Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 33-37-5-22 (b) Applicability — Late Payment Fee — Requirement to Pay — Defendant Not Indigent

A court may adopt a local rule to impose a late payment fee under this section on defendants described in subsection (a).

Increased fine All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 35-38-1-18 (d)(2)-(3) Payment of Fines

(d) Upon any default in the payment of the fine:... (2) the court may direct that the person, if the person is not indigent, be committed to the county jail

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and credited toward payment at the rate of twenty dollars ($20) for each twenty-four (24) hour period the person is confined, until the amount paid plus the amount credited equals the entire amount due; or (3) the court may institute contempt proceedings or order the convicted person’s wages, salary, and other income garnished in accordance with IC 24-4.5-5-105 to enforce the court’s order for payment of the fine.

Incarceration, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 35-38-2-1.7 (d) Payment of Probation User’s Fee — Lien — Garnishment

If a court orders a person to pay a probation user's fee under section 1 or 1.5 of this chapter, the court may garnish the wages, salary, and other income

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earned by the person to enforce the order.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 33-37-4-10 Itemized Fee Bills — Duty of Sheriff to Collect

(a) Not later than seventy-five (75) days after judgment is entered in an action, the clerk shall issue an itemized fee bill for the collection of fees that were charged

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against the party in that action and that remain unpaid. The clerk shall present the fee bill for collection to the sheriff of a county in which the debtor party resides or in which the debtor party has property.(b) The sheriff shall do the following: (1) Collect the amount due under the fee bill. (2) Return the fee bill to the clerk not more than sixty (60) days after the day the fee bill was issued. (c) After presented to the sheriff, a fee bill has the effect of an execution and operates as a lien upon the real and personal property of the debtor. (d) A successor of an officer may issue fee bills for the fees of the officer's predecessors in office in the manner provided under this chapter. A clerk may issue the fee bills of the sheriff or the former sheriffs of the county in the same manner.

Property liens All Yes
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 9-30-11-3 Notice to Three - Time Violator

If it appears from the records of a court that has jurisdiction to enforce ordinances that regulate parking violations that three (3) judgments concerning a motor vehicle have not been

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paid before the deadlines established by a statute, an ordinance, or a court order, the clerk of the court shall send a notice to the person who is the registered owner of the motor vehicle. The notice must inform the person of the following:(1) That the clerk will send a referral to the bureau if the judgments are not paid within thirty (30) days after a notice was mailed. (2) That the referral will result in the suspension of the motor vehicle's registration if the judgments are not paid.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-50-5-3 (b); (h) Restitution Orders

(b) A restitution order under subsection (a), (i), (j), (l), or (m), is a judgment lien that:(1) attaches to the property of the person subject to the order; (2) may

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be perfected; (3) may be enforced to satisfy any payment that is delinquent under the restitution order by the person in whose favor the order is issued or the person's assignee; and (4) expires; in the same manner as a judgment lien created in a civil proceeding ... (h) The attorney general may pursue restitution ordered by the court under subsections (a) and (c) on behalf of the victim services division of the Indiana criminal justice institute established under IC 5-2-6-8.

Civil judgment, Property liens All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-33-8-3.3 (h) - (m) Pretrial Services Fees

(i) A probation department or pretrial services agency may petition a court to: (1) impose a pretrial services fee on a defendant; or (2) increase a defendant’s pretrial services fee; if the financial

