Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(3)(a) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
In addition to other methods of payment, the court may order one or more of the following in order to satisfy the offender's restitution obligation: (a) forfeiture and sale of
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the offender's assets under the provisions of Title 25, chapter 13, part 7, unless the court finds, after notice and an opportunity for the offender to be heard, that the assets are reasonably necessary for the offender to sustain a living or support the offender's dependents or unless the state determines that the cost of forfeiture and sale would outweigh the amount available to the victim after sale. If the proceeds of sale exceed the amount of restitution ordered and the costs of forfeiture and sale, any remaining amount must be returned to the offender
Property liens All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(6) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
For a felony offense: (a) during any period that the offender is incarcerated, the department of corrections shall take a percentage, as set by department rule, of any money in
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any account of the defendant administered by the department and use the money to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; (b) at the beginning of any period during which the offender is not incarcerated, the offender shall sign a statement allowing any employer of the offender to garnish up to 25% of the offender's compensation and give the garnished amounts to the department of corrections to be used by the department to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; and (c) during any period that the defendant is on probation or parole, the probation and parole officer shall set a monthly restitution payment amount by dividing the total amount of unpaid restitution by the number of remaining months of probation or parole. The probation and parole officer may adjust the monthly payment up or down by a maximum of 10%, depending on the offender's circumstances.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(7) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
The department of corrections shall give the department of revenue a copy of the order to pay restitution. If full restitution has not been paid, the department of revenue shall,
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pursuant to an agreement made under 46-18-241, intercept any state tax refunds and any federal tax refunds, as provided by law, due the offender and transfer the money to the department of corrections for a felony offense and to the sentencing court for a misdemeanor offense for disbursement to the victim.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 10A, § 1-4-701B Reimbursements and costs by parents able to pay
The court may order the terms and conditions of the payment of costs and expenses described in subsection A of this section. When any parent is financially able but has
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willfully failed to pay the costs and reimbursements as ordered by the court pursuant to this section, the parent may be held in indirect contempt of court and, upon conviction, shall be punished pursuant to Section 566 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes.
Increased fine All No
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 979a Payment of jail costs by inmate
The sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail may collect costs of incarceration ordered by the court from the jail account of the inmate.
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If the funds collected from the jail account of the inmate are insufficient to satisfy the actual incarceration costs ordered by the court, the sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail is authorized to collect the remaining balance of the incarceration costs by civil action.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 769.3(2) Conditional sentence - installments
(2) Except for a person who is convicted of criminal sexual conduct in the first or third degree, the court may also place the offender on probation with the condition
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that the offender pay a fine, costs, damages, restitution, or any combination in installments with any limited time and may, upon default in any of those payments, impose sentence as provided by law.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.4803 Failure to pay as subject to late penalty
A person who fails to pay a penalty, fee, or costs in full within 56 days after that amount is due and owing is subject to a late penalty equal
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to 20% of the amount owed. The court shall inform a person subject to a penalty, fee, or costs that the late penalty will be applied to any amount that continues to be unpaid 56 days after the amount is due and owing. . . . A late penalty may be waived by the court upon the request of the person subject to the late penalty.
Collection fee/interest All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 12.136 Collection Services to the Courts: Offsetting tax refunds or other payments; order of priority
The department, pursuant to its statutory and common law authority, may offset tax refunds or other payments due from the state to a person who owes a debt to a
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court that would be collectible under an agreement described in this act.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 771.3(2) Restitution by defendant convicted of misdemeanor
As a condition of probation, the court may require the probationer to do 1 or more of the following: . . . (b) Pay immediately or within the period of
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his or her probation a fine imposed when placed on probation. (c) Pay costs pursuant to subsection (5). (d) Pay any assessment ordered by the court other than an assessment described in subsection (1)(f). . . . (f) Agree to pay by wage assignment any restitution, assessment, fine, or cost imposed by the court.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 257.907(11) Restitution by defendant convicted of misdemeanor
If a person fails to comply with an order or judgment issued under this section within the time prescribed by the court, the driver's license of that person shall be
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suspended under section 321a until full compliance with that order or judgment occurs. In addition to this suspension, the court may also proceed under section 908.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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Washington DC DC ST § 11-741 Contempt powers (DC Court of Appeals)
(a) Subject to the limitation described in subsection (b), and in addition to the powers conferred by section 402 of title 18, United States Code, the District of Columbia Court
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of Appeals, or a judge thereof, may punish for disobedience of an order or for contempt committed in the presence of the court.... (3)(A) An individual imprisoned for 6 consecutive months for civil contempt for disobedience of an order in a proceeding described in paragraph (1) who continues to disobey such order may be prosecuted for criminal contempt for disobedience of such order at any time before the expiration of the 12-month period that begins on the first day of such individual's imprisonment, except that an individual so imprisoned as of the date of the enactment of this subsection may be prosecuted under this subsection at any time during the 90-day period that begins on the date of the enactment of this subsection. ...
Incarceration All No
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Washington DC DC ST § 11-944 Contempt power (Superior Court of DC)
(a) Subject to the limitation described in subsection (b), and in addition to the powers conferred by section 402 of title 18, United States Code, the Superior Court, or a
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judge thereof, may punish for disobedience of an order or for contempt committed in the presence of the court.... (3)(A) An individual imprisoned for 6 consecutive months for civil contempt for disobedience of an order in a proceeding described in paragraph (1) who continues to disobey such order may be prosecuted for criminal contempt for disobedience of such order at any time before the expiration of the 12-month period that begins on the first day of such individual's imprisonment, except that an individual so imprisoned as of the date of the enactment of this subsection may be prosecuted under this subsection at any time during the 90-day period that begins on the date of the enactment of this subsection.
