Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.5 Nonpayment of fines and court costs — contempt

A person who is able to pay a fine, court-imposed court costs for a criminal proceeding, or both, or an installment of the fine or the court-imposed court costs, or

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both, and who refuses to do so, or who fails to make a good faith effort to pay the fine, court costs, or both, or any installment thereof, shall be held in contempt of court.

Incarceration All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 665.4 Contempts: Punishment

The punishment for contempt, where not otherwise specifically provided, shall be:

1. In the supreme court or the court of appeals, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars or by

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imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

2. Before district judges, district associate judges, and associate juvenile judges by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars or imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months or by both such fine and imprisonment.

3. Before judicial magistrates, by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding thirty days.

Increased fine All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 665.5 Contempts: Imprisonment

If the contempt consists in an omission to perform an act which is yet in the power of the person to perform, the person may be imprisoned until the person

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performs it. In that case the act to be performed must be specified in the warrant of the commitment.

Incarceration All No
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Iowa Iowa Code § 8A.504(d)(3),(2) Setoff Procedures

d. “Qualifying debt” includes, but is not limited to, the following: (3) Any debt which is in the form of a liquidated sum due, owing, and payable to the clerk of

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the district court.

2. Setoff procedure. The collection entity shall establish and maintain a procedure to set off against any claim owed to a person by a public agency any liability of that person owed to a public agency, a support debt being enforced by the child support recovery unit pursuant to chapter 252B, or such other qualifying debt.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.4(1)(a)-(b) Condition of probation — payment plan

1. When restitution is ordered by the sentencing court and the offender is placed on probation, restitution shall be a condition of probation.

a. Failure of the offender to comply with

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the plan of restitution, plan of payment, or community service requirements when community service is ordered by the court as restitution, shall constitute a violation of probation and shall constitute contempt of court.

b. If an offender fails to comply with restitution requirements during probation, the court may hold the offender in contempt, revoke probation, or extend the period of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.5(4)(b) Condition of work release or parole

If an offender is to be placed on parole, restitution shall be a condition of parole.

b. After the expiration of the offender’s sentence, the failure of an offender to comply with

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the plan of restitution ordered by the court shall constitute contempt of court.

Incarceration All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.7A Judgment — enforcement.

1. An order requiring an offender to pay restitution constitutes a judgment and lien against all property of a liable defendant for the amount the defendant is obligated to pay

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under the order and may be recorded in any office for the filing of liens against real or personal property.

2. A judgment of restitution may be enforced by the state, a victim entitled under the order to receive restitution, a deceased victim’s estate, or any other beneficiary of the judgment in the same manner as a civil judgment.

Property liens All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.3A Community service option

The court may, in its discretion, order the defendant to perform community service work of an equivalent value to the fine imposed where it appears that the community service work

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will be adequate to deter the defendant and to discourage others from similar criminal activity. The rate at which community service shall be calculated shall be the federal or state minimum wage, whichever is higher.

Community service All No
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Iowa Iowa Code Ann. § 910.4(1) Condition of probation--payment plan

1. When restitution is ordered by the sentencing court and the offender is placed on probation, restitution shall be a condition of probation.

a. Failure of the offender to comply with the plan

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of restitution, plan of payment, or community service requirements when community service is ordered by the court as restitution, shall constitute a violation of probation and shall constitute contempt of court.

b. If an offender fails to comply with restitution requirements during probation, the court may hold the offender in contempt, revoke probation, or extend the period of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Iowa Iowa Code § 815.9(7)-(8) Indigency determined — penalty

7. When ordering payment of all or a portion of the total costs and fees incurred for legal assistance under subsection 6, the court may order payment of the costs and

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fees in reasonable installments as provided in section 909.3, or may order the entire amount due and payable. If any costs and fees are not paid at the time specified in the order of the court, a judgment shall be entered against the person for any unpaid amount. Such judgment may be enforced by the state in the same manner as a civil judgment.

