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Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.
|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9||District courts - elected judges||
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of+ See more
judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
|District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20||Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law||Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law.||Justice of the Peace Courts/Mayor's Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Arkansas||Ark. Const. Amend. 80, § 5||Court of Appeals||
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There shall be a Court of Appeals which may have divisions thereof as established by Supreme Court rule. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as the Supreme
Court shall by rule determine and shall be subject to the general superintending control of the Supreme Court. Judges of the Court of Appeals shall have the same qualifications as Justices of the Supreme Court.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|Arkansas||Ark. Const. Amend. 80, § 6||Circuit Courts||
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(A) Circuit Courts are established as the trial courts of original jurisdiction of all justiciable matters not otherwise assigned pursuant to this Constitution.(B) Subject to the superintending control of the
Supreme Court, the Judges of a Circuit Court may divide that Circuit Court into subject matter divisions, and any Circuit Judge within the Circuit may sit in any division. (C) Circuit Judges may temporarily exchange circuits by joint order. Any Circuit Judge who consents may be assigned to another circuit for temporary service under rules adopted by the Supreme Court. (D) The Circuit Courts shall hold their sessions in each county at such times and places as are, or may be, prescribed by law.
|Circuit Court||Creation of the courts|
|Arkansas||Ark. Code Ann. § 16-98-303(a)(1)-(3)||Drug Courts Program Authorized||
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(a)(1) Each judicial district of this state is authorized to establish a drug court program under this subchapter.(2) A drug court established under this subchapter shall be approved under Â§
16-10-139.(3)(A) A drug court program may be preadjudication or postadjudication for an adult offender or a juvenile offender.
|Drug Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 421||Establishment||
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The Judicial Department may establish alcohol and drug treatment programs in the Superior Courts and District Courts and may adopt administrative orders and court rules to govern the practice, procedure
and administration of these programs. Alcohol and drug treatment programs must include local judges and must be community based and operated separately from juvenile drug courts.
|Alcohol and drug treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 431||Mental health treatment courts||
The Judicial Department may seek and receive grants to establish mental health treatment courts.
|Mental health treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 433(2)||Veterans treatment courts||
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Chief Justice may establish. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court may establish veterans treatment courts for veterans and members of the United States Armed Forces. The Supreme Judicial
Court may adopt administrative orders and court rules of practice and procedure as necessary.
|Veterans treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|New Hampshire||N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 490-G:2||Implementation of Drug Courts||
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I. (a) Each superior or circuit court may establish one or more drug courts under which drug offenders may be processed to address appropriately an identified substance abuse problem. “Drug
court” means a judicial intervention process that incorporates and substantially complies with the Ten Key Components listed in subparagraph (b) and may include:(1) “Pre-adjudication” where a drug offender is ordered to participate in drug court before charges are filed or before conviction;(2) “Post-adjudication” where a drug offender is ordered to participate in drug court after entering a plea of guilty or nolo contendre or having been found guilty;(3) “Reentry” where a drug offender is ordered to participate in drug court upon release from a sentence of incarceration; or(4) “Combination program” which may include pre-adjudication, post-adjudication, and/or reentry.
|Drug court||Creation of the courts|
|New Hampshire||N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 490-H:2||Implementation of Mental Health Courts||
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Any superior or circuit court may establish one or more mental health courts under which the courts monitor offenders with mental illnesses for compliance with individual services to change behavior
which would otherwise result in criminal conduct.
|Mental health court||Creation of the courts|
|New Hampshire||N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 592-B:9||Drug Courts or Alternative Drug Offender Programs||
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I. (a) In any county that has implemented or which will implement the felonies first project established in this chapter within one year of commencing operation of a drug court
or alternative drug offender program, the judicial branch shall fund and operate an approved drug court or alternative drug offender program separate from the statewide drug offender grant program established in RSA 490-G, and at no cost to the county.
|Drug Court||Creation of the courts|
|New Hampshire||N.H. Const. Pt. 2, art. 72a||Supreme and Superior Courts||
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The judicial power of the state shall be vested in the supreme court, a trial court of general jurisdiction known as the superior court, and such lower courts as the
legislature may establish under Article 4th of Part 2.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|West Virginia||W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 2||Supreme court of appeals||
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The supreme court of appeals shall consist of five justices. A majority of the justices of the court shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.
