Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.5 Nonpayment of fines and court costs — contempt

A person who is able to pay a fine, court-imposed court costs for a criminal proceeding, or both, or an installment of the fine or the court-imposed court costs, or

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both, and who refuses to do so, or who fails to make a good faith effort to pay the fine, court costs, or both, or any installment thereof, shall be held in contempt of court.

Incarceration All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 665.4 Contempts: Punishment

The punishment for contempt, where not otherwise specifically provided, shall be:

1. In the supreme court or the court of appeals, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars or by

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imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

2. Before district judges, district associate judges, and associate juvenile judges by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars or imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding six months or by both such fine and imprisonment.

3. Before judicial magistrates, by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding thirty days.

Increased fine All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 665.5 Contempts: Imprisonment

If the contempt consists in an omission to perform an act which is yet in the power of the person to perform, the person may be imprisoned until the person

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performs it. In that case the act to be performed must be specified in the warrant of the commitment.

Incarceration All No
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Iowa Iowa Code § 8A.504(d)(3),(2) Setoff Procedures

d. “Qualifying debt” includes, but is not limited to, the following: (3) Any debt which is in the form of a liquidated sum due, owing, and payable to the clerk of

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the district court.

2. Setoff procedure. The collection entity shall establish and maintain a procedure to set off against any claim owed to a person by a public agency any liability of that person owed to a public agency, a support debt being enforced by the child support recovery unit pursuant to chapter 252B, or such other qualifying debt.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.4(1)(a)-(b) Condition of probation — payment plan

1. When restitution is ordered by the sentencing court and the offender is placed on probation, restitution shall be a condition of probation.

a. Failure of the offender to comply with

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the plan of restitution, plan of payment, or community service requirements when community service is ordered by the court as restitution, shall constitute a violation of probation and shall constitute contempt of court.

b. If an offender fails to comply with restitution requirements during probation, the court may hold the offender in contempt, revoke probation, or extend the period of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.5(4)(b) Condition of work release or parole

If an offender is to be placed on parole, restitution shall be a condition of parole.

b. After the expiration of the offender’s sentence, the failure of an offender to comply with

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the plan of restitution ordered by the court shall constitute contempt of court.

Incarceration All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 910.7A Judgment — enforcement.

1. An order requiring an offender to pay restitution constitutes a judgment and lien against all property of a liable defendant for the amount the defendant is obligated to pay

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under the order and may be recorded in any office for the filing of liens against real or personal property.

2. A judgment of restitution may be enforced by the state, a victim entitled under the order to receive restitution, a deceased victim’s estate, or any other beneficiary of the judgment in the same manner as a civil judgment.

Property liens All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.3A Community service option

The court may, in its discretion, order the defendant to perform community service work of an equivalent value to the fine imposed where it appears that the community service work

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will be adequate to deter the defendant and to discourage others from similar criminal activity. The rate at which community service shall be calculated shall be the federal or state minimum wage, whichever is higher.

Community service All No
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Iowa Iowa Code Ann. § 910.4(1) Condition of probation--payment plan

1. When restitution is ordered by the sentencing court and the offender is placed on probation, restitution shall be a condition of probation.

a. Failure of the offender to comply with the plan

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of restitution, plan of payment, or community service requirements when community service is ordered by the court as restitution, shall constitute a violation of probation and shall constitute contempt of court.

b. If an offender fails to comply with restitution requirements during probation, the court may hold the offender in contempt, revoke probation, or extend the period of probation.

Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Iowa Iowa Code § 815.9(7)-(8) Indigency determined — penalty

7. When ordering payment of all or a portion of the total costs and fees incurred for legal assistance under subsection 6, the court may order payment of the costs and

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fees in reasonable installments as provided in section 909.3, or may order the entire amount due and payable. If any costs and fees are not paid at the time specified in the order of the court, a judgment shall be entered against the person for any unpaid amount. Such judgment may be enforced by the state in the same manner as a civil judgment.

8. If a person is granted an appointed attorney or has received legal assistance in accordance with this section and the person is employed, the person shall execute an assignment of wages. An order for assignment of income, in a reasonable amount to be determined by the court, shall be entered by the court. The state public defender shall prescribe forms for use in wage assignments and court orders entered under this subsection.

Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Iowa Iowa Code § 909.3 Criminal Corrections - Fines: Payment in installments

1. All fines imposed by the court shall be paid on the day the fine is imposed, and the person shall be instructed to pay such fines with the office of

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the clerk of the district court on the date of imposition.