8. If a person is granted an appointed attorney or has received legal assistance in accordance with this section and the person is employed, the person shall execute an assignment of wages. An order for assignment of income, in a reasonable amount to be determined by the court, shall be entered by the court. The state public defender shall prescribe forms for use in wage assignments and court orders entered under this subsection.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 321.210A(1) Suspension for failure to pay fine, surcharge, or costs

1. The department shall suspend the driver’s license of a person who, upon conviction of violating a law regulating the operation of a motor vehicle, has failed to pay the criminal

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fine or penalty, surcharge, or court costs, as follows:

a. Upon the failure of a person to timely pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs the clerk of the district court shall notify the person by regular mail that if the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs remain unpaid after sixty days from the date of mailing, the clerk will notify the department of the failure for purposes of instituting suspension procedures.

b. Upon the failure of a person to pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs within sixty days’ notice by the clerk of the district court as provided in paragraph “b”, the clerk shall report the failure to the department.

c. Upon receipt of a report of a failure to pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs from the clerk of the district court, the department shall in accordance with its rules, suspend the person’s driver’s license until the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs are paid.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.3 Criminal Corrections - Fines: Payment in installments

1. All fines imposed by the court shall be paid on the day the fine is imposed, and the person shall be instructed to pay such fines with the office of

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the clerk of the district court on the date of imposition.

2. a. The court may, in its discretion, order a fine to be paid in installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.270 Effect of felony conviction on property of defendant

No conviction of any person for crime works any forfeiture of any property, except in cases where the same is expressly provided by law; but in all cases of the

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commission or attempt to commit a felony, the state has a lien, from the time of such commission or attempt, upon all the property of the defendant for the purpose of satisfying any judgment which may be given against the defendant for any fine on account thereof and for the costs and disbursements in the proceedings against the defendant for such crime; provided, however, such lien shall not attach to such property as against a purchaser or incumbrancer in good faith, for value, whose interest in the property was acquired before the entry of the judgment against the defendant. [Formerly 137.460; 2003 c.576 Or. Rev. Stat. §191]

Property liens Felony No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 137.520(4) Power of committing magistrate to parole and grant temporary release to persons confined in county jail; authority of sheriff to release county jail inmates; disposition of work release earnings

A defendant confined in a county jail and placed upon educational release or upon work release shall, during the hours in which not so engaged or employed, be confined in

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the county jail unless the court by order otherwise directs or unless the sheriff otherwise directs in the absence of a contrary order by the court. The defendants net earnings shall be paid to the sheriff, who shall deduct therefrom and pay such sums as may be ordered by the court for the defendants board, restitution, fine, support of dependents and necessary personal expense. Any balance remaining shall be retained by the sheriff until the defendants discharge from custody, whereupon the balance shall be paid to the defendant.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 156.315(1)-(2) Assignment of judgment to Department of Revenue. [Effective January 1, 2020]

(1) A justice court may assign a judgment in a criminal action, as described in ORS 137.118 (1) to (5), to the Collections Unit in the Department of Revenue for the following purposes:

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(a) To determine whether refunds or other sums are owed to the debtor by the department; and (b) To deduct the amount of the debt from any refunds or other sums owed to the debtor by the department.

(2) If the Collections Unit determines that refunds or other sums are owed to the debtor, the department shall deduct the amount of the debt from any refunds or other sums owed to the debtor by the department. After also deducting costs of its actions under this section, the department shall remit the amount deducted from refunds or other sums owed to the debtor to the justice court that assigned the judgment.

Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 161.675 Time and method of payment of fines, restitution and costs

(1) When a defendant, as a part of a sentence or as condition of probation or suspension of sentence, is required to pay a sum of money for any purpose, the

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court may order payment to be made immediately or within a specified period of time or in specified installments. If a defendant is sentenced to a term of imprisonment, any part of the sentence that requires the payment of a sum of money for any purpose is enforceable during the period of imprisonment if the court expressly finds that the defendant has assets to pay all or part of the amounts ordered.

