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Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.
|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|Virginia||Va. Const. art. IV, § 1||Va. Const. art. IV, § 1||
The judicial power of the Commonwealth shall be vested in a Supreme Court and in such other courts of original or appellate jurisdiction subordinate to the Supreme Court as the+ See more
General Assembly may from time to time establish.
|Generally applicable - judicial power||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 2||Supreme Court; justices; time for convening; concurrence required for judgment; acting Chief Justice||
The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice ofCalifornia and 6 associate justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court at any time. Concurrence of 4 judges present at+ See more
the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting Chief Justice shall perform all functions of the Chief Justice when the Chief Justice is absent or unable to act. The Chief Justice or, if the Chief Justice fails to do so, the court shall select an associate justice as acting Chief Justice.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 3||Courts of appeal; districts; divisions; power; concurrence required for judgment; acting presiding justice||
The Legislature shall divide the State into districts eachcontaining a court of appeal with one or more divisions. Each division consists of a presiding justice and 2 or more associate justices.+ See more
It has the power of a court of appeal and shall conduct itself as a 3-judge court. Concurrence of 2 judges present at the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting presiding justice shall perform all functions of the presiding justice when the presiding justice is absent or unable to act. The presiding justice or, if the presiding justice fails to do so, the Chief Justice shall select an associate justice of that division as acting presiding justice.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. Art. VI, Sec. 4||Superior courts; officers and employees; appellate divisions||
In each county there is a superior court of one or morejudges. The Legislature shall prescribe the number of judges and provide for the officers and employees of each superior+ See more
court. If the governing body of each affected county concurs, the Legislature may provide that one or more judges serve more than one superior court. In each superior court there is an appellate division. The Chief Justice shall assign judges to the appellate division for specified terms pursuant to rules, not inconsistent with statute, adopted by the Judicial Council to promote the independence of the appellate division.
|Superior Court||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9||District courts - elected judges||
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of+ See more
judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
|District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20||Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law||Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law.||Justice of the Peace Courts/Mayor's Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Mississippi||Miss. Code Ann. § 9-23-3(1)||Purpose of the drug courts||
The Legislature of Mississippi recognizes the critical need for judicial intervention to reduce the incidence of alcohol and drug use, alcohol and drug addiction, and crimes committed as a result+ See more
of alcohol and drug use and alcohol and drug addiction. It is the intent of the Legislature to facilitate local drug court alternative orders adaptable to chancery, circuit, county, youth, municipal and justice courts.
|Drug courts||Creation of the courts|
|Mississippi||Miss. Code Ann. § 9-25-1(2)||Veterans treatment court program||
A circuit court judge may establish a Veterans Treatment Court program. The Veterans Treatment Court may, at the discretion of the circuit court judge, be a separate court program or+ See more
as a component of an existing drug court program. At the discretion of the circuit court judge, the Veterans Treatment Court may be operated in one (1) county within the circuit court district, and allow veteran participants from all counties within the circuit court district to participate.
|Veteran treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|South Carolina||S.C. Code Ann. § 14-29-30||Veterans treatment court programs may be established||
Each circuit solicitor may establish a veterans treatment court program. Each circuit solicitor that accepts state funding for the implementation of a veterans treatment court program must establish and administer+ See more
at least one veterans treatment court program for the circuit within one hundred eighty days of receipt of funding. The circuit solicitor must administer the program and ensure that all eligible persons are permitted to apply for admission to the program.
|Veterans Treatment Court||Creation of the courts|
|South Carolina||S.C. Code Ann. § 14-31-40||Mental health court program may be established||
each circuit solicitor may establish a mental health court program under one of the formats defined in Section 14-31-30. An offender arrested or convicted for any charges, except those excluded+ See more
under the provisions of Section 16-1-130, who are suffering from a diagnosed, or diagnosable mental illness, including those with a co-concurring disorder of substance abuse, may be eligible for referral to a mental health court program. In cases involving victims, proper notice shall be given to victims pursuant to Section 16-3-1525. Proper notice to a victim is not achieved unless reasonable attempts are made to contact the victim and the victim is either nonresponsive or cannot be located after a reasonable search. (b) Each circuit solicitor that accepts state funding for the implementation of a mental health treatment court program must establish and administer at least one mental health court program for the circuit within one hundred eighty days of receipt of funding. The circuit solicitor must administer the program and ensure that all eligible persons are permitted to apply for admission to the program.
|Mental Health Court||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 421||Establishment||
+ See more
The Judicial Department may establish alcohol and drug treatment programs in the Superior Courts and District Courts and may adopt administrative orders and court rules to govern the practice, procedure
and administration of these programs. Alcohol and drug treatment programs must include local judges and must be community based and operated separately from juvenile drug courts.
