Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 33-37-5-22 (b) Applicability — Late Payment Fee — Requirement to Pay — Defendant Not Indigent

A court may adopt a local rule to impose a late payment fee under this section on defendants described in subsection (a).

Increased fine All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 35-38-1-18 (d)(2)-(3) Payment of Fines

(d) Upon any default in the payment of the fine:... (2) the court may direct that the person, if the person is not indigent, be committed to the county jail

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and credited toward payment at the rate of twenty dollars ($20) for each twenty-four (24) hour period the person is confined, until the amount paid plus the amount credited equals the entire amount due; or (3) the court may institute contempt proceedings or order the convicted person’s wages, salary, and other income garnished in accordance with IC 24-4.5-5-105 to enforce the court’s order for payment of the fine.

Incarceration, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 35-38-2-1.7 (d) Payment of Probation User’s Fee — Lien — Garnishment

If a court orders a person to pay a probation user's fee under section 1 or 1.5 of this chapter, the court may garnish the wages, salary, and other income

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earned by the person to enforce the order.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Ind. Code § 33-37-4-10 Itemized Fee Bills — Duty of Sheriff to Collect

(a) Not later than seventy-five (75) days after judgment is entered in an action, the clerk shall issue an itemized fee bill for the collection of fees that were charged

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against the party in that action and that remain unpaid. The clerk shall present the fee bill for collection to the sheriff of a county in which the debtor party resides or in which the debtor party has property.(b) The sheriff shall do the following: (1) Collect the amount due under the fee bill. (2) Return the fee bill to the clerk not more than sixty (60) days after the day the fee bill was issued. (c) After presented to the sheriff, a fee bill has the effect of an execution and operates as a lien upon the real and personal property of the debtor. (d) A successor of an officer may issue fee bills for the fees of the officer's predecessors in office in the manner provided under this chapter. A clerk may issue the fee bills of the sheriff or the former sheriffs of the county in the same manner.

Property liens All Yes
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 9-30-11-3 Notice to Three - Time Violator

If it appears from the records of a court that has jurisdiction to enforce ordinances that regulate parking violations that three (3) judgments concerning a motor vehicle have not been

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paid before the deadlines established by a statute, an ordinance, or a court order, the clerk of the court shall send a notice to the person who is the registered owner of the motor vehicle. The notice must inform the person of the following:(1) That the clerk will send a referral to the bureau if the judgments are not paid within thirty (30) days after a notice was mailed. (2) That the referral will result in the suspension of the motor vehicle's registration if the judgments are not paid.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-50-5-3 (b); (h) Restitution Orders

(b) A restitution order under subsection (a), (i), (j), (l), or (m), is a judgment lien that:(1) attaches to the property of the person subject to the order; (2) may

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be perfected; (3) may be enforced to satisfy any payment that is delinquent under the restitution order by the person in whose favor the order is issued or the person's assignee; and (4) expires; in the same manner as a judgment lien created in a civil proceeding ... (h) The attorney general may pursue restitution ordered by the court under subsections (a) and (c) on behalf of the victim services division of the Indiana criminal justice institute established under IC 5-2-6-8.

Civil judgment, Property liens All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-33-8-3.3 (h) - (m) Pretrial Services Fees

(i) A probation department or pretrial services agency may petition a court to: (1) impose a pretrial services fee on a defendant; or (2) increase a defendant’s pretrial services fee; if the financial

