Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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Below are the poverty penalties and poverty traps that meet your search criteria. Many include a See related provisions prompt which searches our database for laws that may pertain to your result.

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9730 Failure to pay court costs, restitution and fines
(b) Procedures regarding default.-- . . . (3) If the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge determines that the defendant is without the financial means to pay
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the fine or costs immediately or in a single remittance, the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge may provide for payment in installments. In determining the appropriate installments, the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge shall consider the defendant's financial resources, the defendant's ability to make restitution and reparations and the nature of the burden the payment will impose on the defendant. If the defendant is in default of a payment or advises the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge that default is imminent, the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge may schedule a rehearing on the payment schedule. At the rehearing the defendant has the burden of proving changes of financial condition such that the defendant is without the means to meet the payment schedule. The issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge may extend or accelerate the schedule, leave it unaltered or sentence the defendant to a period of community service as the issuing authority, senior judge or senior magisterial district judge finds to be just and practicable under the circumstances.
Community service All No
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 19.2-354(C) Community Service
C. The court shall establish a program and may provide an option to any person upon whom a fine and costs have been imposed to discharge all or part of
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the fine or costs by earning credits for the performance of community service work before or after imprisonment. The program shall specify the rate at which credits are earned and provide for the manner of applying earned credits against the fine or costs. The court shall have such other authority as is reasonably necessary for or incidental to carrying out this program.
Community service All No
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California Cal. Rules of Court 4.335(4)(B) Ability to pay determination for infraction offenses the court may exercise its discretion to: . . . (B) Allow the defendant to complete community service in lieu of paying the total fine (if available) Community service Misdemeanor No
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South Carolina S.C. Code Ann. §22-3-800 Community service
Notwithstanding the limitations of Sections 17-25-100 and 24-21-410, after a conviction or plea for an offense within a magistrate's jurisdiction the magistrate at the time of sentence may suspend the
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imposition or execution of a sentence upon terms and conditions the magistrate considers appropriate, including imposing or suspending up to one hundred hours of community service, except where the amount of community service is established otherwise.
Community service All No
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-201(3) Sentences that may be imposed
(a) Whenever a person has been found guilty of an offense upon a verdict of guilty or a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, a sentencing judge may impose a
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sentence that may include: (i) a fine as provided by law for the offense; (ii) payment of costs, as provided in 46-18-232, or payment of costs of assigned counsel as provided in 46-8-113... (b) A court may permit a part or all of a fine to be satisfied by a donation of food to a food bank program.
Community service All No
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Utah Utah Code Ann. § 76-3-201.1 Collection of criminal judgments--compulsory service
When a defendant defaults in the payment of a criminal judgment account receivable or any installment of that receivable, the court, on motion of the prosecution, victim, or upon its
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own motion may: (a) order the defendant to appear and show cause why the default should not be treated as contempt of court; or (b) issue a warrant of arrest... (5) If it appears to the satisfaction of the court that the default is not contempt, the court may enter an order for any of the following or any combination of the following...(f) except as limited by Subsection (6) [restitution], convert the criminal judgment account receivable or any part of it to compensatory service
Community service All No
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Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-810(D)(4) Consequences of nonpayment of fines, surcharges, fees, assessments, restitution or incarceration costs

If the court finds that the defendant has wilfully failed to pay a fine, a fee, restitution or incarceration costs or finds that the defendant has intentionally refused to make

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a good faith effort to obtain the monies required for the payment, the court shall find that the default constitutes contempt and may do one of the following:4. Order the defendant to perform community restitution

Community service All No
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Florida Fla. Stat. §985.455(1) Other dispositional issues

(1) The court that has jurisdiction over an adjudicated delinquent child may, by an order stating the facts upon which a determination of a sanction and rehabilitative program was made

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at the disposition hearing:

(a) Require the child and, if the court finds it appropriate, the child's parent or guardian, together with the child, to render community service in a public service program.

(b) Order the child and, if the court finds it appropriate, the child's parent or guardian, together with the child, to participate in a community work project, either as an alternative to monetary restitution or as part of the rehabilitative or probation program.

(c) Revoke or suspend the driver license of the child.

(d) Order the child, upon a determination of the child's inability to pay, to perform community service in lieu of all court costs assessed against the delinquent child, including costs of prosecution, public defender application fees, and costs of representation.

