Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-2110 Failure to comply with traffic citation; misdemeanor; suspension of driver's license; restricted driving privileges; fees for mailing notice; reinstatement fee; authorized only by legislative enactment; disposition of reinstatement fees
When a person fails to comply with a traffic citation, except for illegal parking, standing or stopping, the district or municipal court in which the person should have complied with
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the citation shall mail notice to the person that if the person does not appear in district or municipal court or pay all fines, court costs and any penalties within 30 days from the date of mailing notice, the division of vehicles will be notified to suspend the person's driving privileges. The district or municipal court may charge an additional fee of $5 for mailing such notice.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment Misdemeanor Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 8-1567 Driving a commercial motor vehicle under the influence; penalties
In lieu of payment of a fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may order that the person perform community service specified by the court. The person shall receive
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a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed not later than one year after the fine is imposed or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date.
Community service All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(q) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993
In imposing a fine, the court may authorize the payment thereof in installments. In lieu of payment of any fine imposed, the court may order that the person perform community
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service specified by the court. The person shall receive a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed by the later of one year after the fine is imposed or one year after release from imprisonment or jail, or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance shall become due on that date. If conditional reduction of any fine is rescinded by the court for any reason, then pursuant to the court's order the person may be ordered to perform community service by one year after the date of such rescission or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date. All credits for community service shall be subject to review and approval by the court.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6607(b)(11) Conditions of probation or suspended sentence; correctional supervision fee; correctional supervision fund; searches; drug testing; written reports
The court may impose any conditions of probation, suspension of sentence or assignment to a community correctional services program that the court deems proper, including, but not limited to, requiring
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that the defendant: (11) perform services under a system of day fines whereby the defendant is required to satisfy fines, costs or reparation or restitution obligations by performing services for a period of days, determined by the court on the basis of ability to pay, standard of living, support obligations and other factors;
Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6607(b)(7) Conditions of probation or suspended sentence; correctional supervision fee; correctional supervision fund; searches; drug testing; written reports
The court may impose any conditions of probation, suspension of sentence or assignment to a community correctional services program that the court deems proper, including, but not limited to, requiring
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that the defendant: (7) pay a fine or costs, applicable to the offense, in one or several sums and in the manner as directed by the court;
Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-3425(1) Commitment for failure to pay fine and costs
(1) When a defendant is adjudged to pay a fine and costs, the court may order him to be committed to the county jail until such fine and costs are
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paid or may make an order providing for the payment of such fines and costs in installments.
Incarceration All No
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Kansas K.S.A. Const. Bill of Rights § 16 Imprisonment for debt No person shall be imprisoned for debt, except in cases of fraud. Incarceration All Yes
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 22-3425(2) Commitment for failure to pay fine and costs
Any person confined in the county jail for failure to pay a fine or costs may be released by the court which imposed sentence, upon satisfactory proof that such person
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is unable to pay such fine and costs. A release under this section shall not discharge a person from his liability to pay the fine and costs adjudged against him, but they may thereafter be collected by execution as on judgments in civil cases.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(b)(1)(2) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993
If the court orders restitution, the restitution shall be a judgment against the defendant which may be collected by the court by garnishment or other execution as on judgments in
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civil cases. If, after 60 days from the date restitution is ordered by the court, a defendant is found to be in noncompliance with the plan established by the court for payment of restitution, and the victim to whom restitution is ordered paid has not initiated proceedings in accordance with K.S.A. 60-4301 et seq., and amendments thereto, the court shall assign an agent procured by the attorney general pursuant to K.S.A. 75-719, and amendments thereto, to collect the restitution on behalf of the victim. The chief judge of each judicial district may assign such cases to an appropriate division of the court for the conduct of civil collection proceedings.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(j) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993
(j) This section shall not deprive the court of any authority conferred by any other Kansas statute to decree a forfeiture of property, suspend or cancel a license, remove a
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person from office or impose any other civil penalty as a result of conviction of crime.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(j) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993
(j) This section shall not deprive the court of any authority conferred by any other Kansas statute to decree a forfeiture of property, suspend or cancel a license, remove a
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person from office or impose any other civil penalty as a result of conviction of crime.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(f)(1) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993
(j) This section shall not deprive the court of any authority conferred by any other Kansas statute to decree a forfeiture of property, suspend or cancel a license, remove a
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person from office or impose any other civil penalty as a result of conviction of crime.
