Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(3)(a) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
In addition to other methods of payment, the court may order one or more of the following in order to satisfy the offender's restitution obligation: (a) forfeiture and sale of
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the offender's assets under the provisions of Title 25, chapter 13, part 7, unless the court finds, after notice and an opportunity for the offender to be heard, that the assets are reasonably necessary for the offender to sustain a living or support the offender's dependents or unless the state determines that the cost of forfeiture and sale would outweigh the amount available to the victim after sale. If the proceeds of sale exceed the amount of restitution ordered and the costs of forfeiture and sale, any remaining amount must be returned to the offender
Property liens All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(6) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
For a felony offense: (a) during any period that the offender is incarcerated, the department of corrections shall take a percentage, as set by department rule, of any money in
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any account of the defendant administered by the department and use the money to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; (b) at the beginning of any period during which the offender is not incarcerated, the offender shall sign a statement allowing any employer of the offender to garnish up to 25% of the offender's compensation and give the garnished amounts to the department of corrections to be used by the department to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; and (c) during any period that the defendant is on probation or parole, the probation and parole officer shall set a monthly restitution payment amount by dividing the total amount of unpaid restitution by the number of remaining months of probation or parole. The probation and parole officer may adjust the monthly payment up or down by a maximum of 10%, depending on the offender's circumstances.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(7) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
The department of corrections shall give the department of revenue a copy of the order to pay restitution. If full restitution has not been paid, the department of revenue shall,
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pursuant to an agreement made under 46-18-241, intercept any state tax refunds and any federal tax refunds, as provided by law, due the offender and transfer the money to the department of corrections for a felony offense and to the sentencing court for a misdemeanor offense for disbursement to the victim.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 10A, § 1-4-701B Reimbursements and costs by parents able to pay
The court may order the terms and conditions of the payment of costs and expenses described in subsection A of this section. When any parent is financially able but has
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willfully failed to pay the costs and reimbursements as ordered by the court pursuant to this section, the parent may be held in indirect contempt of court and, upon conviction, shall be punished pursuant to Section 566 of Title 21 of the Oklahoma Statutes.
Increased fine All No
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 979a Payment of jail costs by inmate
The sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail may collect costs of incarceration ordered by the court from the jail account of the inmate.
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If the funds collected from the jail account of the inmate are insufficient to satisfy the actual incarceration costs ordered by the court, the sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail is authorized to collect the remaining balance of the incarceration costs by civil action.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 10.01.160(3)-(4) What constitutes--Payment by defendant--Procedure--Remission--Medical or mental health treatment or services Not specified All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 10.101.020 Indigency determination Not specified All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.94A.750 Restitution Not specified All No
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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.94A.777 Legal financial obligations--Defendants with mental health conditions Not specified All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 769.3(2) Conditional sentence - installments
(2) Except for a person who is convicted of criminal sexual conduct in the first or third degree, the court may also place the offender on probation with the condition
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that the offender pay a fine, costs, damages, restitution, or any combination in installments with any limited time and may, upon default in any of those payments, impose sentence as provided by law.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.4803 Failure to pay as subject to late penalty
A person who fails to pay a penalty, fee, or costs in full within 56 days after that amount is due and owing is subject to a late penalty equal
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to 20% of the amount owed. The court shall inform a person subject to a penalty, fee, or costs that the late penalty will be applied to any amount that continues to be unpaid 56 days after the amount is due and owing. . . . A late penalty may be waived by the court upon the request of the person subject to the late penalty.
Collection fee/interest All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 12.136 Collection Services to the Courts: Offsetting tax refunds or other payments; order of priority
The department, pursuant to its statutory and common law authority, may offset tax refunds or other payments due from the state to a person who owes a debt to a
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court that would be collectible under an agreement described in this act.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 5-6-211 Working prisoners; credit for work done
Whenever the defendant is sentenced to imprisonment for the violation of a city ordinance, he may be put to work for the benefit of the city, if it is determined
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that adequate supervision is available, for the term of his imprisonment, and when committed for the nonpayment of a fine, or costs, for the violation of any ordinance, he may also be put to work for the benefit of the city, and shall be credited on such fine and costs, fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day for each day he shall work.
Work program/jail industry program All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 5-6-111 Execution on judgments
Upon assessment of any fine and costs for the conviction of a violation of any ordinance of a city or town, judgment shall be entered against the defendant in favor
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of the city or town. If the judgment is not paid within ninety (90) days from the date of the judgment the city or town may collect judgment by execution in circuit court in the manner provided by law. Except as otherwise provided by law all amounts recovered pursuant to this section shall be deposited with the city or town treasurer, used for the benefit of the city or town, and credited against the fine and reasonable costs of collection.
Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 5-6-152 Suit to enforce collection or transmittal of fines; failure to transmit constitutes cause for removal from office; liability on judge's bond
If it is apparent through examination conducted by the Wyoming supreme court, or by other means, that any fines or forfeitures have not been transmitted, the county attorney shall bring
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suit to enforce the collection or transmittal, or both. Failure to transmit fines, forfeitures or costs is misconduct which constitutes cause for removal from office.
Payment plan/installment plan All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 31-9-303 Continued suspension until judgment satisfied; discharge in bankruptcy
Except as provided in W.S. 31-9-305, the license, registration and nonresident's operating privilege shall not be renewed, nor shall any license or registration be issued in the name of the
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person, including any person not previously licensed, until every judgment is stayed, satisfied or discharged, except that a discharge in bankruptcy does satisfy the judgment for the purposes of this section.
Driver's license suspension/impoundment All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 31-9-305 Payment of judgments in installments; failure to meet payments
(a) A judgment debtor upon notice to the judgment creditor may apply to the court in which judgment was rendered for the privilege of paying the judgment in installments and
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the court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may order and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments. (b) The division shall not suspend a license, registration or a nonresident's operating privilege, and shall restore any license, registration or nonresident's operating privilege suspended following nonpayment of a judgment, when the judgment debtor gives proof of financial responsibility and obtains an order permitting the payment of the judgment in installments, and while the payment of any installment is not in default. (c) If the judgment debtor fails to pay any installment as specified by the order, then upon notice of default, the division shall suspend the license, registration or nonresident's operating privilege of the judgment debtor until the judgment is fully satisfied, as provided in this act.
Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-18-114 Record and disbursement of wages; exemption from process; confidentiality of amount
(a) Wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender while in an adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed
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for the purposes provided in this subsection and in the order specified: (i) Personal necessities; (ii) Room and board to the program operator at a rate to be established by the department; (iii) Support of dependent relations; (iv) Court ordered restitution, fines, sanctions and reimbursement for the services of public defender or court appointed counsel, the surcharge imposed under W.S. 1-40-119, victims compensation obligations under W.S. 1-40-112(g) and the surcharge imposed under W.S. 7-13-1616; (v) Repealed by Laws 1999, ch. 62, § 2. (vi) Costs of health insurance; and (vii) Remaining funds shall be paid to the inmate, parolee or offender upon parole or final discharge. (b) Wages earned by offenders, other than parolees or inmates, while in a residential adult community corrections program shall be retained and accounted for by the program operator and shall be disbursed only for the purposes and in the order specified in subsection (a) of this section unless otherwise ordered by the sentencing court. Any remaining funds shall be paid to the offender upon his satisfactory discharge from the program. Upon revocation of an offender's probation, the program operator shall forward any remaining funds to the court or to the institution to which the offender is sentenced as directed by the court. (c) Program operators shall keep an accurate record and account of all wages earned by inmates, parolees and offenders pursuant to the rules promulgated by the department. (d) The earnings of inmates under this act are not subject to garnishment, attachment or execution. (e) Information relating to the amount of wages earned by an inmate, parolee or offender in an adult community corrections program is confidential and is not subject to public inspection.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-105 Commitment for refusal to pay fine or costs; rate per day.
A person committed to jail for willfully refusing to pay a fine or costs may be imprisoned if the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or
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that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, until the imprisonment, at the rate of fifteen dollars ($15.00) per day, equals the amount of the fine or costs, or the amount shall be paid or secured to be paid when he is discharged.
Incarceration All No
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Wyoming Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 7-11-504 Commitment until fines and costs paid
If a defendant sentenced to pay a fine or costs defaults in payment, the court may order the defendant to show cause why he should not be committed to jail.
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If the court finds that the defendant's default is willful or is due to a failure on defendant's part to make a good faith effort to obtain the funds required for the payment and the court determines that the defendant has an ability to pay or that a reasonable probability exists that the defendant will have an ability to pay, the court may order him committed until the fine or costs, or a specified part thereof, is paid. The defendant shall be given a credit for each day of imprisonment at the rate provided by W.S. 6 10 105, and may earn additional credits against his fine or costs for work performed as provided by W.S. 7 16 101 through 7 16 104.
Incarceration All No