Poverty Penalties and Poverty Traps

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Type of poverty penalty or poverty trap Level of offense Mandatory
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(6) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
For a felony offense: (a) during any period that the offender is incarcerated, the department of corrections shall take a percentage, as set by department rule, of any money in
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any account of the defendant administered by the department and use the money to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; (b) at the beginning of any period during which the offender is not incarcerated, the offender shall sign a statement allowing any employer of the offender to garnish up to 25% of the offender's compensation and give the garnished amounts to the department of corrections to be used by the department to satisfy any existing restitution obligation; and (c) during any period that the defendant is on probation or parole, the probation and parole officer shall set a monthly restitution payment amount by dividing the total amount of unpaid restitution by the number of remaining months of probation or parole. The probation and parole officer may adjust the monthly payment up or down by a maximum of 10%, depending on the offender's circumstances.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 46-18-244(7) Type and time of payment--defenses--ensuring payment
The department of corrections shall give the department of revenue a copy of the order to pay restitution. If full restitution has not been paid, the department of revenue shall,
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pursuant to an agreement made under 46-18-241, intercept any state tax refunds and any federal tax refunds, as provided by law, due the offender and transfer the money to the department of corrections for a felony offense and to the sentencing court for a misdemeanor offense for disbursement to the victim.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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New York Penal Law § 60.35(5) Inmate money
When a person who is convicted of a crime or violation and sentenced to a term of imprisonment has failed to pay the mandatory surcharge, sex offender registration fee, DNA
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databank fee, crime victim assistance fee or supplemental sex offender victim fee required by this section, the clerk of the court that rendered the conviction shall notify the superintendent or the municipal official of the facility where the person is confined. The superintendent or the municipal official shall cause any amount owing to be collected from such person during his or her term of imprisonment from moneys to the credit of an inmates' fund or such moneys as may be earned by a person in a work release program pursuant to section eight hundred sixty of the correction law. 
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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New York N.Y. Veh. & Traf. Law § 1809(5) Inmate money
The superintendent or the municipal official shall cause any amount owing to be collected from such person during his term of imprisonment from moneys to the credit of an inmates'
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fund or such moneys as may be earned by a person in a work release program pursuant to section eight hundred sixty of the correction law.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 979a Payment of jail costs by inmate
The sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail may collect costs of incarceration ordered by the court from the jail account of the inmate.
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If the funds collected from the jail account of the inmate are insufficient to satisfy the actual incarceration costs ordered by the court, the sheriff, municipality or other public entity responsible for the operation of the jail is authorized to collect the remaining balance of the incarceration costs by civil action.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 769.1(k) Wage assignment The court may require the defendant to pay any fine, cost, or assessment ordered to be paid under this section by wage assignment. Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 780.830a Deductions and payments
(1) If a defendant who has been sentenced to jail is ordered to pay restitution under section 76, and if the defendant receives more than $50.00 in a month, the
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sheriff may deduct 50% of the amount over $50.00 received by the defendant for payment of the restitution, and 5% of the amount over $50.00 received by the defendant to be retained by the sheriff as an administrative fee. The sheriff shall promptly send the money deducted for restitution to the court or to the crime victim as provided in the order of restitution when it accumulates to an amount that exceeds $100.00, or when the defendant is released to probation or discharged on the maximum sentence.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 780.796(b)(1)-(3) Deductions and payments - juvenile
(1) If a juvenile who has been sentenced to the department of corrections is ordered to pay restitution under section 44, and if the juvenile receives more than $50.00 in
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a month, the department of corrections shall deduct 50% of the amount over $50.00 received by the juvenile for payment of the restitution. The department of corrections shall promptly send the deducted money to the court or to the crime victim as provided in the order of restitution when it accumulates to an amount that exceeds $100.00, or when the juvenile is paroled, transferred to community programs, or discharged on the maximum sentence. (2) If a juvenile who has been sentenced to jail is ordered to pay restitution under section 44, and if the juvenile receives more than $50.00 in a month, the sheriff may deduct 50% of the amount over $50.00 received by the juvenile for payment of the restitution, and 5% of the amount over $50.00 received by the juvenile to be retained by the sheriff as an administrative fee. The sheriff shall promptly send the money deducted for restitution to the court or to the crime victim as provided in the order of restitution when it accumulates to an amount that exceeds $100.00, or when the juvenile is released to probation or discharged on the maximum sentence. (3) If a juvenile who has been placed in a juvenile facility is ordered to pay restitution under section 44, and if the juvenile receives more than $50.00 in a month, the department of human services or the county juvenile agency, as applicable, may deduct 50% of the amount over $50.00 received by the juvenile for payment of the restitution. The department of human services or the county juvenile agency, as applicable, shall promptly send the deducted money to the court or to the crime victim as provided in the order of restitution when it accumulates to an amount that exceeds $100.00, or when the juvenile is released from the juvenile facility.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 12.136 Collection Services to the Courts: Offsetting tax refunds or other payments; order of priority
The department, pursuant to its statutory and common law authority, may offset tax refunds or other payments due from the state to a person who owes a debt to a
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court that would be collectible under an agreement described in this act.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 780.826(15) Offsetting tax refunds
In each case in which payment of restitution is ordered as a condition of probation, the court shall order any employed defendant to make regularly scheduled restitution payments. If the
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defendant misses 2 or more regularly scheduled payments, the court shall order the defendant to execute a wage assignment to pay the restitution. The probation officer assigned to the case shall review the case not less than twice yearly to ensure that restitution is being paid as ordered. If the restitution was ordered to be made within a specific period of time, the probation officer assigned to the case shall review the case at the end of the specific period of time to determine if the restitution has been paid in full. The final review shall be conducted not less than 60 days before the probationary period expires. If the probation officer determines at any review that restitution is not being paid as ordered, the probation officer shall file a written report of the violation with the court on a form prescribed by the state court administrative office or shall petition the court for a probation violation. The report or petition shall include a statement of the amount of the arrearage and any reasons for the arrearage known by the probation officer. The probation officer shall immediately provide a copy of the report or petition to the prosecuting attorney. If a petition or motion is filed or other proceedings are initiated to enforce payment of restitution and the court determines that restitution is not being paid or has not been paid as ordered by the court, the court shall promptly take action necessary to compel compliance.