The justices shall be
elected by the voters of the State for a term of twelve years, unless sooner removed or retired as authorized in this article. The legislature may prescribe by law whether the election of such justices is to be on a partisan or nonpartisan basis.
Provision shall be made by rules of the supreme court of appeals for the selection of a member of the court to serve as chief justice thereof. If the chief justice is temporarily disqualified or unable to serve, one of the justices of the court designated in accordance with the rules of the court shall serve temporarily in his stead.
When any justice is temporarily disqualified or unable to serve, the chief justice may assign a judge of a circuit court or of an intermediate appellate court to serve from time to time in his stead.
|Supreme court of appeals||Creation of the courts|
|West Virginia||W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 1||Judicial power||
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The judicial power of the State shall be vested solely in a supreme court of appeals and in the circuit courts, and in such intermediate appellate courts and magistrate courts
as shall be hereafter established by the legislature, and in the justices, judges and magistrates of such courts.
|State Court||Creation of the courts|
|West Virginia||W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 5||Circuit courts||
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The judge or judges of each circuit court shall be elected by the voters of the circuit for a term of eight years, unless sooner removed or retired as authorized
in this article. The legislature may prescribe by law whether the election of such judges is to be on a partisan or nonpartisan basis. Upon the effective date of this article, each statutory court of record of limited jurisdiction existing in the State immediately prior to such effective date shall become part of the circuit court for the circuit in which it presently exists, and each such judge of such statutory court of record of limited jurisdiction shall thereupon become a judge of such circuit court. During his continuance in office, a judge of a circuit court shall reside in the circuit of which he is a judge.
The legislature may increase, or other than during term of office decrease, the number of circuit judges within any circuit. The judicial circuits in existence on the effective date of this article shall remain as so constituted until changed by law, and the legislature, at any session thereof held in the odd-numbered year next preceding the time for the full term election of the judges thereof, may rearrange the circuits and may increase or diminish the number of circuits. A judge of a circuit court in office at the time of any such change shall continue as a judge of the circuit in which he shall continue to reside after such change until his term shall expire, unless sooner removed or retired as authorized in this article.
There shall be at least one judge for each circuit court and as many more as may be necessary to transact the business of such court. If there be two or more judges of a circuit court, provision shall be made by rules of such circuit court for the selection of one of such judges to serve as chief judge thereof. If the chief judge is temporarily disqualified or unable to serve, one of the judges of the circuit court designated in accordance with the rules of such court shall serve temporarily in his stead.
The supreme court of appeals shall provide for dividing the business of those circuits in which there shall be more than one judge between the judges thereof so as to promote and secure the convenient and expeditious transaction of such business.
In every county in the State the circuit court for such county shall sit at least three times in each year. The supreme court of appeals shall designate the times at which each circuit court shall sit, but until this action is taken by the supreme court of appeals, each circuit court shall sit at the times prescribed by law. If there be two or more judges of a circuit court, such judges may hold court in the same county or in different counties within the circuit at the same time or at different times.
|Circuit courts||Creation of the courts|
|West Virginia||W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 11||Municipal courts||
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The legislature may provide for the establishment in incorporated cities, towns or villages of municipal, police or mayors’ courts, and may also provide the manner of selection of the judges
of such courts. Such courts shall have jurisdiction to enforce municipal ordinances, with the right of appeal as prescribed by law. Until otherwise provided by law, all such courts heretofore established shall remain and continue as now constituted, and with the same right of appeal, insofar as their jurisdiction to enforce municipal ordinances is concerned; but on and after January one, one thousand nine hundred seventy-seven, any other jurisdiction now exercised by such courts shall cease. No judge of a municipal, police or mayor’s court or any officer thereof shall be compensated for his services on a fee basis or receive to his own use for his services any pecuniary compensation, reward or benefit other than the salary prescribed therefor.
|Municipal court||Creation of the courts, Jurisdiction of the courts|
|West Virginia||W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 10||Magistrate courts||
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The legislature shall establish in each county a magistrate court or courts with the right of appeal as prescribed by law. Such courts shall be courts of record if so
prescribed by law.
