
every offender, not exempt from the enforcement of a judgment or attachment, from the time of finding the indictment at least so far as will be sufficient to pay the fine and costs of prosecution. 

Property liens All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 705 Ill. Comp. Stat. 105/27.2b State income tax refund intercept

The Clerk of the Circuit Court may enter into an agreement with the Illinois Department of Revenue to establish a pilot program for the purpose of collecting certain balances owed.

+ See more
The purpose shall be to intercept, in whole or in part, State income tax refunds due the persons who owe past due fees to the Clerk of the Circuit Court in order to satisfy unpaid assessments under the Criminal and Traffic Assessment Act [705 ILCS 135/1-1 et seq.] and fines as ordered by the court. 

Other All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-5-6(f) Restitution

Taking into consideration the ability of the defendant to pay, including any real or personal property or any other assets of the defendant, the court shall determine whether restitution shall

+ See more
be paid in a single payment or in installments, and shall fix a period of time not in excess of 5 years, except for violations of Sections 16-1.3 and 17-56 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/17-56], or the period of time specified in subsection (f-1), not including periods of incarceration, within which payment of restitution is to be paid in full. Complete restitution shall be paid in as short a time period as possible. However, if the court deems it necessary and in the best interest of the victim, the court may extend beyond 5 years the period of time within which the payment of restitution is to be paid. If the defendant is ordered to pay restitution and the court orders that restitution is to be paid over a period greater than 6 months, the court shall order that the defendant make monthly payments; the court may waive this requirement of monthly payments only if there is a specific finding of good cause for waiver.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-9-3(e) Fines: Default

An additional fee of 30% of the delinquent amount and each taxable court cost including, without limitation, costs of service of process, shall be charged to the offender for any

+ See more
amount of the fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture or installment of the fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture that remains unpaid after the time fixed for payment of the fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture by the court.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-9-3(a)-(b) Fines: Default

(a) An offender who defaults in the payment of a fine or any installment of that fine may be held in contempt and imprisoned for nonpayment. The court may issue a

+ See more
summons for his appearance or a warrant of arrest.

(b) Unless the offender shows that his default was not due to his intentional refusal to pay, or not due to a failure on his part to make a good faith effort to pay, the court may order the offender imprisoned for a term not to exceed 6 months if the fine was for a felony, or 30 days if the fine was for a misdemeanor, a petty offense or a business offense. Payment of the fine at any time will entitle the offender to be released, but imprisonment under this Section shall not satisfy the payment of the fine.

Incarceration All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-9-3(e) Fines: Default

A default in payment of a fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture shall draw interest at the rate of 9% per annum.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/113-3.1(g) Payment for Court-Appointed Counsel

A defendant who fails to obey any order of court entered under this Section may be punished for contempt of court. Any arrearage in payments may be reduced to judgment

+ See more
in the court's discretion and collected by any means authorized for the collection of money judgments under the law of this State.

Collection fee/interest All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

Illinois 625 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/6-206.1 Monitoring Device Driving Permit

Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared a policy of the State of Illinois that the driver who is impaired by alcohol, other drug or drugs, or intoxicating compound or

+ See more
compounds is a threat to the public safety and welfare. Therefore, to provide a deterrent to such practice, a statutory summary driver’s license suspension is appropriate. It is also recognized that driving is a privilege and therefore, that the granting of driving privileges, in a manner consistent with public safety, is warranted during the period of suspension in the form of a monitoring device driving permit . . . Any offender participating in the MDDP program must pay the Secretary a MDDP Administration Fee in an amount not to exceed $30 per month, to be deposited into the Monitoring Device Driving Permit Administration Fee Fund. The Secretary shall establish by rule the amount and the procedures, terms, and conditions relating to these fees. The offender must have an ignition interlock device installed within 14 days of the date the Secretary issues the MDDP. The ignition interlock device provider must notify the Secretary, in a manner and form prescribed by the Secretary, of the installation. If the Secretary does not receive notice of installation, the Secretary shall cancel the MDDP

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 15A-1340.38 Enforcement of certain orders for restitution
If the defendant is ordered to pay restitution under G.S. 15A-1340.34(b) as a condition of probation, a judgment docketed under this section may be collected in the same manner as
+ See more
a civil judgment. However, the docketed judgment for restitution may not be executed upon the property of the defendant until the date of notification to the clerk of superior court in the county of the original conviction that the judge presiding at the probation termination or revocation hearing has made a finding that restitution in a sum certain remains due and payable, that the defendant's probation has been terminated or revoked, and that the remaining balance of restitution owing may be collected by execution on the judgment. The clerk shall then enter upon the judgment docket the amount that remains due and payable on the judgment, together with amounts equal to the standard fees for docketing, copying, certifying, and mailing, as appropriate, and shall collect any other fees or charges incurred as in the enforcement of other civil judgments, including accrued interest.
Property liens All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 15A-1343(c1)-(e) Conditions of probation

(c1) Supervision Fee.--Any person placed on supervised probation pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall pay a supervision fee of forty dollars ($40.00) per month, unless exempted by the

+ See more
court. The court may exempt a person from paying the fee only for good cause and upon motion of the person placed on supervised probation. No person shall be required to pay more than one supervision fee per month. The court may require that the fee be paid in advance or in a lump sum or sums, and a probation officer may require payment by such methods if he is authorized by subsection (g) to determine the payment schedule. Supervision fees must be paid to the clerk of court for the county in which the judgment was entered, the deferred prosecution agreement was filed, or the conditional discharge was ordered. Fees collected under this subsection shall be transmitted to the State for deposit into the State's General Fund.

