Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-6-3(a)(7) Conditions of probation and of conditional discharge

(7) if he or she is at least 17 years of age and has been sentenced to probation or conditional discharge for a misdemeanor or felony in a county of 3,000,000

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or more inhabitants and has not been previously convicted of a misdemeanor or felony, may be required by the sentencing court to attend educational courses designed to prepare the defendant for a high school diploma and to work toward a high school diploma or to work toward passing high school equivalency testing or to work toward completing a vocational training program approved by the court. The person on probation or conditional discharge must attend a public institution of education to obtain the educational or vocational training required by this paragraph (7). The court shall revoke the probation or conditional discharge of a person who wilfully fails to comply with this paragraph (7). The person on probation or conditional discharge shall be required to pay for the cost of the educational courses or high school equivalency testing if a fee is charged for those courses or testing. 

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-6-3(i) Conditions of probation and of conditional discharge

(i) The court shall impose upon an offender sentenced to probation after January 1, 1989 or to conditional discharge after January 1, 1992 or to community service under the supervision of

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a probation or court services department after January 1, 2004, as a condition of such probation or conditional discharge or supervised community service, a fee of $50 for each month of probation or conditional discharge supervision or supervised community service ordered by the court, unless after determining the inability of the person sentenced to probation or conditional discharge or supervised community service to pay the fee, the court assesses a lesser fee.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Illinois 730 ILCS 5/5-6-3(b)(10)(iv) Conditions of probation and of conditional discharge

(iv) for persons convicted of any alcohol, cannabis or controlled substance violation who are placed on an approved monitoring device as a condition of probation or conditional discharge, the court shall

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impose a reasonable fee for each day of the use of the device, as established by the county board in subsection (g) of this Section, unless after determining the inability of the offender to pay the fee, the court assesses a lesser fee or no fee as the case may be. 

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Illinois 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/124A-10 Lien

The property, real and personal, of a person who is convicted of an offense shall be bound, and a lien is created on the property, both real and personal, of

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every offender, not exempt from the enforcement of a judgment or attachment, from the time of finding the indictment at least so far as will be sufficient to pay the fine and costs of prosecution. 

Property liens All Yes
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Illinois 705 Ill. Comp. Stat. 105/27.2b State income tax refund intercept

The Clerk of the Circuit Court may enter into an agreement with the Illinois Department of Revenue to establish a pilot program for the purpose of collecting certain balances owed.

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The purpose shall be to intercept, in whole or in part, State income tax refunds due the persons who owe past due fees to the Clerk of the Circuit Court in order to satisfy unpaid assessments under the Criminal and Traffic Assessment Act [705 ILCS 135/1-1 et seq.] and fines as ordered by the court. 

Other All No
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Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-5-6(f) Restitution

Taking into consideration the ability of the defendant to pay, including any real or personal property or any other assets of the defendant, the court shall determine whether restitution shall

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be paid in a single payment or in installments, and shall fix a period of time not in excess of 5 years, except for violations of Sections 16-1.3 and 17-56 of the Criminal Code of 1961 or the Criminal Code of 2012 [720 ILCS 5/17-56], or the period of time specified in subsection (f-1), not including periods of incarceration, within which payment of restitution is to be paid in full. Complete restitution shall be paid in as short a time period as possible. However, if the court deems it necessary and in the best interest of the victim, the court may extend beyond 5 years the period of time within which the payment of restitution is to be paid. If the defendant is ordered to pay restitution and the court orders that restitution is to be paid over a period greater than 6 months, the court shall order that the defendant make monthly payments; the court may waive this requirement of monthly payments only if there is a specific finding of good cause for waiver.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-9-3(e) Fines: Default

An additional fee of 30% of the delinquent amount and each taxable court cost including, without limitation, costs of service of process, shall be charged to the offender for any

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amount of the fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture or installment of the fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture that remains unpaid after the time fixed for payment of the fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture by the court.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-9-3(a)-(b) Fines: Default

(a) An offender who defaults in the payment of a fine or any installment of that fine may be held in contempt and imprisoned for nonpayment. The court may issue a

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summons for his appearance or a warrant of arrest.

(b) Unless the offender shows that his default was not due to his intentional refusal to pay, or not due to a failure on his part to make a good faith effort to pay, the court may order the offender imprisoned for a term not to exceed 6 months if the fine was for a felony, or 30 days if the fine was for a misdemeanor, a petty offense or a business offense. Payment of the fine at any time will entitle the offender to be released, but imprisonment under this Section shall not satisfy the payment of the fine.

Incarceration All No
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Illinois 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-9-3(e) Fines: Default

A default in payment of a fine, fee, cost, restitution, or judgment of bond forfeiture shall draw interest at the rate of 9% per annum.

Collection fee/interest All Yes
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Illinois 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/113-3.1(g) Payment for Court-Appointed Counsel

A defendant who fails to obey any order of court entered under this Section may be punished for contempt of court. Any arrearage in payments may be reduced to judgment

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in the court's discretion and collected by any means authorized for the collection of money judgments under the law of this State.