The legislature shall determine the qualifications and the number of magistrates for each such court to be elected by the voters of the county, and the legislature may prescribe by law whether the election of such magistrates is to be on a partisan or nonpartisan basis: Provided, that any person in office as a justice of the peace of this State on the effective date of this article and who has served as a justice of the peace of this State for at least one year prior to such effective date shall, insofar as any qualifications established by the legislature for the office of magistrate are concerned and notwithstanding the same, be deemed qualified for life to run for election as a magistrate of any such court: And provided further, that the legislature shall not have the power to require that a magistrate be a person licensed to practice the profession of law, nor shall any justice or judge of any higher court establish any rules which by their nature would dictate or mandate that a magistrate be a person licensed to practice the profession of law. The magistrates of such courts shall hold their offices for the term of four years unless sooner removed or retired as authorized in this article. The legislature shall also determine the number of officers to be selected for each such court and the manner of their selection. During his continuance in office a magistrate or officer of such a court shall reside in the county for which he is elected or selected. The legislature shall prescribe by law for the filling of any vacancy in the office of a magistrate or officer of such court.
The jurisdiction of a magistrate court shall extend throughout the county for which it is established, shall be uniform for all counties of the State and shall be subject to such regulations as to venue of actions and the counties in which process may be executed or served on parties or witnesses as may be prescribed by law. The times and places for holding such courts shall be designated or determined in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
Magistrate courts shall have such original jurisdiction in criminal matters as may be prescribed by law, but no person shall be convicted or sentenced for a felony in such courts. In criminal cases, the procedure may be by information or warrant of arrest, without presentment or indictment by a grand jury. Such courts shall have original jurisdiction in all civil cases at law wherein the value or amount in controversy, exclusive of interest and costs, shall not exceed fifteen hundred dollars, unless such amount and value shall be increased by the legislature, except such civil matters as may be excluded from their jurisdiction by law; and, to the extent provided by law, in proceedings involving real estate when the title thereto is not in controversy. No judgment of a magistrate in any proceeding involving real estate or any right pertaining thereto shall bar the title of any party or any remedy therefor . . .
|Magistrate court||Creation of the courts, Jurisdiction of the courts|
|West Virginia||W. Va. Code § 50-1-1||Magistrate court created||
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There is hereby created in each county of this state a magistrate court with such numbers of magistrates for each court as are hereafter provided. There shall be elected by
the voters of each county, at the general election to be held in 1976, and in every fourth year thereafter, such number of magistrates as is provided in section two [§ 50-1-2] of this article. The filing fee for the office of magistrate shall be one percent of the annual salary. The term of magistrates shall be for four years and shall begin on January 1, of the year following the year of election.
Effective with the primary election of 2016, all elections for magistrates will be on a nonpartisan basis by division. Beginning in 2016, there will no longer be primary elections held for magistrates and all elections for magistrates are to be held in the nonpartisan judicial election as set forth in article five [§§ 3-5-1 et seq.], chapter three of this code. All indications of party identification on election ballots for magistrate shall be omitted.
|Magistrate court||Creation of the courts|
|Minnesota||Minn. Const. Art. 6, § 2||Judiciary; Supreme Court||
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The supreme court consists of one chief judge and not less than six nor more than eight associate judges as the legislature may establish. It shall have original jurisdiction in
such remedial cases as are prescribed by law, and appellate jurisdiction in all cases, but there shall be no trial by jury in the supreme court. The legislature may establish a court of appeals and provide by law for the number of its judges, who shall not be judges of any other court, and its organization and for the review of its decisions by the supreme court. The court of appeals shall have appellate jurisdiction over all courts, except the supreme court, and other appellate jurisdiction as prescribed by law. As provided by law judges of the court of appeals or of the district court may be assigned temporarily to act as judges of the supreme court upon its request and judges of the district court may be assigned temporarily by the supreme court to act as judges of the court of appeals. The supreme court shall appoint to serve at its pleasure a clerk, a reporter, a state law librarian and other necessary employees.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts, Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Minnesota||Minn. Const. Art. 6, § 1||Judiciary; Judicial power||
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The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, a court of appeals, if established by the legislature, a district court and such other courts, judicial officers
and commissioners with jurisdiction inferior to the district court as the legislature may establish.
|Judiciary||Creation of the courts|