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ability of the defendant to pay a pretrial services fee changes while the defendant is on bail and supervised by a probation officer or pretrial services agency.   (j) An order to pay a pretrial services fee under this section: (1) is a judgment lien that, upon the defendant’s conviction (A) attaches to the property of the defendant; (B) may be perfected; (C) may be enforced to satisfy any payment that is delinquent under this section; and (D) expires; in the same manner as a judgment lien created in a civil proceeding; (2) is not discharged by the disposition of charges against the defendant or by the completion of a sentence, if any, imposed on the defendant; (3) is not discharged by the liquidation of a defendant’s estate by a receiver under IC 32-30-5; and (4) is immediately terminated if a defendant is acquitted or if charges against the defendant are dropped.    (k) If a court orders a defendant to pay a pretrial services fee, the court may, upon the defendant’s conviction, enforce the order by garnishing the wages, salary, and other income earned by the defendant.   (l) In addition to other methods of payment allowed by law, a probation department or pretrial services agency may accept payment of a pretrial services fee by credit card (as defined in IC 14-11-1-7(a)). The liability for payment is not discharged until the probation department or pretrial services agency receives payment or credit from the institution responsible for making the payment or credit.   (m) The probation department or pretrial services agency may contract with a bank or credit card vendor for acceptance of a bank or credit card. However, if there is a vendor transaction charge or discount fee, whether billed to the probation department or pretrial services agency, or charged directly to the account of the probation department or pretrial services agency, the probation department or pretrial services agency may collect a credit card service fee from the person using the bank or credit card. The fee collected under this subsection is a permitted additional charge to the fee or fees the defendant may be required to pay under subsection (e).

Collection fee/interest, Increased fine, Property liens, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 33-37-2-3 (a)(4); (d) Indigency Hearing — Suspension of Costs — Default — Fees for Representation — Rights and Protections

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), when the court imposes costs, it shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the convicted person is indigent. If the person is not indigent,

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the court shall order the person to pay: ... (4) the entire amount of the costs at some later date, less any amount credited under subsections (g) through (i) for the performance of: (A) allowable community service work ordered by the court as part of the person’s sentence or as part of the person’s probation; or (B) uncompensated volunteer work approved by the court at a nonprofit or municipal corporation that benefits the community, even if the volunteer work is not ordered by the court. ... (d) Upon any default in the payment of the costs: (1) an attorney representing the county may bring an action on a debt for the unpaid amount; (2) the court may direct that the person, if the person is not indigent, be committed to the county jail and credited toward payment at the rate of twenty dollars ($20) for each twenty-four (24) hour period the person is confined, until the amount paid plus the amount credited equals the entire amount due; or (3) the court may institute contempt proceedings to enforce the court's order for payment of the costs.

Civil judgment, Community service, Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-60 Installment payments

A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which such judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments

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and the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-62 Failure to pay installments--Suspension of licenses.

In the event the judgment debtor referred to in § 32-35-61 fails to pay any installment as specified by such order, then upon notice of such default, the Department of

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Public Safety shall forthwith suspend the license or nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall forthwith suspend the registration of the judgment debtor until such judgment is satisfied, as provided in this chapter.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-23-4.10 Costs payable to county--Nonpayment punishable by contempt.

In addition to any other penalty, assessment, or fine provided by law, the court shall order any person convicted of a crime for a violation of § 32-23-1 to remit

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costs in the amount of fifty dollars to the clerk of courts. The clerk of courts shall forward any amount collected pursuant to this section to the county treasurer for deposit in the county general fund. Failure to remit the amount to the clerk of courts in the time specified by the court is punishable by contempt proceedings.

Incarceration All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-47-6 Failure to comply with plan of restitution or of financial obligation constitutes violation of conditions — Modification of plan — Contempt

Failure of any individual in this system to comply with the plan of restitution or plan for financial obligations as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of

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the conditions within this system. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or financial obligation, extend the period of time for restitution or financial obligation, or continue the individual in the administrative financial accountability system. If the individual fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the individual may be held in contempt of the court’s order.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-10 Funds of defendant — Order for reimbursement — Applicability — Credit against lien

If the court finds that funds are available for payment from or on behalf of a defendant to carry out, in whole or in part, the provisions of this chapter,

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the court may order that the funds be paid, as court costs or as a condition of probation, to the court for deposit with the county or municipal treasurer, to be placed in the county or municipal general fund or in the public defender fund in those counties establishing the office pursuant to subdivision 23A-40-7(1) as a reimbursement to the county or municipality to carry out the provisions of this section. The court may also order payment to be made in the form of installments or wage assignments, in amounts set by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge, either during the time a charge is pending or after the disposition of the charge, regardless of whether the defendant has been acquitted or the case has been dismissed by the prosecution or by order of the court. The provisions of this section also apply to persons who have had counsel appointed under chapters 26-7A, 26-8A, 26-8B, and 26-8C. The reimbursement is a credit against any lien created by the provisions of this chapter against the property of the defendant.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-11 Lien for cost of provision of counsel — Limitation