(c2) Electronic Monitoring Device Fees.--Any person placed on house arrest with electronic monitoring under subsection (a1) or (b1) of this section shall pay a fee of ninety dollars ($90.00) for the electronic monitoring device and a daily fee in an amount that reflects the actual cost of providing the electronic monitoring. The court may exempt a person from paying the fees only for good cause and upon motion of the person placed on house arrest with electronic monitoring. The court may require that the fees be paid in advance or in a lump sum or sums, and a probation officer may require payment by those methods if the officer is authorized by subsection (g) of this section to determine the payment schedule. The fees must be paid to the clerk of court for the county in which the judgment was entered, the deferred prosecution agreement was filed, or the conditional discharge was ordered. Fees collected under this subsection for the electronic monitoring device shall be transmitted to the State for deposit into the State's General Fund. The daily fees collected under this subsection shall be remitted to the Department of Public Safety to cover the costs of providing the electronic monitoring.

(d) Restitution as a Condition of Probation.--As a condition of probation, a defendant may be required to make restitution or reparation to an aggrieved party or parties who shall be named by the court for the damage or loss caused by the defendant arising out of the offense or offenses committed by the defendant. When restitution or reparation is a condition imposed, the court shall take into consideration the factors set out in G.S. 15A-1340.35 and G.S. 15A-1340.36. As used herein, “reparation” shall include but not be limited to the performing of community services, volunteer work, or doing such other acts or things as shall aid the defendant in his rehabilitation. As used herein “aggrieved party” includes individuals, firms, corporations, associations, other organizations, and government agencies, whether federal, State or local, including the Crime Victims Compensation Fund established by G.S. 15B-23. A government agency may benefit by way of reparation even though the agency was not a party to the crime provided that when reparation is ordered, community service work shall be rendered only after approval has been granted by the owner or person in charge of the property or premises where the work will be done.

(e) Costs of Court and Appointed Counsel.--Unless the court finds there are extenuating circumstances, any person placed upon supervised or unsupervised probation under the terms set forth by the court shall, as a condition of probation, be required to pay all court costs and all fees and costs for appointed counsel, public defender, or counsel employed by or under contract with the Office of Indigent Defense Services in the case in which the person was convicted. The fees and costs for appointed counsel, public defender, or other counsel services shall be determined in accordance with rules adopted by the Office of Indigent Defense Services. The court shall determine the amount of those costs and fees to be repaid and the method of payment.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 7A-321(b)(1) Collection of offender fines and fees assessed by the court; collection assistance fee

(b) In attempting to collect the fines, fees, costs, and restitution owed by offenders not sentenced to supervised probation or active time, the Administrative Office of the Courts may do

+ See more
the following:

(1) Assess a collection assistance fee if an amount due remains unpaid for 30 days after the time period allotted by the court. The amount of the collection assistance fee shall not exceed the average cost of collecting the debt or twenty percent (20%) of the amount past due, whichever is less.

(2) Enter into contracts with a collection agency, agencies, or municipal or county government agencies to collect unpaid amounts owed. The Administrative Office of the Courts may provide by such contract for the collection assistance fee to be retained by the agency or agencies that collect the amounts owed.

(3) Intercept tax refund checks under Chapter 105A of the General Statutes, the Setoff Debt Collection Act.

Collection fee/interest, Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 15A-1362(b)-(c) Imposition of fines

(b) Installment or Delayed Payments.--When a defendant is ordered to pay a fine, the court may provide for the payment to be made within a specified period of time or

+ See more
in specified installments. If no such provision is made a part of the sentence, the fine is payable forthwith.

(c) Nonpayment.--When a defendant is ordered, other than as a condition of probation, to pay a fine, costs, or both, the court may impose at the same time a sentence to be served in the event that the fine is not paid. The court also may impose an order that the defendant appear, if he fails to make the required payment, at a specified time to show cause why he should not be imprisoned.

Incarceration, Payment plan/installment plan All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 15A-1352(a)-(b) Commitment to Division of Adult Correction and Juvenile Justice of the Department of Public Safety or local confinement facility

(a) Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, a person sentenced to imprisonment for a misdemeanor under this Article or for nonpayment of a fine for conviction of

+ See more
a misdemeanor under Article 84 of this Chapter shall be committed for the term designated by the court to the Statewide Misdemeanant Confinement Program as provided in G.S. 148-32.1 or, if the period is for 90 days or less, to a local confinement facility, except as provided for in G.S. 148-32.1(b).