Property liens All No
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Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6604(j) Authorized dispositions; crimes committed on or after July 1, 1994
(f)(1) When a new felony is committed while the offender is incarcerated and serving a sentence for a felony, or while the offender is on probation, assignment to a community
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correctional services program, parole, conditional release or postrelease supervision for a felony, a new sentence shall be imposed consecutively pursuant to the provisions of K.S.A. 21-6606, and amendments thereto, and the court may sentence the offender to imprisonment for the new conviction, even when the new crime of conviction otherwise presumes a nonprison sentence. In this event, imposition of a prison sentence for the new crime does not constitute a departure.
Condition or extension of supervision All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4137 Contempt powers of Magisterial District Judges
(a) General rule.-- A magisterial district judge shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts of a magisterial district judge court in the
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following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in the presence of the court, thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a magisterial district judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to compensate the victim of the criminal conduct for the damage or injury sustained by the victim. (4) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (5) Violation of an order issued pursuant to 23 Pa.C.S. § 6110 (relating to emergency relief by minor judiciary). (c) Punishment - Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(5) shall be in accordance with that specified in 23 Pa.C.S. § 6114(b) (relating to contempt for violation of order or agreement). Punishment for contempt in subsection (a)(4) would be imprisonment for not more than 90 days.
Incarceration All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4137 Contempt powers of Magisterial District Judges
(a) General rule.-- A magisterial district judge shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts of a magisterial district judge court in the
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following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in the presence of the court, thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a magisterial district judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to compensate the victim of the criminal conduct for the damage or injury sustained by the victim. (4) Failure to comply with an order of a magisterial district judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (5) Violation of an order issued pursuant to 23 Pa.C.S. § 6110 (relating to emergency relief by minor judiciary). (c) Punishment - Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(5) shall be in accordance with that specified in 23 Pa.C.S. § 6114(b) (relating to contempt for violation of order or agreement). Punishment for contempt in subsection (a)(4) would be imprisonment for not more than 90 days.
Increased fine All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4138 Contempt powers of Pittsburgh Magistrates Court
(a) General Rule.— The Pittsburgh Magistrates Court shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in
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the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrate Court. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrates Court directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Incarceration All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4138 Contempt powers of Pittsburgh Magistrates Court
(a) General Rule.— The Pittsburgh Magistrates Court shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person in
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the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrate Court. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a judge of the Pittsburgh Magistrates Court directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Incarceration All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4139 Contempt powers of Traffic Court of Philadelphia
(a) General rule.— The Traffic Court of Philadelphia shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person
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in the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a traffic court judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a traffic court judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Incarceration Traffic No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 4139 Contempt powers of Traffic Court of Philadelphia
(a) General rule.— The Traffic Court of Philadelphia shall have the power to issue attachments and impose summary punishments for criminal contempts in the following cases:(1) Misbehavior of any person
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in the presence of the court thereby obstructing the administration of justice. (2) Failure of a person to obey lawful process in the nature of a subpoena issued by a traffic court judge. (3) Failure to comply with an order of a traffic court judge directing a defendant in a criminal proceeding to pay fines and costs in accordance with an installment payment order. (c) Punishment.— Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(1) or (3) may be a fine of not more than $100 or to imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or both. Punishment for contempt specified in subsection (a)(2) shall be a fine of not more than $100. Failure to pay within a reasonable time could result in imprisonment for not more than ten days.
Increased fine Traffic No
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Pennsylvania Pa. R. Crim. P. 142 Procedures Governing Defaults in Payment of Fine Imposed as Punishment for Contempt; if found able to pay
(A) If a contemnor defaults on the payment of a fine imposed as punishment for contempt pursuant to Rule 140(A)(1) and (B)(3), the issuing authority shall notify the contemnor in
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person or by first class mail that within 10 days of the date on the default notice the contemnor must either: (1) pay the amount due as ordered, or (2) appear before the issuing authority to explain why the contemnor should not be imprisoned for nonpayment as provided by law, or a bench warrant for the contemnor's arrest shall be issued. (B) When the contemnor appears either in response to the paragraph (A)(2) notice or following an arrest with a warrant issued pursuant to paragraph (A), the issuing authority shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the contemnor is financially able to pay as ordered. (1) Upon a determination that the defendant is financially able to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may impose imprisonment for nonpayment, as provided by law. (2) Upon a determination that the contemnor is financially unable to pay as ordered, the issuing authority may order a schedule for installment payments. (C) A contemnor may appeal an issuing authority's determination pursuant to this rule by filing a notice of appeal within 30 days of the issuing authority's order. The appeal shall proceed as provided in Rule 141.
Incarceration All Yes