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Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.
|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 2||Supreme Court; justices; time for convening; concurrence required for judgment; acting Chief Justice||
The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice ofCalifornia and 6 associate justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court at any time. Concurrence of 4 judges present at+ See more
the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting Chief Justice shall perform all functions of the Chief Justice when the Chief Justice is absent or unable to act. The Chief Justice or, if the Chief Justice fails to do so, the court shall select an associate justice as acting Chief Justice.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 3||Courts of appeal; districts; divisions; power; concurrence required for judgment; acting presiding justice||
The Legislature shall divide the State into districts eachcontaining a court of appeal with one or more divisions. Each division consists of a presiding justice and 2 or more associate justices.+ See more
It has the power of a court of appeal and shall conduct itself as a 3-judge court. Concurrence of 2 judges present at the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting presiding justice shall perform all functions of the presiding justice when the presiding justice is absent or unable to act. The presiding justice or, if the presiding justice fails to do so, the Chief Justice shall select an associate justice of that division as acting presiding justice.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. Art. VI, Sec. 4||Superior courts; officers and employees; appellate divisions||
In each county there is a superior court of one or morejudges. The Legislature shall prescribe the number of judges and provide for the officers and employees of each superior+ See more
court. If the governing body of each affected county concurs, the Legislature may provide that one or more judges serve more than one superior court. In each superior court there is an appellate division. The Chief Justice shall assign judges to the appellate division for specified terms pursuant to rules, not inconsistent with statute, adopted by the Judicial Council to promote the independence of the appellate division.
|Superior Court||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9||District courts - elected judges||
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of+ See more
judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
|District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20||Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law||Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law.||Justice of the Peace Courts/Mayor's Courts||Creation of the courts|
|New York||Const. Art. 6, § 30||Legislative power over jurisdiction and proceedings; delegation of power to regulate practice and procedure.||
The legislature shall have the same power to alter and regulate the jurisdiction and proceedings in law and in equity that it has heretofore exercised. The legislature may, on such+ See more
terms as it shall provide and subject to subsequent modification, delegate, in whole or in part, to a court, including the appellate division of the supreme court, or to the chief administrator of the courts, any power possessed by the legislature to regulate practice and procedure in the courts. The chief administrator of the courts shall exercise any such power delegated to him or her with the advice and consent of the administrative board of the courts. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the adoption of regulations by individual courts consistent with the general practice and procedure as provided by statute or general rules.
|Legislature||Creation of the courts|
|New York||Const. Art. 6, § 33||Custodians of children to be of same religious persuasion||
Existing provisions of law not inconsistent with this article shall continue in force until repealed, amended, modified or superseded in accordance with the provisions of this article. The legislature shall+ See more
enact appropriate laws to carry into effect the purposes and provisions of this article, and may, for the purpose of implementing, supplementing or clarifying any of its provisions, enact any laws, not inconsistent with the provisions of this article, necessary or desirable in promoting the objectives of this article.
|Legislature||Creation of the courts|
|Oklahoma||Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 471.1||Authorization of Drug Court Programs||
Each district court of this state is authorized to establish a drug court program pursuant to the provisions of this act, subject to availability of funds. Juvenile drug courts may+ See more
be established based upon the provisions of this act; provided, however, juveniles shall not be held, processed, or treated in any manner which violates any provision of Title 10A of the Oklahoma Statutes.
|District Court||Creation of the courts|
|Oklahoma||Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 472||Anna McBride Act--Mental health courts||Any district or municipal court of this state may establish a mental health court program pursuant to the provisions of this section, subject to the availability of funds.||District Court or Municipal Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Const. art. VIII, § 1||Judicial Power||
Courts not of record shall also be established by statute...Municipalities or counties of the first or second class may create a justice court by filing a written declaration with the+ See more
Judicial Council on or before July 1 at least two years prior to the effective date of the election. Upon demonstration of compliance with operating standards as established by statute and the Judicial Council, the Judicial Council shall certify the creation of the court...(1) Justice courts have jurisdiction over class B and C misdemeanors, violation of ordinances, and infractions committed within their territorial jurisdiction by a person 18 years of age or older.