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ability of the defendant to pay a pretrial services fee changes while the defendant is on bail and supervised by a probation officer or pretrial services agency.   (j) An order to pay a pretrial services fee under this section: (1) is a judgment lien that, upon the defendant’s conviction (A) attaches to the property of the defendant; (B) may be perfected; (C) may be enforced to satisfy any payment that is delinquent under this section; and (D) expires; in the same manner as a judgment lien created in a civil proceeding; (2) is not discharged by the disposition of charges against the defendant or by the completion of a sentence, if any, imposed on the defendant; (3) is not discharged by the liquidation of a defendant’s estate by a receiver under IC 32-30-5; and (4) is immediately terminated if a defendant is acquitted or if charges against the defendant are dropped.    (k) If a court orders a defendant to pay a pretrial services fee, the court may, upon the defendant’s conviction, enforce the order by garnishing the wages, salary, and other income earned by the defendant.   (l) In addition to other methods of payment allowed by law, a probation department or pretrial services agency may accept payment of a pretrial services fee by credit card (as defined in IC 14-11-1-7(a)). The liability for payment is not discharged until the probation department or pretrial services agency receives payment or credit from the institution responsible for making the payment or credit.   (m) The probation department or pretrial services agency may contract with a bank or credit card vendor for acceptance of a bank or credit card. However, if there is a vendor transaction charge or discount fee, whether billed to the probation department or pretrial services agency, or charged directly to the account of the probation department or pretrial services agency, the probation department or pretrial services agency may collect a credit card service fee from the person using the bank or credit card. The fee collected under this subsection is a permitted additional charge to the fee or fees the defendant may be required to pay under subsection (e).

Collection fee/interest, Increased fine, Property liens, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 33-37-2-3 (a)(4); (d) Indigency Hearing — Suspension of Costs — Default — Fees for Representation — Rights and Protections

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), when the court imposes costs, it shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the convicted person is indigent. If the person is not indigent,

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the court shall order the person to pay: ... (4) the entire amount of the costs at some later date, less any amount credited under subsections (g) through (i) for the performance of: (A) allowable community service work ordered by the court as part of the person’s sentence or as part of the person’s probation; or (B) uncompensated volunteer work approved by the court at a nonprofit or municipal corporation that benefits the community, even if the volunteer work is not ordered by the court. ... (d) Upon any default in the payment of the costs: (1) an attorney representing the county may bring an action on a debt for the unpaid amount; (2) the court may direct that the person, if the person is not indigent, be committed to the county jail and credited toward payment at the rate of twenty dollars ($20) for each twenty-four (24) hour period the person is confined, until the amount paid plus the amount credited equals the entire amount due; or (3) the court may institute contempt proceedings to enforce the court's order for payment of the costs.

Civil judgment, Community service, Incarceration All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 604-A:9(I) Repayment

The state may collect from the defendant a service charge of up to 10 percent of the total amount of fees and expenses owed by such defendant.

Collection fee/interest All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 263:56-a Suspension or Revocation for Default, Noncompliance, or Nonpayment of Fine

Whenever any defendant: . . . (b) Fails to pay a fine or other penalty imposed in connection with a conviction of any offense which a court has determined he

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is able to pay, or issues a bad check in payment of a fine or other penalty; or (c) Fails to comply with a similar order of the director or a court on any matter within the director's or court's jurisdiction, his driver's license or resident or nonresident driving privilege and in any motor vehicle case or related case the resident plates and motor vehicle registration shall be suspended or revoked only upon written consent of the director, effective 30 days after such default or failure, except as provided in subparagraph I(d) of this section.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 631:2-b Domestic Violence

In addition to any other penalty authorized by law, the court shall levy a fine of $50 for each conviction under this section. If the court determines that the defendant

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is unable to pay the fine on the date imposed, the court may defer payment or order periodic payments thereof. Fines imposed under this section shall not be subject to an additional penalty assessment. The clerk shall forward all fines collected under this paragraph to the department of health and human services for the purposes of RSA 173-B:15.

Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 504-A:13(I) Supervision and Service Charges

The court shall establish a supervision fee for probationers, and the parole board shall establish a supervision fee for parolees. The fee shall not be less than $40 a month,

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unless waived in whole or in part by the court, board or commissioner, and may be any greater amount as established by the court or board. This fee shall be considered a condition of release, and failure to satisfy this obligation shall be grounds for a violation hearing, unless the probationer or parolee has been found to be indigent and, for that reason, unable to pay the fee. Service charges for collection of fines and fees, other than supervision fees, shall be established at 10 percent of the funds collected.

Collection fee/interest, Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 490:26-a(II-a) Court Fees and Fines; Credit Card Payments

The supreme court may establish by rule an equitable fee of not less than $25 to be added to a fine whenever a court extends the time for the payment

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of the fine. An equitable fee assessed by a court under this paragraph shall be paid prior to or simultaneously with the payment of the fine.

