Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Court/legal body Function
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Maryland Md. Const. art. IV, §§ 1, 14 Court of Appeals - creation of courts
The Judicial power of this State is vested in a Court of Appeals, such intermediate courts of appeal as the General Assembly may create by law, Circuit Courts, Orphans' Courts,
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and a District Court. These Courts shall be Courts of Record, and each shall have a seal to be used in the authentication of all process issuing from it..
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Maryland Md. Const. art. IV, §§ 1, 15 Special Appeals - creation of courts
The Judicial power of this State is vested in a Court of Appeals, such intermediate courts of appeal as the General Assembly may create by law, Circuit Courts, Orphans' Courts,
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and a District Court. These Courts shall be Courts of Record, and each shall have a seal to be used in the authentication of all process issuing from it..
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Maryland Md. Const. art. IV, §§ 1, 16 Circuit Courts - creation of courts
The Judicial power of this State is vested in a Court of Appeals, such intermediate courts of appeal as the General Assembly may create by law, Circuit Courts, Orphans' Courts,
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and a District Court. These Courts shall be Courts of Record, and each shall have a seal to be used in the authentication of all process issuing from it..
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Maryland Md. Const. art. IV, §§ 1, 17 District Courts - creation of courts
The Judicial power of this State is vested in a Court of Appeals, such intermediate courts of appeal as the General Assembly may create by law, Circuit Courts, Orphans' Courts,
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and a District Court. These Courts shall be Courts of Record, and each shall have a seal to be used in the authentication of all process issuing from it..
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Maryland Md. Const. art. IV, §§ 1, 18 Orphans' Court - creation of courts
The Judicial power of this State is vested in a Court of Appeals, such intermediate courts of appeal as the General Assembly may create by law, Circuit Courts, Orphans' Courts,
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and a District Court. These Courts shall be Courts of Record, and each shall have a seal to be used in the authentication of all process issuing from it..
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California Cal. Con. art. VI, § 2 Supreme Court; justices; time for convening; concurrence required for judgment; acting Chief Justice
The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice ofCalifornia and 6 associate justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court at any time. Concurrence of 4 judges present at
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the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting Chief Justice shall perform all functions of the Chief Justice when the Chief Justice is absent or unable to act. The Chief Justice or, if the Chief Justice fails to do so, the court shall select an associate justice as acting Chief Justice.
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California Cal. Con. art. VI, § 3 Courts of appeal; districts; divisions; power; concurrence required for judgment; acting presiding justice
The Legislature shall divide the State into districts eachcontaining a court of appeal with one or more divisions. Each division consists of a presiding justice and 2 or more associate justices.
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It has the power of a court of appeal and shall conduct itself as a 3-judge court. Concurrence of 2 judges present at the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting presiding justice shall perform all functions of the presiding justice when the presiding justice is absent or unable to act. The presiding justice or, if the presiding justice fails to do so, the Chief Justice shall select an associate justice of that division as acting presiding justice.
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California Cal. Con. Art. VI, Sec. 4 Superior courts; officers and employees; appellate divisions
In each county there is a superior court of one or morejudges. The Legislature shall prescribe the number of judges and provide for the officers and employees of each superior
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court. If the governing body of each affected county concurs, the Legislature may provide that one or more judges serve more than one superior court. In each superior court there is an appellate division. The Chief Justice shall assign judges to the appellate division for specified terms pursuant to rules, not inconsistent with statute, adopted by the Judicial Council to promote the independence of the appellate division.
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Louisiana La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9 District courts - elected judges
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of
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judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
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Louisiana La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20 Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law. Creation of the courts
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 3-1-101 The several courts of this state
The following are courts of justice of this state: (1) the court of impeachment, which is the senate; (2) the supreme court; (3) the district courts; (4) the municipal
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courts; (5) the justices' courts; (6) the city courts and such other courts of limited jurisdiction as the legislature may establish in any incorporated city or town.
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 3-5-901 State assumption of district court expenses
(1) There is a state-funded district court program under the judicial branch. Under this program, the office of court administrator shall fund all district court costs, except as provided in
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subsection (3). These costs include but are not limited to the following: (a) salaries and benefits for: (i) district court judges; (ii) law clerks; (iii) court reporters, as provided in 3-5-601; (iv) juvenile probation officers, youth division offices staff, and assessment officers of the youth court; and (v) other employees of the district court; (b) in criminal cases: (i) fees for transcripts of proceedings, as provided in 3-5-604; (ii) witness fees and necessary expenses, as provided in 46-15-116; (iii) juror fees and necessary expenses; (iv) for a psychiatric examination under 46-14-202, the cost of the examination and other associated expenses, as provided in 46-14-202(4); and (v) for commitment under 46-14-221, the cost of transporting the defendant to the custody of the director of the department of public health and human services to be placed in an appropriate facility of the department of public health and human services and of transporting the defendant back for any proceedings, as provided in 46-14-221(5); (c) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the district court expenses in all postconviction proceedings held pursuant to Title 46, chapter 21, and in all habeas corpus proceedings held pursuant to Title 46, chapter 22, and appeals from those proceedings; (d) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the following expenses incurred by the state in federal habeas corpus cases that challenge the validity of a conviction or of a sentence: (i) transcript fees; (ii) witness fees; and (iii) expenses for psychiatric examinations; (e) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the following expenses incurred by the state in a proceeding held pursuant to Title 41, chapter 3, part 4 or 6, that seeks temporary investigative authority of a youth, temporary legal custody of a youth, or termination of the parent-child legal relationship and permanent custody: (i) transcript fees; (ii) witness fees; (iii) expenses for medical and psychological evaluation of a youth or the youth's parent, guardian, or other person having physical or legal custody of the youth except for expenses for services that a person is eligible to receive under a public program that provides medical or psychological evaluation; (iv) expenses associated with appointment of a guardian ad litem or child advocate for the youth; and (v) expenses associated with court-ordered alternative dispute resolution; (f) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), costs of juror and witness fees and witness expenses before a grand jury; (g) costs of the court-sanctioned educational program concerning the effects of dissolution of marriage on children, as required in 40-4-226, and expenses of education when ordered for the investigation and preparation of a report concerning parenting arrangements, as provided in 40-4-215(2)(a); (h) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), all district court expenses associated with civil jury trials if similar expenses were paid out of the district court fund or the county general fund in any previous year; (i) all other costs associated with the operation and maintenance of the district court, including contract costs for court reporters who are independent contractors; and (j) costs associated with the operation and maintenance of the youth court and youth court division operations pursuant to 41-5-111 and subsection (1)(a) of this section, except for those costs paid by other entities identified in Title 41, chapter 5. (2) If a cost is not paid directly by the office of court administrator, the county shall pay the cost and the office of court administrator shall reimburse the county within 30 days of receipt of a claim. (3) For the purposes of subsection (1), district court costs paid by the office of court administrator do not include: (a) costs for clerks of district court and employees and expenses of the offices of the clerks of district court; (b) costs of providing and maintaining district court office space; or (c) charges incurred against a county by virtue of any provision of Title 7 or 46. Credits
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 3-11-101 City court established--city court of record
A city court is established in each city or town. A city judge shall establish regular sessions of the court. On judicial days, the court must be open for all
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business, civil and criminal. On nonjudicial days, as defined in 3-1-302, the court may transact criminal business only.
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Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 3-12-103 Creation of court
A small claims court may be created by a resolution passed by the board of county commissioners after consultation with the district court judges of the judicial district in which
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the county is located or by county initiative as provided in Title 7, chapter 5, part 1. Upon passage of the resolution or initiative, the judge of the appropriate judicial district shall, by court order, establish a small claims court under the provisions of this chapter. When the order is filed with the clerk of the district court of the appropriate county, the clerk of the district court becomes the clerk of the small claims court.
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Arkansas Ark. Const. Amend. 80, § 5 Court of Appeals