2. a. The court may, in its discretion, order a fine to be paid in installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-60 Installment payments

A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which such judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments

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and the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

Payment plan/installment plan All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-62 Failure to pay installments--Suspension of licenses.

In the event the judgment debtor referred to in § 32-35-61 fails to pay any installment as specified by such order, then upon notice of such default, the Department of

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Public Safety shall forthwith suspend the license or nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall forthwith suspend the registration of the judgment debtor until such judgment is satisfied, as provided in this chapter.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-23-4.10 Costs payable to county--Nonpayment punishable by contempt.

In addition to any other penalty, assessment, or fine provided by law, the court shall order any person convicted of a crime for a violation of § 32-23-1 to remit

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costs in the amount of fifty dollars to the clerk of courts. The clerk of courts shall forward any amount collected pursuant to this section to the county treasurer for deposit in the county general fund. Failure to remit the amount to the clerk of courts in the time specified by the court is punishable by contempt proceedings.

Incarceration All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-47-6 Failure to comply with plan of restitution or of financial obligation constitutes violation of conditions — Modification of plan — Contempt

Failure of any individual in this system to comply with the plan of restitution or plan for financial obligations as approved or modified by the court constitutes a violation of

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the conditions within this system. Without limitation, the court may modify the plan of restitution or financial obligation, extend the period of time for restitution or financial obligation, or continue the individual in the administrative financial accountability system. If the individual fails to make payment as ordered by the court, the individual may be held in contempt of the court’s order.

Incarceration All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-10 Funds of defendant — Order for reimbursement — Applicability — Credit against lien

If the court finds that funds are available for payment from or on behalf of a defendant to carry out, in whole or in part, the provisions of this chapter,

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the court may order that the funds be paid, as court costs or as a condition of probation, to the court for deposit with the county or municipal treasurer, to be placed in the county or municipal general fund or in the public defender fund in those counties establishing the office pursuant to subdivision 23A-40-7(1) as a reimbursement to the county or municipality to carry out the provisions of this section. The court may also order payment to be made in the form of installments or wage assignments, in amounts set by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge, either during the time a charge is pending or after the disposition of the charge, regardless of whether the defendant has been acquitted or the case has been dismissed by the prosecution or by order of the court. The provisions of this section also apply to persons who have had counsel appointed under chapters 26-7A, 26-8A, 26-8B, and 26-8C. The reimbursement is a credit against any lien created by the provisions of this chapter against the property of the defendant.

Payment plan/installment plan, Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 23A-40-11 Lien for cost of provision of counsel — Limitation

A lien, enforceable as provided by this chapter, upon all the property, both real and personal, of any person, including the parents of a minor child, for whom legal counsel

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or a public defender has been appointed under the provisions of § 23A-40-6, subdivisions 23A-40-7(2) and (3), or § 26-7A-31 may be filed. The services rendered and expenses incurred are a claim against the person and that person's estate, enforceable according to law in an amount to be determined by a judge of the circuit court or a magistrate judge and paid by the county or municipality chargeable for them. A lien on the parents of a minor child pursuant to this section may not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars plus an amount equal to any taxable court costs.

Property liens All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-52 Suspension of license for failure to pay judgment

The Department of Public Safety upon receipt of a certified copy of a judgment shall forthwith suspend the license and any nonresident's operating privilege and the Department of Revenue shall

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forthwith suspend the registration of any person against whom such judgment was rendered except as provided in §§ 32-35-53 to 32-35-56, inclusive.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 32-35-57 Length of suspension pursuant to Section 32-35-52

A license, registration, and nonresident's operating privilege suspended pursuant to § 32-35-52 shall remain so suspended and shall not be renewed, nor shall any such license or registration be thereafter

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issued in the name of such person, including any such person not previously licensed, unless and until every such judgment is stayed, satisfied in full, or to the extent provided in § 32-35-59, and until the said person gives proof of financial responsibility subject to the exemptions stated in §§ 32-35-54, 32-35-55, and 32-35-61.

Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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South Dakota S.D. Codified Laws § 216-15-7
Resistance to judicial process as misdemeanorEvery person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a
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Class 2 misdemeanor.

Every person guilty of any contempt of court by intentional disobedience of any process or order lawfully issued by any court is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Incarceration All No