A lien, enforceable as provided by this chapter, upon all the property, both real and personal, of any person, including the parents of a minor child, for whom legal counsel

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or a public defender has been appointed under the provisions of § 23A-40-6, subdivisions 23A-40-7(2) and (3), or § 26-7A-31 may be filed. The services rendered and expenses incurred are a claim against the person and that person's estate, enforceable according to law in an amount to be determined by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge and paid by the county or municipality chargeable for them. A lien on the parents of a minor child pursuant to this section may not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars plus an amount equal to any taxable court costs.

Property liens All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-52 Suspension of license for failure to pay judgment

The Department of Public Safety upon receipt of a certified copy of a judgment shall forthwith suspend the license and any nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall

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forthwith suspend the registration of any person against whom such judgment was rendered except as provided in §§ 32-35-53 to 32-35-56, inclusive.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-57 Length of suspension pursuant to Section 32-35-52

A license, registration, and nonresident's operating privilege suspended pursuant to § 32-35-52 shall remain so suspended and shall not be renewed, nor shall any such license or registration be thereafter

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issued in the name of such person, including any such person not previously licensed, unless and until every such judgment is stayed, satisfied in full, or to the extent provided in § 32-35-59, and until the said person gives proof of financial responsibility subject to the exemptions stated in §§ 32-35-54, 32-35-55, and 32-35-61.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 216-15-7
Resistance to judicial process as misdemeanorEvery person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a
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Class 2 misdemeanor.

Every person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-18.3 Conditions required on probation or suspension of sentence

The conditions of probation imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-12 or 23A-27-13 or the conditions of a suspension of execution imposed pursuant to § 23A-27-18 may provide in addition to any

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other conditions, as an explicit condition of probation, suspended imposition of sentence, or suspended execution of sentence that the defendant:
(1) Pay a fine or perform community service work as directed by the court; or
(2) Receive treatment for chemical dependency at any South Dakota treatment facility accredited pursuant to § 34-20A-27 and reimburse the county for costs of treatment ordered by the court; or
(3) Make restitution pursuant to the provisions of chapter 23A-28.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-25.4 Default in payment of fine or costs and restitution

If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine, costs, or restitution, defaults in the timely payment thereof, the court may, upon its own motion or upon motion of the state's

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attorney, require the defendant to show cause why he should not be imprisoned or jailed for nonpayment. The court may issue a warrant of arrest, bench warrant, or order to show cause for the defendant's appearance.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 223A-27-25.5 Hearing required prior to imprisonment or jailing for failure to pay fine, costs, and restitution--Burden of proof--Computation of time to be served

No defendant may be imprisoned or jailed for failure to pay a fine, costs, or restitution or have any suspended prison or jail sentence revoked without a prior hearing. At

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the hearing, the defendant has the burden of proof to establish to the reasonable satisfaction of the magistrate or circuit judge that the defendant did not willfully fail to pay the fine, costs, or restitution or that the defendant did make a bona fide effort to pay the fine, costs, or restitution.
Failure by the defendant to make such a showing is grounds for being imprisoned or jailed. If the sentence provided for payment of fine or costs only, the term of jail or imprisonment may be no longer than the number of days equal to the total amount of the fine or costs imposed divided by sixty. For purposes of making this computation, any fraction of less than one day shall be dropped from the term of imprisonment. In no event may such imprisonment for failure to pay the fine, costs, and restitution together with all other time served or to be served exceed the maximum allowed by statute.
If the defendant establishes that nonpayment was not willful or that the defendant did make a bona fide effort to pay, the defendant may not be imprisoned or jailed for nonpayment. The magistrate or circuit judge shall consider other alternatives which take into account the state's interest in punishment and deterrence.
The court shall make findings in its decision.

Incarceration All No