Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.5 Nonpayment of fines and court costs — contempt

A person who is able to pay a fine, court-imposed court costs for a criminal proceeding, or both, or an installment of the fine or the court-imposed court costs, or

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both, and who refuses to do so, or who fails to make a good faith effort to pay the fine, court costs, or both, or any installment thereof, shall be held in contempt of court.

Incarceration All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 665.4 Contempts: Punishment

The punishment for contempt, where not otherwise specifically provided, shall be:

1. In the supreme court or the court of appeals, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars or by

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imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

2. Before district judges, district associate judges, and associate juvenile judges by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars or imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months or by both such fine and imprisonment.

3. Before judicial magistrates, by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding thirty days.

Increased fine All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 665.5 Contempts: Imprisonment

If the contempt consists in an omission to perform an act which is yet in the power of the person to perform, the person may be imprisoned until the person

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performs it. In that case the act to be performed must be specified in the warrant of the commitment.

Incarceration All No
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Iowa Iowa Code § 8A.504(d)(3),(2) Setoff Procedures

d. “Qualifying debt” includes, but is not limited to, the following: (3) Any debt which is in the form of a liquidated sum due, owing, and payable to the clerk of

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the district court.

2. Setoff procedure. The collection entity shall establish and maintain a procedure to set off against any claim owed to a person by a public agency any liability of that person owed to a public agency, a support debt being enforced by the child support recovery unit pursuant to chapter 252B, or such other qualifying debt.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.4(1)(a)-(b) Condition of probation — payment plan

1. When restitution is ordered by the sentencing court and the offender is placed on probation, restitution shall be a condition of probation.

a. Failure of the offender to comply with

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the plan of restitution, plan of payment, or community service requirements when community service is ordered by the court as restitution, shall constitute a violation of probation and shall constitute contempt of court.

b. If an offender fails to comply with restitution requirements during probation, the court may hold the offender in contempt, revoke probation, or extend the period of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.5(4)(b) Condition of work release or parole

If an offender is to be placed on parole, restitution shall be a condition of parole.

b. After the expiration of the offender’s sentence, the failure of an offender to comply with

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the plan of restitution ordered by the court shall constitute contempt of court.

Incarceration All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.7A Judgment — enforcement.

1. An order requiring an offender to pay restitution constitutes a judgment and lien against all property of a liable defendant for the amount the defendant is obligated to pay

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under the order and may be recorded in any office for the filing of liens against real or personal property.

2. A judgment of restitution may be enforced by the state, a victim entitled under the order to receive restitution, a deceased victim’s estate, or any other beneficiary of the judgment in the same manner as a civil judgment.

Property liens All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.3A Community service option

The court may, in its discretion, order the defendant to perform community service work of an equivalent value to the fine imposed where it appears that the community service work

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will be adequate to deter the defendant and to discourage others from similar criminal activity. The rate at which community service shall be calculated shall be the federal or state minimum wage, whichever is higher.

Community service All No
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Iowa Iowa Code Ann. § 910.4(1) Condition of probation--payment plan

1. When restitution is ordered by the sentencing court and the offender is placed on probation, restitution shall be a condition of probation.

a. Failure of the offender to comply with the plan

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of restitution, plan of payment, or community service requirements when community service is ordered by the court as restitution, shall constitute a violation of probation and shall constitute contempt of court.

b. If an offender fails to comply with restitution requirements during probation, the court may hold the offender in contempt, revoke probation, or extend the period of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Iowa Iowa Code § 815.9(7)-(8) Indigency determined — penalty

7. When ordering payment of all or a portion of the total costs and fees incurred for legal assistance under subsection 6, the court may order payment of the costs and

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fees in reasonable installments as provided in section 909.3, or may order the entire amount due and payable. If any costs and fees are not paid at the time specified in the order of the court, a judgment shall be entered against the person for any unpaid amount. Such judgment may be enforced by the state in the same manner as a civil judgment.

8. If a person is granted an appointed attorney or has received legal assistance in accordance with this section and the person is employed, the person shall execute an assignment of wages. An order for assignment of income, in a reasonable amount to be determined by the court, shall be entered by the court. The state public defender shall prescribe forms for use in wage assignments and court orders entered under this subsection.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 321.210A(1) Suspension for failure to pay fine, surcharge, or costs

1. The department shall suspend the driver’s license of a person who, upon conviction of violating a law regulating the operation of a motor vehicle, has failed to pay the criminal

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fine or penalty, surcharge, or court costs, as follows:

a. Upon the failure of a person to timely pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs the clerk of the district court shall notify the person by regular mail that if the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs remain unpaid after sixty days from the date of mailing, the clerk will notify the department of the failure for purposes of instituting suspension procedures.

b. Upon the failure of a person to pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs within sixty days’ notice by the clerk of the district court as provided in paragraph “b”, the clerk shall report the failure to the department.

c. Upon receipt of a report of a failure to pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs from the clerk of the district court, the department shall in accordance with its rules, suspend the person’s driver’s license until the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs are paid.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.3 Criminal Corrections - Fines: Payment in installments

1. All fines imposed by the court shall be paid on the day the fine is imposed, and the person shall be instructed to pay such fines with the office of

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the clerk of the district court on the date of imposition.