Wage/bank account garnishment Misdemeanor Yes
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Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws § 771.3(2) Restitution by defendant convicted of misdemeanor
As a condition of probation, the court may require the probationer to do 1 or more of the following: . . . (b) Pay immediately or within the period of
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his or her probation a fine imposed when placed on probation. (c) Pay costs pursuant to subsection (5). (d) Pay any assessment ordered by the court other than an assessment described in subsection (1)(f). . . . (f) Agree to pay by wage assignment any restitution, assessment, fine, or cost imposed by the court.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 32-09.1-02 Creditors may proceed by garnishment
Any creditor is entitled to proceed by garnishment in any court having jurisdiction of the subject of the action against any person, any public corporation, the United States, the state
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of North Dakota, or any institution, department, or agency of the state, indebted to or having any property in possession or under control, belonging to the creditor's debtor after securing a judgment against the debtor in a court of competent jurisdiction, in the cases, upon the conditions, and in the manner prescribed in this chapter. A garnishment action brought pursuant to this chapter is the exclusive procedure which may be used to execute on earnings of a debtor while those earnings are held by a third-party employer.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 9728(b)(5) Collection - procedure
The county correctional facility to which the offender has been sentenced or the Department of Corrections shall be authorized to make monetary deductions from inmate personal accounts for the purpose
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of collecting restitution or any other court-ordered obligation or costs imposed 
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-45.1 Work program wage garnishment
C. The Director shall arrange for compensation for such employment. Wages earned by prisoners shall be paid to the Director who shall deduct from such wages, in the following order
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of priority, an amount to:1. Meet the obligation of any judicial or administrative order to provide support and such funds shall be disbursed according to the terms of such order; 2. Pay any fines, restitution or costs as ordered by the court; and 3. Defray a portion of the prisoner's keep.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-60 Work release wage garnishment
C. The compensation for such employment shall be arranged by the Director and shall be the same as that of regular employees in similar occupations. Any wages earned shall be
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paid to the Director. The Director shall, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board, deduct from such wages, in the following order of priority, an amount to:1. Meet the obligation of any judicial or administrative order to provide support and such funds shall be disbursed according to the terms of such order; 2. Pay any fines, restitution or costs as ordered by the court;
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-60.1 Inmate trust account garnishment
Upon receipt of a valid court order or judgment against a person confined in a state correctional facility, the Director or his designee shall satisfy, to the extent possible, the
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amount required to be paid by the order or judgment from the inmate's trust account. The Director shall promulgate regulations governing the process of collecting funds from inmates to be used for (i) the satisfaction of judgments or orders granting monetary relief or imposing fines or other monetary sanctions or (ii) payment of court costs and fees.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-131 Work release wage garnishment
Any wages earned pursuant to this section by an offender may, upon order of the court, be paid to the director or administrator of the program after standard payroll deductions
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required by law. Distribution of such wages shall be made for the following purposes: 1. To pay an amount to defray the cost of his keep; 2. To pay travel and other such expenses made necessary by his work release employment or participation in an educational or rehabilitative program; 3. To provide support and maintenance for his dependents or to make payments to the local department of social services or the Commissioner of Social Services, as appropriate, on behalf of dependents who are receiving public assistance or social services as defined in § 63.2-100; or 4. To pay any fines, restitution or costs as ordered by the court.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-131.2(H) Work release while on home/electronic incarceration program wage garnishment
H. Any wages earned by an offender or accused assigned to a home/electronic incarceration program and participating in work release shall be paid to the director or administrator after standard
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payroll deductions required by law. Distribution of the money collected shall be made in the following order of priority to: 1. Meet the obligation of any judicial or administrative order to provide support and such funds shall be disbursed according to the terms of such order; 2. Pay any fines, restitution or costs as ordered by the court;
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 53.1-155.1 Residential community program wage garnishment
Any wages earned pursuant to this section by a prisoner may be paid to the director or administrator of the program after standard payroll deductions required by law. Distribution of
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such wages shall be made for the following purposes: 1. To pay an amount to defray the cost of his keep; 2. To pay travel and other such expenses made necessary by his work release, employment, or participation in a residential community program or a community-based program; 3. To provide support and maintenance for his dependents or to make payments to the local department of social services or the Commissioner of Social Services, as appropriate, on behalf of dependents who are receiving public assistance as defined in § 63.2-100; or 4. To pay any fines, restitution, or costs as ordered by the court.
Wage/bank account garnishment All No
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Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 66-25.1:3(C) Juvenile work release program wage garnishment
C. The compensation for such employment shall be arranged by the Director and shall be the same as that of regular employees in similar occupations. Any wages earned shall be
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paid to the Director. The Director shall, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board, deduct from such wages, in the following order of priority, an amount to: 1. Meet the obligation of any judicial or administrative order to provide support, and such funds shall be disbursed according to the terms of such order; 2. Pay any fines, restitution, or costs as ordered by the court; and 3. Pay travel and other such expenses made necessary by his work release employment or participation in an educational or rehabilitative program.
Wage/bank account garnishment All Yes