(2) When a defendant whose sentence requires the payment of a sum of money for any purpose is also sentenced to probation or imposition or execution of sentence is suspended, the court may make payment of the sum of money a condition of probation or suspension of sentence.

(3) When a defendant is sentenced to probation or imposition or execution of sentence is suspended and the court requires as a part of the sentence or as a condition of the probation or suspension of sentence that the defendant pay a sum of money in installments, the court, or the court clerk or parole and probation officer if so ordered by the court, shall establish a schedule of payments to satisfy the obligation. A schedule of payments shall be reviewed by the court upon motion of the defendant at any time, so long as the obligation remains unsatisfied.

Condition or extension of supervision, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 161.685(4)-(6) Effect of nonpayment of fines, restitution or costs; report to consumer reporting agency; rules

(4)Notwithstanding ORS 33.105, the term of confinement for contempt for nonpayment of fines or failure to make restitution shall be set forth in the commitment order, and shall not exceed

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one day for each $25 of the fine or restitution, 30 days if the fine or order of restitution was imposed upon conviction of a violation or misdemeanor, or one year in any other case, whichever is the shorter period.

(5) If it appears to the satisfaction of the court that the default in the payment of a fine or restitution is not contempt, the court may enter an order allowing the defendant additional time for payment, reducing the amount of the payment or installments due on the payment, or revoking the fine or order of restitution in whole or in part.

(6) A default in the payment of a fine or costs or failure to make restitution or a default on an installment on a fine, costs or restitution may be collected by any means authorized by law for the enforcement of a judgment. The levy of execution or garnishment for the collection of a fine or restitution shall not discharge a defendant confined for contempt until the amount of the fine or restitution has actually been collected.

Incarceration, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 1.005 Credit card transactions for fees, security deposits, fines and other court-imposed obligations; rules

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court or the presiding judge of any judicial district of this state may establish by rule a program to permit the use of credit

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card transactions as security deposits, fines, assessments, restitution or any other court-imposed monetary obligation arising out of an offense. The program may also provide for the use of credit card transactions to pay for filing fees, response fees, certification fees and any other fees charged by the court. Any rules adopted pursuant to this section may provide for recovery from the person using the credit card of an additional amount reasonably calculated to recover any charge to the court by a credit card company resulting from use of the credit card.

Other All No
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 809.210(1) Suspension or restriction of driving privileges for failure to pay fine or obey court order; exceptions

(1) A court may do any of the following if the defendant is convicted of any traffic offense and fails or refuses to pay a fine imposed by the court or

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to comply with any condition upon which payment of the fine or any part of it was suspended: (a) Issue a notice of suspension to the Department of Transportation that directs the department to implement procedures under ORS 809.416. (b) Order a defendant’s driving privileges restricted.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment Traffic Yes
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Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 1.202(1) Fee for establishing and administering account for judgment that includes monetary obligation; fee for judgment referred for collection

(1) All circuit courts and appellate courts of this state, and all commissions, departments and divisions in the judicial branch of state government, shall add a fee of not less than

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$ 50 and not more than $ 200 to any judgment that includes a monetary obligation that the court or judicial branch is charged with collecting. The fee shall cover the cost of establishing and administering an account for the debtor and shall be added without further notice to the debtor or further order of the court. The fee shall be added only if the court gives the defendant a period of time in which to pay the obligation after the financial obligation is imposed. Fees under this subsection shall be deposited in the General Fund.

(2) All circuit courts and appellate courts of this state, and all commissions, departments and divisions in the judicial branch of state government, that use private collection agencies, the Department of Revenue or an offset of federal tax refunds pursuant to an agreement entered into under ORS 1.196 shall add a fee to any judgment referred for collection that includes a monetary obligation that the state court or the commission, department or division is charged with collecting. A fee to cover the costs of collecting judgments referred to the private collection agency, the Department of Revenue, the United States Financial Management Service or the Internal Revenue Service shall be added to the monetary obligation without further notice to the debtor or further order of the court. The fee may not exceed the actual costs of collecting the judgment.

Collection fee/interest, Increased fine All Yes