2. a. The court may, in its discretion, order a fine to be paid in installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Missouri Mo. Ann. Stat. § 558.006 Response to nonpayment

When an offender sentenced to pay a fine defaults in the payment of the fine or in any installment, the fine or installment shall be collected by any means authorized for the enforcement

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collection of money judgments, other than a lien against real estate, or may be waived at the discretion of the sentencing judge.

Other, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Missouri Mo. Ann. Stat. § 559.016(3) Terms of probation - extension

The court may extend a period of probation, however, no more than one extension of any probation may be ordered except that the court may extend the total time on

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probation by one additional year by order of the court if the defendant admits he or she has violated the conditions of his or her probation or is found by the court to have violated the conditions of his or her probation. 

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Missouri Mo. Ann. Stat. § 559.021(2)(1) Conditions of probation--compensation of victims--free work, public or charitable--defendant not an employee for workers’ compensation purposes--payment to county restitution fund, when

In addition to such other authority as exists to order conditions of probation, the court may order such conditions as the court believes will serve to compensate the victim, any

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dependent of the victim, any statutorily created fund for costs incurred as a result of the offender's actions, or society. Such conditions may include restorative justice methods pursuant to section 217.777, or any other method that the court finds just or appropriate including, but not limited to: (1) Restitution to the victim or any dependent of the victim, or statutorily created fund for costs incurred as a result of the offender's actions in an amount to be determined by the judge.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Missouri Mo. Ann. Stat. § 476.120 Punishment for contempt

Punishment for contempt may be by fine or imprisonment in the jail of the county where the court may be sitting, or both, in the discretion of the court.

Incarceration, Increased fine All No
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Missouri Mo. Ann. Stat. § 488.020 Collection of court costs, when, how

Upon notification to the party from whom the fee is due, a failure to pay the fee after such notice, and a showing of the party's ability to pay the

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fee, the court may hold the party in contempt.

Incarceration, Increased fine, Other All No
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Missouri Mo. Rev. Stat. § 488.020(3)-(4) Collection of court costs, when, how

The supreme court may provide by rule for imposition of interest on any court costs not paid within thirty days of when due. If any court cost is not paid

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when due, the following actions may be taken:

(3) Upon notification to the party from whom the court cost is due, and upon failure to pay the fee after such notice, the court may inform the office of administration of any delinquencies in excess of twenty-five dollars. Upon receiving such notice, and without further notice by the office of administration to the defaulting party, the office of administration shall deduct the amount of unpaid court costs from any payment by the state to the defaulting party under any provision of law. The office of administration shall transmit the amount set off to the court, and shall send the excess amount to the payee, with a notice that the remainder of the refund was transmitted to the court in satisfaction of all or part of the unpaid court costs. The office of administration and its officials and employees shall not be liable to any person for any action taken in accordance with the requirements of this subdivision. Any proceeding contesting any action taken by a court or the office of administration pursuant to this subdivision shall be brought in the court which certified such unpaid fees to the office of administration, and shall be deemed ancillary to the proceeding for which such unpaid fees were assessed. No appearance, responsive pleading or discovery shall be due from the office of administration in such proceeding except upon order of the court;

(4) Upon notification to the party from whom the fee is due, a failure to pay the fee after such notice, and a showing of the party's ability to pay the fee, the court may hold the party in contempt.

 

Collection fee/interest, Incarceration, Increased fine, Other, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Missouri Mo. Const. Art. 1, § 11 Imprisonment for debt

That no person shall be imprisoned for debt, except for nonpayment of fines and penalties imposed by law.

Incarceration All No
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Missouri Mo. Ann. Stat. § 600.090(2) Determination of ability to pay all or part of representation costs--lien for reasonable value of services, procedure--deposit of funds collected

If at any time, either during or after the disposition of his case, such defendant becomes financially able to meet all or some part of the cost of services rendered

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to him, he shall be required to reimburse the commission in such amounts as he can reasonably pay, either by a single payment or by installments of reasonable amounts, in accordance with a schedule of charges for public defender services prepared by the commission.

Payment plan/installment plan All No