|Alcohol and drug treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 431||Mental health treatment courts||
The Judicial Department may seek and receive grants to establish mental health treatment courts.
|Mental health treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 433(2)||Veterans treatment courts||
+ See more
Chief Justice may establish. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court may establish veterans treatment courts for veterans and members of the United States Armed Forces. The Supreme Judicial
Court may adopt administrative orders and court rules of practice and procedure as necessary.
|Veterans treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV § 1||In whom judicial power vested||
+ See more
The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, courts of appeals, courts of common pleas and divisions thereof, and such other courts inferior to the supreme
court as may from time to time be established by law.
|Judiciary||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 4||Common pleas court||
+ See more
(A) There shall be a court of common pleas and such divisions thereof as may be established by law serving each county of the state. Any judge of a court of
common pleas or a division thereof may temporarily hold court in any county. In the interests of the fair, impartial, speedy, and sure administration of justice, each county shall have one or more resident judges, or two or more counties may be combined into districts having one or more judges resident in the district and serving the common pleas courts of all counties in the district, as may be provided by law. Judges serving a district shall sit in each county in the district as the business of the court requires. In counties or districts having more than one judge of the court of common pleas, the judges shall select one of their number to act as presiding judge, to serve at their pleasure. If the judges are unable because of equal division of the vote to make such selection, the judge having the longest total service on the court of common pleas shall serve as presiding judge until selection is made by vote. The presiding judge shall have such duties and exercise such powers as are prescribed by rule of the supreme court.
(B) The courts of common pleas and divisions thereof shall have such original jurisdiction over all justiciable matters and such powers of review of proceedings of administrative officers and agencies as may be provided by law.
(C) Unless otherwise provided by law, there shall be a probate division and such other divisions of the courts of common pleas as may be provided by law. Judges shall be elected specifically to such probate division and to such other divisions. The judges of the probate division shall be empowered to employ and control the clerks, employees, deputies, and referees of such probate division of the common pleas courts.
|Court of Common Pleas||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 3||Court of Appeals||
+ See more
(A) The state shall be divided by law into compact appellate districts in each of which there shall be a court of appeals consisting of three judges. Laws may be passed
increasing the number of judges in any district wherein the volume of business may require such additional judge or judges. In districts having additional judges, three judges shall participate in the hearing and disposition of each case. The court shall hold sessions in each county of the district as the necessity arises. The county commissioners of each county shall provide a proper and convenient place for the court of appeals to hold court.
(B) (1) The courts of appeals shall have original jurisdiction in the following:
(a) Quo warranto;
(c) Habeas corpus;
(f) In any cause on review as may be necessary to its complete determination.
(2) Courts of appeals shall have such jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse judgments or final orders of the courts of record inferior to the court of appeals within the district, except that courts of appeals shall not have jurisdiction to review on direct appeal a judgment that imposes a sentence of death. Courts of appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse final orders or actions of administrative officers or agencies.
(3) A majority of the judges hearing the cause shall be necessary to render a judgment. Judgments of the courts of appeals are final except as provided in section 2(B) (2) of this article. No judgment resulting from a trial by jury shall be reversed on the weight of the evidence except by the concurrence of all three judges hearing the cause.
(4) Whenever the judges of a court of appeals find that a judgment upon which they have agreed is in conflict with a judgment pronounced upon the same question by any other court of appeals of the state, the judges shall certify the record of the case to the supreme court for review and final determination.
(C) Laws may be passed providing for the reporting of cases in the courts of appeals.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|South Dakota||S.D. Const. art. V, § 2||Supreme Court||
+ See more
The Supreme Court is the highest court of the state. It consists of a chief justice and four associate justices. Upon request by the Supreme Court the Legislature may increase
the number of justices to seven. All justices shall be selected from compact districts established by the Legislature, and each district shall have one justice.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|South Dakota||S.D. Const. art. V, § 3||Circuit courts||
The circuit courts consist of such number of circuits and judges as the Supreme Court determines by rule.
|Circuit Courts||Creation of the courts|
|South Dakota||S.D. Const. art. V, § 4||Courts of limited jurisdiction||
Courts of limited jurisdiction consist of all courts created by the Legislature having limited original jurisdiction.
|Courts of limited jurisdiction||Creation of the courts, Jurisdiction of the courts|
|South Dakota||S.D. Codified Laws § 16-12A-2.2||Pursuant to the provisions of S.D. Const., Art. V, § 4, there is hereby established within each judicial circuit a magistrate court||
Pursuant to the provisions of S.D. Const., Art. V, § 4, there is hereby established within each judicial circuit a magistrate court.
|Magistrat Courts||Creation of the courts|