Collection fee/interest All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 618:7 Execution

A writ of execution may be issued for any fine in a criminal case, notwithstanding the respondent may be committed or detained in a county correctional facility for nonpayment thereof,

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and if the fine is collected upon the execution, the convict shall not be further detained on account thereof.

Incarceration All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 618:6 Place of Committal

Any person sentenced to pay a fine shall be ordered to be imprisoned until sentence is performed, or he or she is otherwise legally discharged, in the county correctional facility

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in which the crime was committed. This section shall not be construed as authorizing the confinement of any juvenile under the age of 17 years in a county correctional facility for the nonpayment of a fine.

Incarceration All Yes
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 651:22 Jurisdiction Over and Disposition of Wages and Income

In any criminal case, in addition to such other terms and conditions as may be imposed by the court, a defendant who has received a suspended sentence or who has

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been released under RSA 651:19 may be required by the court to surrender to the department of corrections or other agency designated by the court all or part of his wages or other income, less standard payroll deduction required by law, earned during the time he is not confined under the sentence. The court may direct that, after deducting therefrom the cost of his maintenance while not confined, the balance be applied as needed for restitution payments made to authorized claimants pursuant to RSA 651:62 through 66 and for the support and maintenance of his dependents. Any balance after such applications shall be deposited in a savings account to be released to him or applied as needed for restitution payments or the support of his dependents as the court may order, or applied to the designated cost of room and board at the institution for the period of time during which the inmate is working before the expiration of his sentence. Upon expiration of his sentence the balance remaining shall be paid to him or his order.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 651:64(I),(III) Time and Method of Restitution

I. The time and method of restitution payments or performance of restitution services shall be specified by the department of corrections. Monetary restitution may be by lump sum, or by

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periodic installments in any amounts.

III. The department may garnish the offender's wages for the purpose of ensuring payment of victim restitution.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 651:67(I) Failure to Make Restitution

Any offender who is sentenced to make restitution under RSA 651:63, and who purposely violates the court's order by either failing to make restitution or by defaulting in the payment

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or performance of the restitution authorized, may be prosecuted for contempt.

Incarceration All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 524:6-a(I) Periodic Payment of Judgments

Whenever judgment is rendered against any person in this state, the court in which the judgment is rendered shall either at the time of rendition of the judgment inquire of

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the defendant as to the defendant's ability to pay the judgment in full or, upon petition of the plaintiff after judgment, order the defendant to appear in court for such inquiry. The court may at either time order the defendant to make such periodic payments as the court in its discretion deems appropriate. If the court orders the defendant to make periodic payments at the time of rendition of judgment, the order shall not provide for payments to begin until after the appeal period has expired. Failure to make such periodic payments shall constitute civil contempt of court unless the judge, upon inquiry, finds that the failure was the result of a change in circumstances, or the failure was not intentional or in bad faith, or for other good cause. The court may order the appropriate agencies to make an investigation and recommendation as to the defendant's ability to pay the judgment. The judgment may be enforced against any property of any kind of the debtor, except such income and property as is now exempt from attachment or execution. Unless the parties otherwise agree, after an order for periodic payments has been issued by the court, no writ of execution shall be issued by the court without prior notice to the defendant. II. Any income from a retirement plan or arrangement qualified for tax exemption purposes, as defined by RSA 511:2, XIX, shall be exempt from periodic payments up to the amount of 50 times the minimum hourly wage as established by the Fair Labor Standards Act, per week. If the defendant shares income and expenses with another person with whom he or she lives, and both people receive income from such a retirement plan or arrangement, any income from such a retirement plan or arrangement and belonging to either person shall be exempt from periodic payments up to the amount of 100 times the minimum hourly wage as established by the Fair Labor Standards Act, in total, per week.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. § 604-A:9(III) Adequate Representation for Indigent Defendants in Criminal Cases: Repayment

If any repayment ordered pursuant to paragraph I becomes overdue, the court having originally appointed counsel may order any employer of a former defendant to deduct from that person's wages

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or salary the appropriate amount due and to pay such amount to the appropriate department as determined under paragraph I, which shall refund such amount to the state, provided that no money, rights, or credits listed in RSA 512:21 shall be subject to deduction.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No