Keyword search across all of the laws in the states. Subject-area tabs above allow you to narrow results. Click the advanced search for further refinement.
Every law can be saved to the Reform Builder
Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.
|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9||District courts - elected judges||
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of+ See more
judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
|District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20||Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law||Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law.||Justice of the Peace Courts/Mayor's Courts||Creation of the courts|
Pursuant to the provisions of section 1 of article VI of the Colorado constitution, there is hereby established in each county of the state of Colorado a county court.
|County Courts||Creation of the courts|
Pursuant to the provisions of section 1 of article VI of the Colorado constitution, there is hereby established the juvenile court of the city and county of Denver.
|Juvenile Court||Creation of the courts|
Pursuant to the provisions of section 1 of article VI of the Colorado constitution, there is hereby established the probate court of the city and county of Denver.
|Probate Court||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 421||Establishment||
+ See more
The Judicial Department may establish alcohol and drug treatment programs in the Superior Courts and District Courts and may adopt administrative orders and court rules to govern the practice, procedure
and administration of these programs. Alcohol and drug treatment programs must include local judges and must be community based and operated separately from juvenile drug courts.
|Alcohol and drug treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 431||Mental health treatment courts||
The Judicial Department may seek and receive grants to establish mental health treatment courts.
|Mental health treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 433(2)||Veterans treatment courts||
+ See more
Chief Justice may establish. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court may establish veterans treatment courts for veterans and members of the United States Armed Forces. The Supreme Judicial
Court may adopt administrative orders and court rules of practice and procedure as necessary.
|Veterans treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-1-101||The several courts of this state||
The following are courts of justice of this state: (1) the court of impeachment, which is the senate; (2) the supreme court; (3) the district courts; (4) the municipal+ See more
courts; (5) the justices' courts; (6) the city courts and such other courts of limited jurisdiction as the legislature may establish in any incorporated city or town.
|Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-5-901||State assumption of district court expenses||
(1) There is a state-funded district court program under the judicial branch. Under this program, the office of court administrator shall fund all district court costs, except as provided in+ See more
subsection (3). These costs include but are not limited to the following: (a) salaries and benefits for: (i) district court judges; (ii) law clerks; (iii) court reporters, as provided in 3-5-601; (iv) juvenile probation officers, youth division offices staff, and assessment officers of the youth court; and (v) other employees of the district court; (b) in criminal cases: (i) fees for transcripts of proceedings, as provided in 3-5-604; (ii) witness fees and necessary expenses, as provided in 46-15-116; (iii) juror fees and necessary expenses; (iv) for a psychiatric examination under 46-14-202, the cost of the examination and other associated expenses, as provided in 46-14-202(4); and (v) for commitment under 46-14-221, the cost of transporting the defendant to the custody of the director of the department of public health and human services to be placed in an appropriate facility of the department of public health and human services and of transporting the defendant back for any proceedings, as provided in 46-14-221(5); (c) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the district court expenses in all postconviction proceedings held pursuant to Title 46, chapter 21, and in all habeas corpus proceedings held pursuant to Title 46, chapter 22, and appeals from those proceedings; (d) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the following expenses incurred by the state in federal habeas corpus cases that challenge the validity of a conviction or of a sentence: (i) transcript fees; (ii) witness fees; and (iii) expenses for psychiatric examinations; (e) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the following expenses incurred by the state in a proceeding held pursuant to Title 41, chapter 3, part 4 or 6, that seeks temporary investigative authority of a youth, temporary legal custody of a youth, or termination of the parent-child legal relationship and permanent custody: (i) transcript fees; (ii) witness fees; (iii) expenses for medical and psychological evaluation of a youth or the youth's parent, guardian, or other person having physical or legal custody of the youth except for expenses for services that a person is eligible to receive under a public program that provides medical or psychological evaluation; (iv) expenses associated with appointment of a guardian ad litem or child advocate for the youth; and (v) expenses associated with court-ordered alternative dispute resolution; (f) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), costs of juror and witness fees and witness expenses before a grand jury; (g) costs of the court-sanctioned educational program concerning the effects of dissolution of marriage on children, as required in 40-4-226, and expenses of education when ordered for the investigation and preparation of a report concerning parenting arrangements, as provided in 40-4-215(2)(a); (h) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), all district court expenses associated with civil jury trials if similar expenses were paid out of the district court fund or the county general fund in any previous year; (i) all other costs associated with the operation and maintenance of the district court, including contract costs for court reporters who are independent contractors; and (j) costs associated with the operation and maintenance of the youth court and youth court division operations pursuant to 41-5-111 and subsection (1)(a) of this section, except for those costs paid by other entities identified in Title 41, chapter 5. (2) If a cost is not paid directly by the office of court administrator, the county shall pay the cost and the office of court administrator shall reimburse the county within 30 days of receipt of a claim. (3) For the purposes of subsection (1), district court costs paid by the office of court administrator do not include: (a) costs for clerks of district court and employees and expenses of the offices of the clerks of district court; (b) costs of providing and maintaining district court office space; or (c) charges incurred against a county by virtue of any provision of Title 7 or 46. Credits
|District Court||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-11-101||City court established--city court of record||
A city court is established in each city or town. A city judge shall establish regular sessions of the court. On judicial days, the court must be open for all+ See more
business, civil and criminal. On nonjudicial days, as defined in 3-1-302, the court may transact criminal business only.