Community service All No
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Florida Fla. Stat. §948.031(1) Condition of probation or community control; public service

Any person who is convicted of a felony or misdemeanor and who is placed on probation or into community control may be required as a condition of supervision to perform

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some type of public service for a tax-supported or tax-exempt entity, with the consent of such entity. Such public service shall be performed at a time other than during such person’s regular hours of employment.

Community service All No
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Florida Fla. Stat. §938.30(2) Financial obligations in criminal cases; supplementary proceedings

The court may require a person liable for payment of an obligation to appear and be examined under oath concerning the person’s financial ability to pay the obligation. The judge

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may convert the statutory financial obligation into a court-ordered obligation to perform community service, subject to the provisions of s. 318.18(8), after examining a person under oath and determining the person’s inability to pay. Any person who fails to attend a hearing may be arrested on warrant or capias issued by the clerk upon order of the court.

Community service All No
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Hawaii Haw. Rev. Stat. § 706-644(4) Consequences of nonpayment; imprisonment for contumacious nonpayment; summary collection

(4) If it appears that the defendant's default in the payment of a fee, fine, or restitution is not contumacious, the court may make an order allowing the defendant additional

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time for payment, reducing the amount of each installment, or revoking the fee, fine, or the unpaid portion thereof in whole or in part, or converting the unpaid portion of the fee or fine to community service. A defendant shall not be discharged from an order to pay restitution until the full amount of the restitution has actually been collected or accounted for.

Community service All No
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Georgia Ga. Code Ann. § 42-8-102(f)(4) Fixing of Sentence; Supervision or Probation of Sentence; Change in Sentence; Eligibility For Parole; Prohibited Modifications; Exceptions

(A) For failure to report to probation or failure to pay fines, statutory surcharges, or probation supervision fees, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community

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service, modification of the terms of probation, or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall consider whether a failure to pay court imposed financial obligations was willful. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed 120 days in confinement, whichever is less; and (B) For failure to comply with any other general provision of probation or suspension, the court shall consider the use of alternatives to confinement, including community service or any other alternative deemed appropriate by the court. In the event an alternative is not warranted, the court shall revoke the balance of probation or a period not to exceed two years in confinement, whichever is less.

Community service All Yes
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Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § 29-2412 (3) Fine and costs; nonpayment; commutation upon confinement; credit; amount

(1) (a) Any person arrested and brought into custody on a warrant for failure to pay fines or costs, for failure to appear before a court or magistrate on the due date

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of such fines or costs, or for failure to comply with the terms of an order pursuant to sections 29-2206 and 29-2206.01, shall be entitled to a hearing on the first regularly scheduled court date following the date of arrest.

(b) If the court or magistrate determines that the person is financially able to pay the fines or costs and the person refuses to pay, the court or magistrate may: (i) Order the person to be confined in the jail of the proper county until the fines or costs are paid or secured to be paid or the person is otherwise discharged pursuant to subsection (4) of this section; or (ii) Enter an order pursuant to subdivision (1)(d) of this section discharging the person of such fines or costs and order the person to complete community service for a specified number of hours pursuant to sections 29-2277 to 29-2279;

(3) Nothing in this section shall authorize any person to be discharged from imprisonment before the expiration of the time for which he or she may be sentenced to be imprisoned as part of his or her punishment

(4) (a) Any person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs or for default on an installment shall be entitled to a credit on the fines, costs, or installment of one hundred fifty dollars for each day so held.

(b) In no case shall a person held in custody for nonpayment of fines or costs be held in such custody for more days than the maximum number to which he or she could have been sentenced if the penalty set by law includes the possibility of confinement.

Community service, Incarceration All No
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New Mexico N.M. Stat. Ann. § 31-12-3(A),(C) Paying fines, fees or costs in installments; community service option

A. Any person sentenced to pay a fine or to pay fees and costs in any criminal proceeding against him, either in addition to or without a term of imprisonment,

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may in the discretion of the court be allowed to pay such fine, fees or costs in installments of such amounts, at such times and upon such conditions as the court may fix. The defendant may also be required to serve a period of time in labor to be known as “community service” in lieu of all or part of the fine. If unable to pay the fees or costs, he may be granted permission to perform community service in lieu of them as well. The labor shall be meaningful, shall not be suspended or deferred and shall be of a type that benefits the public at large or any public, charitable or educational entity or institution and is consistent with Article 9, Section 14 of the constitution of New Mexico. Any person performing community service pursuant to court order shall be immune from civil liability arising out of the community service other than for gross negligence, shall not be entitled to wages or considered an employee for any purpose and shall not be entitled to workers’ compensation, unemployment or any other benefits otherwise provided by law. Instead, a person who performs community service shall receive credit toward the fine, fees or costs at the rate of the prevailing federal hourly minimum wage. Unless otherwise provided, however, the total fine, fees and costs shall be payable forthwith.