|Justice Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Code Ann. § 78A-5-201||Creation and expansion of existing drug court programs||
(1) There may be created a drug court program in any judicial district that demonstrates: (a) the need for a drug court program; and (b) the existence of a collaborative+ See more
strategy between the court, prosecutors, defense counsel, corrections, and substance abuse treatment services to reduce substance abuse by offenders.
|Drug Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Code Ann. § 78A-5-301||Creation of a veterans court program||
(1) The Judicial Council may create a veterans court program in any judicial district or geographic region that demonstrates: (a) the need for a veterans court program; and (b) the+ See more
existence of a collaborative strategy between the court, prosecutors, defense counsel, corrections, substance abuse treatment services, and the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Justice Outreach Program to divert veteran offenders.
|Veterans Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Code Ann. § 78A-7-101||Creation of justice court--Not of record||Under Article VIII, Section 1, Utah Constitution, there is created a court not of record known as the justice court. The judges of this court are justice court judges.||Justice Court||Creation of the courts|
|Iowa||Iowa Const. Art. 5 § 10||General assembly||
+ See more
[* * *]* The general assembly may reorganize the judicial districts and increase or diminish the number of districts, or the number of judges of the said court, and may
increase the number of judges of the supreme court; but such increase or diminution shall not be more than one district, or one judge of either court, at any one session; and no reorganization of the districts, or diminution of the number of judges, shall have the effect of removing a judge from office. Such reorganization of the districts, or any change in the boundaries thereof, or increase or diminution of the number of judges, shall take place every four years thereafter, if necessary, and at no other time.
At any regular session of the general assembly the state may be divided into the necessary judicial districts for district court purposes, or the said districts may be reorganized and the number of the districts and the judges of said courts increased or diminished; but no reorganization of the districts or diminution of the judges shall have the effect of removing a judge from office.
|Judicial districts||Creation of the courts|
|Iowa||Iowa Const. Art. 5 § 1||Judicial Power||
+ See more
The judicial power shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts, and such other courts, inferior to the supreme court, as the general assembly may, from time to time,
|Courts generally||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 421||Establishment||
+ See more
The Judicial Department may establish alcohol and drug treatment programs in the Superior Courts and District Courts and may adopt administrative orders and court rules to govern the practice, procedure
and administration of these programs. Alcohol and drug treatment programs must include local judges and must be community based and operated separately from juvenile drug courts.
|Alcohol and drug treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 431||Mental health treatment courts||
The Judicial Department may seek and receive grants to establish mental health treatment courts.
|Mental health treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 433(2)||Veterans treatment courts||
+ See more
Chief Justice may establish. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court may establish veterans treatment courts for veterans and members of the United States Armed Forces. The Supreme Judicial
Court may adopt administrative orders and court rules of practice and procedure as necessary.
|Veterans treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV § 1||In whom judicial power vested||
+ See more
The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, courts of appeals, courts of common pleas and divisions thereof, and such other courts inferior to the supreme
court as may from time to time be established by law.
|Judiciary||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 4||Common pleas court||
+ See more
(A) There shall be a court of common pleas and such divisions thereof as may be established by law serving each county of the state. Any judge of a court of
common pleas or a division thereof may temporarily hold court in any county. In the interests of the fair, impartial, speedy, and sure administration of justice, each county shall have one or more resident judges, or two or more counties may be combined into districts having one or more judges resident in the district and serving the common pleas courts of all counties in the district, as may be provided by law. Judges serving a district shall sit in each county in the district as the business of the court requires. In counties or districts having more than one judge of the court of common pleas, the judges shall select one of their number to act as presiding judge, to serve at their pleasure. If the judges are unable because of equal division of the vote to make such selection, the judge having the longest total service on the court of common pleas shall serve as presiding judge until selection is made by vote. The presiding judge shall have such duties and exercise such powers as are prescribed by rule of the supreme court.
(B) The courts of common pleas and divisions thereof shall have such original jurisdiction over all justiciable matters and such powers of review of proceedings of administrative officers and agencies as may be provided by law.
(C) Unless otherwise provided by law, there shall be a probate division and such other divisions of the courts of common pleas as may be provided by law. Judges shall be elected specifically to such probate division and to such other divisions. The judges of the probate division shall be empowered to employ and control the clerks, employees, deputies, and referees of such probate division of the common pleas courts.
|Court of Common Pleas||Creation of the courts|