|City Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-12-103||Creation of court||
A small claims court may be created by a resolution passed by the board of county commissioners after consultation with the district court judges of the judicial district in which+ See more
the county is located or by county initiative as provided in Title 7, chapter 5, part 1. Upon passage of the resolution or initiative, the judge of the appropriate judicial district shall, by court order, establish a small claims court under the provisions of this chapter. When the order is filed with the clerk of the district court of the appropriate county, the clerk of the district court becomes the clerk of the small claims court.
|Small claims court||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV § 1||In whom judicial power vested||
+ See more
The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, courts of appeals, courts of common pleas and divisions thereof, and such other courts inferior to the supreme
court as may from time to time be established by law.
|Judiciary||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 4||Common pleas court||
+ See more
(A) There shall be a court of common pleas and such divisions thereof as may be established by law serving each county of the state. Any judge of a court of
common pleas or a division thereof may temporarily hold court in any county. In the interests of the fair, impartial, speedy, and sure administration of justice, each county shall have one or more resident judges, or two or more counties may be combined into districts having one or more judges resident in the district and serving the common pleas courts of all counties in the district, as may be provided by law. Judges serving a district shall sit in each county in the district as the business of the court requires. In counties or districts having more than one judge of the court of common pleas, the judges shall select one of their number to act as presiding judge, to serve at their pleasure. If the judges are unable because of equal division of the vote to make such selection, the judge having the longest total service on the court of common pleas shall serve as presiding judge until selection is made by vote. The presiding judge shall have such duties and exercise such powers as are prescribed by rule of the supreme court.
(B) The courts of common pleas and divisions thereof shall have such original jurisdiction over all justiciable matters and such powers of review of proceedings of administrative officers and agencies as may be provided by law.
(C) Unless otherwise provided by law, there shall be a probate division and such other divisions of the courts of common pleas as may be provided by law. Judges shall be elected specifically to such probate division and to such other divisions. The judges of the probate division shall be empowered to employ and control the clerks, employees, deputies, and referees of such probate division of the common pleas courts.
|Court of Common Pleas||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 3||Court of Appeals||
+ See more
(A) The state shall be divided by law into compact appellate districts in each of which there shall be a court of appeals consisting of three judges. Laws may be passed
increasing the number of judges in any district wherein the volume of business may require such additional judge or judges. In districts having additional judges, three judges shall participate in the hearing and disposition of each case. The court shall hold sessions in each county of the district as the necessity arises. The county commissioners of each county shall provide a proper and convenient place for the court of appeals to hold court.
(B) (1) The courts of appeals shall have original jurisdiction in the following:
(a) Quo warranto;
(c) Habeas corpus;
(f) In any cause on review as may be necessary to its complete determination.
(2) Courts of appeals shall have such jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse judgments or final orders of the courts of record inferior to the court of appeals within the district, except that courts of appeals shall not have jurisdiction to review on direct appeal a judgment that imposes a sentence of death. Courts of appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse final orders or actions of administrative officers or agencies.
(3) A majority of the judges hearing the cause shall be necessary to render a judgment. Judgments of the courts of appeals are final except as provided in section 2(B) (2) of this article. No judgment resulting from a trial by jury shall be reversed on the weight of the evidence except by the concurrence of all three judges hearing the cause.
(4) Whenever the judges of a court of appeals find that a judgment upon which they have agreed is in conflict with a judgment pronounced upon the same question by any other court of appeals of the state, the judges shall certify the record of the case to the supreme court for review and final determination.
(C) Laws may be passed providing for the reporting of cases in the courts of appeals.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|Pennsylvania||42 Pa. Stat. and Cons. Stat. Ann. § 1341||Third class city traffic courts authorized||
Any city of the third class may establish by ordinance a traffic court which shall be a court not of record. The court shall be held by such of the+ See more
magisterial district judges of the city as shall be designated by the president judge of the court of common pleas upon petition by the city. If established, the court shall be for the city so establishing it.
|Traffic court||Creation of the courts|
|Tennessee||TN Const. Art. 6, § 1||Enumeration of Courts||
"The judicial power of this State shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such Circuit, Chancery and other inferior Courts as the Legislature shall from time to time,+ See more
ordain and establish; in the Judges thereof, and in Justices of the Peace. The Legislature may also vest such jurisdiction in Corporation Courts as may be deemed necessary. Courts to be holden by Justices of the Peace may also be established."
|All Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Tennessee||Tenn. Code Ann. § 16-1-101||Vesting||
"The judicial power of the state is vested in judges of the courts of general sessions, recorders of certain towns and cities, circuit courts, criminal courts, common law and chancery+ See more
courts, chancery courts, courts of appeals, and the supreme court, and other courts created by law."
|All Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Tennessee||Tenn. Code Ann. § 16-15-101||Creation||
"(a) There is created and established a court in and for each county of the state, except in counties having a population of not less than nine thousand one hundred+ See more
seventy-five (9,175) nor more than nine thousand two hundred (9,200), according to the last federal census or any subsequent federal census, which shall be designated as the court of general sessions.(b) It is the intent of this section to create a general sessions court in every county not expressly excepted in this section. In any county where a general sessions court has been created pursuant to the general provisions of this chapter, it is intended that the county shall always have a general sessions court unless abolished by another general statute. In counties in which there is no court of general sessions as provided in this section, references in this code to the court of general sessions are deemed to include the court having the jurisdiction of the court of general sessions in such counties."
|Court of General Sessions||Creation of the courts|
|Tennessee||Tenn. Code Ann. § 16-18-101||Authorization||
"In any municipality in this state having a mayor's court or a municipal court presided over by the mayor of the municipality or the city recorder of the municipality and+ See more
having no other provision for a municipal judge for the municipality, the governing body of the municipality is authorized by ordinance to provide for the office of municipal judge."
|Municipal Court||Creation of the courts|