There shall be a Court of Appeals which may have divisions thereof as established by Supreme Court rule. The Court of Appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as the Supreme

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Court shall by rule determine and shall be subject to the general superintending control of the Supreme Court. Judges of the Court of Appeals shall have the same qualifications as Justices of the Supreme Court.

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Arkansas Ark. Const. Amend. 80, § 6 Circuit Courts

(A) Circuit Courts are established as the trial courts of original jurisdiction of all justiciable matters not otherwise assigned pursuant to this Constitution.(B) Subject to the superintending control of the

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Supreme Court, the Judges of a Circuit Court may divide that Circuit Court into subject matter divisions, and any Circuit Judge within the Circuit may sit in any division. (C) Circuit Judges may temporarily exchange circuits by joint order. Any Circuit Judge who consents may be assigned to another circuit for temporary service under rules adopted by the Supreme Court. (D) The Circuit Courts shall hold their sessions in each county at such times and places as are, or may be, prescribed by law.

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Arkansas Ark. Code Ann. § 16-98-303(a)(1)-(3) Drug Courts Program Authorized

(a)(1) Each judicial district of this state is authorized to establish a drug court program under this subchapter.(2) A drug court established under this subchapter shall be approved under §

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16-10-139.(3)(A) A drug court program may be preadjudication or postadjudication for an adult offender or a juvenile offender.

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Maine Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 421 Establishment

 The Judicial Department may establish alcohol and drug treatment programs in the Superior Courts and District Courts and may adopt administrative orders and court rules to govern the practice, procedure

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and administration of these programs. Alcohol and drug treatment programs must include local judges and must be community based and operated separately from juvenile drug courts.

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Maine Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 431 Mental health treatment courts

 The Judicial Department may seek and receive grants to establish mental health treatment courts.

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Maine Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 433(2) Veterans treatment courts

Chief Justice may establish. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court may establish veterans treatment courts for veterans and members of the United States Armed Forces. The Supreme Judicial

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Court may adopt administrative orders and court rules of practice and procedure as necessary.

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