If a person is sentenced to imprisonment for a misdemeanor under this Article or for nonpayment of a fine under Article 84 of this Chapter, the sentencing judge may make a finding of fact as to whether the person would be suitable for placement in a county satellite jail/work release unit operated pursuant to G.S. 153A-230.3. If the sentencing judge makes a finding of fact that the person would be suitable for placement in a county satellite jail/work release unit and the person meets the requirements listed in G.S. 153A-230.3(a)(1), then the custodian of the local confinement facility may transfer the misdemeanant to a county satellite jail/work release unit.

(b) A person sentenced to imprisonment for a felony under this Article or for nonpayment of a fine for conviction of a felony under Article 84 of this Chapter shall be committed for the term designated by the court to the custody of the Division of Adult Correction and Juvenile Justice of the Department of Public Safety.

Incarceration Misdemeanor Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 15A-1364 Response to nonpayment

(a) Response to Default.--When a defendant who has been required to pay a fine or costs or both defaults in payment or in any installment, the court, upon the motion

+ See more
of the prosecutor or upon its own motion, may require the defendant to appear and show cause why he should not be imprisoned or may rely upon a conditional show cause order entered under G.S. 15A-1362(c). If the defendant fails to appear, an order for his arrest may be issued.

(b) Imprisonment; Criteria.--Following a requirement to show cause under subsection (a), unless the defendant shows inability to comply and that his nonpayment was not attributable to a failure on his part to make a good faith effort to obtain the necessary funds for payment, the court may order the suspended sentence, if any, activated, or, if the law provides no term of imprisonment for the offense for which the defendant was convicted or if no suspended sentence was imposed, the court may order the defendant imprisoned for a term not to exceed 30 days. The court, before activating a sentence of imprisonment, may reduce the sentence. The court may provide in its order that payment or satisfaction at any time of the fine and costs imposed by the court will entitle the defendant to his release from the imprisonment or, after entering the order, may at any time reduce the sentence for good cause shown, including payment or satisfaction of the fine.

(c) Modification of Fine or Costs.--If it appears that the default in the payment of a fine or costs is not attributable to failure on the defendant's part to make a good faith effort to obtain the necessary funds for payment, the court may enter an order: (1) Allowing the defendant additional time for payment; or (2) Reducing the amount of the fine or costs or of each installment; or (3) Revoking the fine or costs or the unpaid portion in whole or in part.

Incarceration, Payment plan/installment plan All No
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 7A-304(a)(6) Costs in criminal actions

For support of the General Court of Justice, the sum of two hundred dollars ($200.00) is payable by a defendant who fails to appear to answer the charge as scheduled,

+ See more
unless within 20 days after the scheduled appearance, the person either appears in court to answer the charge or disposes of the charge pursuant to G.S. 7A-146, and the sum of fifty dollars ($50.00) is payable by a defendant who fails to pay a fine, penalty, or costs within 40 days of the date specified in the court's judgment. Upon a showing to the court that the defendant failed to appear because of an error or omission of a judicial official, a prosecutor, or a law-enforcement officer, the court shall waive the fee for failure to appear.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 15A-1340.38(c) Enforcement of certain orders for restitution

(c) If the defendant is ordered to pay restitution under G.S. 15A-1340.34(b) as a condition of probation, a judgment docketed under this section may be collected in the same manner as a

+ See more
civil judgment. However, the docketed judgment for restitution may not be executed upon the property of the defendant until the date of notification to the clerk of superior court in the county of the original conviction that the judge presiding at the probation termination or revocation hearing has made a finding that restitution in a sum certain remains due and payable, that the defendant's probation has been terminated or revoked, and that the remaining balance of restitution owing may be collected by execution on the judgment. The clerk shall then enter upon the judgment docket the amount that remains due and payable on the judgment, together with amounts equal to the standard fees for docketing, copying, certifying, and mailing, as appropriate, and shall collect any other fees or charges incurred as in the enforcement of other civil judgments, including accrued interest. However, no interest shall accrue on the judgment until the entry of an order terminating or revoking probation and finding the amount remaining due and payable, at which time interest shall begin to accrue at the legal rate pursuant to G.S. 24-5. The interest shall be applicable to the amount determined at the termination or revocation hearing to be then due and payable. 

Collection fee/interest, Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
BS-+-Light-Rounded-Square
Add to Dashboard

+ Create New

North Carolina N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 6-48 Arrest for nonpayment of fine and costs

In default of payment of such fine and costs, it is the duty of the court at any subsequent term thereof, on motion of the solicitor of the State, to

+ See more
order a capias to issue to the end that such defendant may be again arrested and held for the fine and costs until discharged according to law.

Incarceration All Yes