Collection fee/interest All No
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Illinois 625 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/6-206.1 Monitoring Device Driving Permit

Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared a policy of the State of Illinois that the driver who is impaired by alcohol, other drug or drugs, or intoxicating compound or

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compounds is a threat to the public safety and welfare. Therefore, to provide a deterrent to such practice, a statutory summary driver’s license suspension is appropriate. It is also recognized that driving is a privilege and therefore, that the granting of driving privileges, in a manner consistent with public safety, is warranted during the period of suspension in the form of a monitoring device driving permit . . . Any offender participating in the MDDP program must pay the Secretary a MDDP Administration Fee in an amount not to exceed $30 per month, to be deposited into the Monitoring Device Driving Permit Administration Fee Fund. The Secretary shall establish by rule the amount and the procedures, terms, and conditions relating to these fees. The offender must have an ignition interlock device installed within 14 days of the date the Secretary issues the MDDP. The ignition interlock device provider must notify the Secretary, in a manner and form prescribed by the Secretary, of the installation. If the Secretary does not receive notice of installation, the Secretary shall cancel the MDDP

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-2110 Failure to comply with traffic citation; misdemeanor; suspension of driver's license; restricted driving privileges; fees for mailing notice; reinstatement fee; authorized only by legislative enactment; disposition of reinstatement fees
When a person fails to comply with a traffic citation, except for illegal parking, standing or stopping, the district or municipal court in which the person should have complied with
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the citation shall mail notice to the person that if the person does not appear in district or municipal court or pay all fines, court costs and any penalties within 30 days from the date of mailing notice, the division of vehicles will be notified to suspend the person's driving privileges. The district or municipal court may charge an additional fee of $5 for mailing such notice.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment Misdemeanor Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-1567 Driving a commercial motor vehicle under the influence; penalties
In lieu of payment of a fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may order that the person perform community service specified by the court. The person shall receive
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a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed not later than one year after the fine is imposed or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date.
Community service All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(q) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993
In imposing a fine, the court may authorize the payment thereof in installments. In lieu of payment of any fine imposed, the court may order that the person perform community
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service specified by the court. The person shall receive a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed by the later of one year after the fine is imposed or one year after release from imprisonment or jail, or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance shall become due on that date. If conditional reduction of any fine is rescinded by the court for any reason, then pursuant to the court's order the person may be ordered to perform community service by one year after the date of such rescission or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date. All credits for community service shall be subject to review and approval by the court.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6607(b)(11) Conditions of probation or suspended sentence; correctional supervision fee; correctional supervision fund; searches; drug testing; written reports
The court may impose any conditions of probation, suspension of sentence or assignment to a community correctional services program that the court deems proper, including, but not limited to, requiring
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that the defendant: (11) perform services under a system of day fines whereby the defendant is required to satisfy fines, costs or reparation or restitution obligations by performing services for a period of days, determined by the court on the basis of ability to pay, standard of living, support obligations and other factors;
Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6607(b)(7) Conditions of probation or suspended sentence; correctional supervision fee; correctional supervision fund; searches; drug testing; written reports
The court may impose any conditions of probation, suspension of sentence or assignment to a community correctional services program that the court deems proper, including, but not limited to, requiring
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that the defendant: (7) pay a fine or costs, applicable to the offense, in one or several sums and in the manner as directed by the court;
Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-3425(1) Commitment for failure to pay fine and costs
(1) When a defendant is adjudged to pay a fine and costs, the court may order him to be committed to the county jail until such fine and costs are
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paid or may make an order providing for the payment of such fines and costs in installments.
Incarceration All No
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Kansas K.S.A. Const. Bill of Rights § 16 Imprisonment for debt No person shall be imprisoned for debt, except in cases of fraud. Incarceration All Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-3425(2) Commitment for failure to pay fine and costs
Any person confined in the county jail for failure to pay a fine or costs may be released by the court which imposed sentence, upon satisfactory proof that such person
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is unable to pay such fine and costs. A release under this section shall not discharge a person from his liability to pay the fine and costs adjudged against him, but they may thereafter be collected by execution as on judgments in civil cases.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(b)(1)(2) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993
If the court orders restitution, the restitution shall be a judgment against the defendant which may be collected by the court by garnishment or other execution as on judgments in
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civil cases. If, after 60 days from the date restitution is ordered by the court, a defendant is found to be in noncompliance with the plan established by the court for payment of restitution, and the victim to whom restitution is ordered paid has not initiated proceedings in accordance with K.S.A. 60-4301 et seq., and amendments thereto, the court shall assign an agent procured by the attorney general pursuant to K.S.A. 75-719, and amendments thereto, to collect the restitution on behalf of the victim. The chief judge of each judicial district may assign such cases to an appropriate division of the court for the conduct of civil collection proceedings.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No