Incarceration All No
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Washington DC DC ST § 15-102 Lien of judgment, decree, or forfeited recognizance
(a) Each --(1) final judgment or decree for the payment of money rendered in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or the Superior Court of the
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District of Columbia, from the date such judgment or decree is filed and recorded in the office of the Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia, and (2) recognizance taken by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, from the date the entry or order of forfeiture of such recognizance is filed and recorded in the office of the Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia, shall constitute a lien on all the freehold and leasehold estates, legal and equitable, of the defendants bound by such judgment, decree, or recognizance, in any land, tenements, or hereditaments in the District of Columbia, whether the estates are in possession or are reversions or remainders, vested or contingent. Such liens on equitable interest may be enforced only by an action to foreclose.
Property liens All Yes
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Washington DC DC ST § 15-320 Enforcement of decrees
a) For the purpose of executing a decree, or compelling obedience to it, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or the Superior Court of the District
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of Columbia, in addition to the other procedures provided for by this chapter and Chapter 5 of Title 16, may:(1) issue an attachment against the person of the defendant; (2) order an immediate sequestration of his real and personal estate, or such part thereof as may be necessary to satisfy the decree; or (3) by order and injunction, cause the possession of the estate and effects whereof the possession or a sale is decreed to be delivered to the complainant, or otherwise, according to the tenor and import of the decree and as the nature of the case requires. In case of sequestration, the court may order payment and satisfaction to be made out of the estate and effects so sequestrated, according to the true intent and meaning of the decree. (b) When a defendant is arrested and brought into court upon any process of contempt issued to compel the performance of a decree, the court may, upon motion, order: (1) the defendant to stand committed; or (2) his estates and effects to be sequestrated and payment made, as directed by subsection (a) of this section; or (3) possession of his estate and effects to be delivered by order and injunction, as directed by subsection (a) of this section -- until the decree or order is fully performed and executed, according to the tenor and true meaning thereof, and the contempt cleared. (c) Where a decree only directs the payment of money, the defendant may not be imprisoned except in those cases especially provided for.
Property liens All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22(4) Judgment for fines--Court administration fee--Community service supervision fee--Special funds--Docketing and enforcement
...A judgment that the defendant pay a fine or fees, or both, may be docketed and if docketed constitutes a lien upon the real estate of the defendant in like
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manner as a judgment for money rendered in a civil action. The court may allow the defendant to pay any assessed administration fee or community service supervision fee in installments. When a defendant is assessed administration fees or a community service supervision fee, the court may not impose at the same time an alternative sentence to be served if the fees are not paid.
Property liens All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22.1 Judgment for fine or costs in criminal cases--Docketing and enforcement
The court may, within ten years of the date of entry of a judgment that imposes a fine or assesses costs against a defendant, order the judgment to be docketed
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by the clerk of court in the judgment docket maintained pursuant to section 28-20-13 in the same manner in which a civil judgment for money is docketed. The docketing of the judgment has the same effect as the docketing of a civil judgment. The docketed judgment may be docketed in any other county in the same manner, it imposes a lien upon the real property owned by the defendant to the same extent, it is subject to the same statute of limitations, and it is enforceable by execution in the same manner as provided for a civil judgment for money.
Property liens All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22(4) Judgment for fines--Court administration fee--Community service supervision fee--Special funds--Docketing and enforcement
A judgment that the defendant pay a fine or fees, or both, may be docketed and if docketed constitutes a lien upon the real estate of the defendant in like
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manner as a judgment for money rendered in a civil action. The court may allow the defendant to pay any assessed administration fee or community service supervision fee in installments. When a defendant is assessed administration fees or a community service supervision fee, the court may not impose at the same time an alternative sentence to be served if the fees are not paid.
Property liens All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 29-26-22(4) Judgment for fines--Court administration fee--Community service supervision fee--Special funds--Docketing and enforcement
A judgment that the defendant pay a fine or fees, or both, may be docketed and if docketed constitutes a lien upon the real estate of the defendant in like
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manner as a judgment for money rendered in a civil action. The court may allow the defendant to pay any assessed administration fee or community service supervision fee in installments. When a defendant is assessed administration fees or a community service supervision fee, the court may not impose at the same time an alternative sentence to be served if the fees are not paid.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9728(a) Collection - interest
Except as provided in subsection (b)(5), all restitution, reparation, fees, costs, fines and penalties shall be collected by the county probation department or other agent designated by the county commissioners
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of the county with the approval of the president judge of the county for that purpose in any manner provided by law. However, such restitution, reparation, fees, costs, fines and penalties are part of a criminal action or proceeding and shall not be deemed debts. A sentence, pretrial disposition order or order entered under section 6352 (relating to disposition of delinquent child) for restitution, reparation, fees, costs, fines or penalties shall, together with interest and any additional costs that may accrue, be a judgment in favor of the probation department upon the person or the property of the person sentenced or subject to the order.
Collection fee/interest All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9728(b)(5) Collection - procedure
The county correctional facility to which the offender has been sentenced or the Department of Corrections shall be authorized to make monetary deductions from inmate personal accounts for the purpose
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of collecting restitution or any other court-ordered obligation or costs imposed 
Wage/bank account garnishment All No