C. When a defendant sentenced to pay a fine in installments or ordered to pay fees or costs defaults in payment, the court, upon motion of the prosecutor or upon its own motion, may require the defendant to show cause why his default should not be treated as contumacious and may issue a summons or a warrant of arrest for his appearance. It shall be a defense that the defendant did not willfully refuse to obey the order of the court or that he made a good faith effort to obtain the funds required for the payment. If the defendant’s default was contumacious, the court may order him committed until the fine or a specified part of it or the fees or costs are paid. The maximum term of imprisonment for such contumacious nonpayment shall be specified in the order of commitment.

 

Community service, Incarceration, Payment plan/installment plan All No
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Ohio Ohio Rev. Code § 2951.02(B) Authorized searches during offender’s misdemeanor community control sanction or felony nonresidential sanction; community service; ignition interlock devices

A court may permit any offender convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor to satisfy the payment of a fine imposed for the offense pursuant to section 2929.18 or 2929.28

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of the Revised Code by performing supervised community service work as described in this division if the offender requests an opportunity to satisfy the payment by this means and if the court determines that the offender is financially unable to pay the fine.

Community service All No
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Indiana Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 33-37-2-3 (a)(4); (d) Indigency Hearing — Suspension of Costs — Default — Fees for Representation — Rights and Protections

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), when the court imposes costs, it shall conduct a hearing to determine whether the convicted person is indigent. If the person is not indigent,

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the court shall order the person to pay: ... (4) the entire amount of the costs at some later date, less any amount credited under subsections (g) through (i) for the performance of: (A) allowable community service work ordered by the court as part of the person’s sentence or as part of the person’s probation; or (B) uncompensated volunteer work approved by the court at a nonprofit or municipal corporation that benefits the community, even if the volunteer work is not ordered by the court. ... (d) Upon any default in the payment of the costs: (1) an attorney representing the county may bring an action on a debt for the unpaid amount; (2) the court may direct that the person, if the person is not indigent, be committed to the county jail and credited toward payment at the rate of twenty dollars ($20) for each twenty-four (24) hour period the person is confined, until the amount paid plus the amount credited equals the entire amount due; or (3) the court may institute contempt proceedings to enforce the court's order for payment of the costs.

Civil judgment, Community service, Incarceration All No
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Texas Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Art 43.09 (f),(j)-(k) Fine Discharged

(f) A court may require a defendant who is unable to pay a fine or costs to discharge all or part of the fine or costs by performing community service.

(j) A court

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may not order a defendant to perform more than 16 hours per week of community service under Subsection (f) unless the court determines that requiring the defendant to perform additional hours does not impose an undue hardship on the defendant or the defendant’s dependents.

(k) A defendant is considered to have discharged $100 of fines or costs for each eight hours of community service performed under Subsection (f) of this article

Community service All No
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Texas Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Art. 42A.752(a)-(b) Continuation or Modification of Community Supervision After Violation

(a) If after a hearing under Article 42A.751(d) a judge continues or modifies community supervision after determining that the defendant violated a condition of community supervision, the judge may impose any

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other conditions the judge determines are appropriate, including: (1) a requirement that the defendant perform community service for a number of hours specified by the court under Article 42A.304, or an increase in the number of hours that the defendant has previously been required to perform under that article in an amount not to exceed double the number of hours permitted by that article; (2) an extension of the period of community supervision, in the manner described by Article 42A.753; (3) an increase in the defendant’s fine, in the manner described by Subsection (b); or (4) the placement of the defendant in a substance abuse felony punishment program operated under Section 493.009, Government Code . . . 

(b) A judge may impose a sanction on a defendant described by Subsection (a)(3) by increasing the fine imposed on the defendant. The original fine imposed on the defendant and an increase in the fine imposed under this subsection may not exceed the maximum fine for the offense for which the defendant was sentenced. The judge shall deposit money received from an increase in the defendant’s fine under this subsection in the special fund of the county treasury to be used for the same purposes for which state aid may be used under Chapter 76, Government Code.

Community service, Extension of probation/supervision, Increased fine All No