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|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|North Dakota||N.D. Const. art. VI, § 1||Courts, generally||
The judicial power of the state is vested in a unified judicial system consisting of a supreme court, a district court, and such other courts as may be provided by+ See more
|Courts generally||Creation of the courts|
|North Dakota||N.D. Const. art. VI, § 9||District Courts||The state shall be divided into judicial districts by order of the supreme court. . . .||District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|North Dakota||N.D. Cent. Code § 27-02.1-01||Court of Appeals||
A temporary court of appeals is established to exercise appellate and original jurisdiction as delegated by the supreme court. Panels of the temporary court of appeals may issue original and+ See more
remedial writs necessary to properly exercise jurisdiction in cases assigned to them. The panels of the temporary court of appeals are subject to administration by the supreme court pursuant to sections 3 and 8 of article VI of the Constitution of North Dakota.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|North Dakota||N.D. Cent. Code § 27-05-00.1||District Courts||
1. Following the completion on January 1, 1995, of the terms of the judges of all county courts, the county court and office of judge of the county court in+ See more
each county are abolished. 2. District court judgeships are established on January 2, 1995, in number equal to the number of county judges serving the county courts on January 1, 1991, or the number of county judges serving the county courts on January 1, 1994, whichever is the lesser number. . . . All statutes relating to the district court apply to the district court judgeships established pursuant to this subsection, except as otherwise provided by this section. 3. The supreme court shall designate by rule, prior to January 1, 1994, the judicial district for each additional district court judgeship established pursuant to subsection 2. The judicial district designated by the supreme court for each district court judgeship established pursuant to subsection 2 is the area of election for that office at the general election in 1994. . . .
|District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|North Dakota||N.D. Cent. Code § 27-05.2-02||State funding of clerk of district court services--Agreements to provide services--Transition schedule||
1. Except as provided in subsection 2, the supreme court, within the limits of legislative appropriations and pursuant to subsection 7, shall provide clerk of district court services in each+ See more
county in the state. The supreme court may provide such services through clerks of district court, deputies, and assistants who are employees of the judicial system or through service agreements under subsection 6. The supreme court shall develop standards and procedures to ensure that adequate clerk of district court services are provided. “Clerk of district court services” means those duties and services, as provided by statute or rule of the supreme court, that directly serve the judicial system and the provision of effective and efficient judicial services to the public. Beginning January 1, 2003, the individual designated by a board of county commissioners to provide clerk of district court services under subsection 2 or 6 serves as ex officio clerk of district court. The salary and bond for the ex officio clerk of district court must be fixed by a resolution adopted by the board of county commissioners.2. A county may elect to provide clerk of district court services at the county's own expense. The board of county commissioners shall forward to the supreme court a resolution indicating its election to provide services under this subsection. Such services must be provided in a manner consistent with standards and procedures established by the supreme court. If the county is unable to provide adequate clerk of district court services, the supreme court shall provide for those services in any manner it considers appropriate. If a county has entered into an agreement under subsection 6, the county may not provide clerk of district court services under this subsection until after the agreement has expired.3. In a county in which the supreme court determines that at least five full-time employees are necessary to provide adequate clerk of district court services, the elected clerk of district court and clerk of court staff designated by the supreme court shall become employees of the state judicial system if the board of county commissioners consents to the transition after consultation with the elected clerk. This subsection applies upon receipt by the supreme court of a resolution adopted by the board of county commissioners indicating its consent. Any equipment, including technology-related equipment, and furnishings in the control and custody of the clerk of district court on the date the clerk becomes a state employee must remain in the control and custody of the clerk until the state court administrator determines the items are no longer needed. The clerk, upon becoming a state employee, shall receive a salary in an amount not less than the salary received as a county employee and shall remain an employee of the state judicial system until the clerk retires, resigns, or the term for which the clerk was initially elected expires, whichever occurs earlier. Thereafter, the clerk of district court must be appointed in the manner provided by supreme court rule. If the board of county commissioners does not consent to the clerk and designated staff becoming employees of the state judicial system, the county must provide clerk of district court services at its own expense in accordance with subsection 2.4. In a county in which the supreme court determines that one or more, but less than five, full-time employees are necessary to provide clerk of district court services, the elected clerk of district court and clerk of court staff designated by the supreme court shall become employees of the state judicial system in the manner described in subsection 3. If the board of county commissioners does not consent to the clerk and designated staff becoming employees of the state judicial system, the county may provide clerk of district court services at its own expense under subsection 2 or the supreme court may provide funding for clerk of district court services in accordance with an agreement under subsection 6.5. In a county in which the supreme court determines that less than one full-time employee is necessary to provide clerk of district court services, the supreme court may provide funding for such services in accordance with an agreement under subsection 6.6. The supreme court may enter into an agreement with one or more boards of county commissioners to provide funding for the provision of clerk of district court services in a manner consistent with standards and procedures established by the supreme court. Funding for personnel under the agreement must be equal to the amount, based on county employee compensation levels, necessary for the number of full-time employees needed to provide clerk of district court services. Funding must be available under the agreement to defray the cost of technology-related equipment considered necessary by the supreme court for the delivery of adequate clerk of district court services. After entering into an agreement under this subsection, a county may, under chapter 11-10.2 or 11-10.3, provide for the delivery of clerk of district court services in a manner consistent with the agreement. If a county fails to fulfill the terms of an agreement or is unable to provide clerk of district court services consistent with standards and procedures established by the supreme court, the supreme court shall provide for those services in any manner it considers appropriate.
|Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 2||Supreme Court; justices; time for convening; concurrence required for judgment; acting Chief Justice||
The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice ofCalifornia and 6 associate justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court at any time. Concurrence of 4 judges present at+ See more
the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting Chief Justice shall perform all functions of the Chief Justice when the Chief Justice is absent or unable to act. The Chief Justice or, if the Chief Justice fails to do so, the court shall select an associate justice as acting Chief Justice.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 3||Courts of appeal; districts; divisions; power; concurrence required for judgment; acting presiding justice||
The Legislature shall divide the State into districts eachcontaining a court of appeal with one or more divisions. Each division consists of a presiding justice and 2 or more associate justices.+ See more
It has the power of a court of appeal and shall conduct itself as a 3-judge court. Concurrence of 2 judges present at the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting presiding justice shall perform all functions of the presiding justice when the presiding justice is absent or unable to act. The presiding justice or, if the presiding justice fails to do so, the Chief Justice shall select an associate justice of that division as acting presiding justice.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. Art. VI, Sec. 4||Superior courts; officers and employees; appellate divisions||
In each county there is a superior court of one or morejudges. The Legislature shall prescribe the number of judges and provide for the officers and employees of each superior+ See more
court. If the governing body of each affected county concurs, the Legislature may provide that one or more judges serve more than one superior court. In each superior court there is an appellate division. The Chief Justice shall assign judges to the appellate division for specified terms pursuant to rules, not inconsistent with statute, adopted by the Judicial Council to promote the independence of the appellate division.
|Superior Court||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9||District courts - elected judges||
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of+ See more
judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
|District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20||Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law||Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law.||Justice of the Peace Courts/Mayor's Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-1-101||The several courts of this state||
The following are courts of justice of this state: (1) the court of impeachment, which is the senate; (2) the supreme court; (3) the district courts; (4) the municipal+ See more
courts; (5) the justices' courts; (6) the city courts and such other courts of limited jurisdiction as the legislature may establish in any incorporated city or town.
|Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-5-901||State assumption of district court expenses||
(1) There is a state-funded district court program under the judicial branch. Under this program, the office of court administrator shall fund all district court costs, except as provided in+ See more
subsection (3). These costs include but are not limited to the following: (a) salaries and benefits for: (i) district court judges; (ii) law clerks; (iii) court reporters, as provided in 3-5-601; (iv) juvenile probation officers, youth division offices staff, and assessment officers of the youth court; and (v) other employees of the district court; (b) in criminal cases: (i) fees for transcripts of proceedings, as provided in 3-5-604; (ii) witness fees and necessary expenses, as provided in 46-15-116; (iii) juror fees and necessary expenses; (iv) for a psychiatric examination under 46-14-202, the cost of the examination and other associated expenses, as provided in 46-14-202(4); and (v) for commitment under 46-14-221, the cost of transporting the defendant to the custody of the director of the department of public health and human services to be placed in an appropriate facility of the department of public health and human services and of transporting the defendant back for any proceedings, as provided in 46-14-221(5); (c) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the district court expenses in all postconviction proceedings held pursuant to Title 46, chapter 21, and in all habeas corpus proceedings held pursuant to Title 46, chapter 22, and appeals from those proceedings; (d) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the following expenses incurred by the state in federal habeas corpus cases that challenge the validity of a conviction or of a sentence: (i) transcript fees; (ii) witness fees; and (iii) expenses for psychiatric examinations; (e) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), the following expenses incurred by the state in a proceeding held pursuant to Title 41, chapter 3, part 4 or 6, that seeks temporary investigative authority of a youth, temporary legal custody of a youth, or termination of the parent-child legal relationship and permanent custody: (i) transcript fees; (ii) witness fees; (iii) expenses for medical and psychological evaluation of a youth or the youth's parent, guardian, or other person having physical or legal custody of the youth except for expenses for services that a person is eligible to receive under a public program that provides medical or psychological evaluation; (iv) expenses associated with appointment of a guardian ad litem or child advocate for the youth; and (v) expenses associated with court-ordered alternative dispute resolution; (f) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), costs of juror and witness fees and witness expenses before a grand jury; (g) costs of the court-sanctioned educational program concerning the effects of dissolution of marriage on children, as required in 40-4-226, and expenses of education when ordered for the investigation and preparation of a report concerning parenting arrangements, as provided in 40-4-215(2)(a); (h) except as provided in 47-1-201(5), all district court expenses associated with civil jury trials if similar expenses were paid out of the district court fund or the county general fund in any previous year; (i) all other costs associated with the operation and maintenance of the district court, including contract costs for court reporters who are independent contractors; and (j) costs associated with the operation and maintenance of the youth court and youth court division operations pursuant to 41-5-111 and subsection (1)(a) of this section, except for those costs paid by other entities identified in Title 41, chapter 5. (2) If a cost is not paid directly by the office of court administrator, the county shall pay the cost and the office of court administrator shall reimburse the county within 30 days of receipt of a claim. (3) For the purposes of subsection (1), district court costs paid by the office of court administrator do not include: (a) costs for clerks of district court and employees and expenses of the offices of the clerks of district court; (b) costs of providing and maintaining district court office space; or (c) charges incurred against a county by virtue of any provision of Title 7 or 46. Credits
|District Court||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-11-101||City court established--city court of record||
A city court is established in each city or town. A city judge shall establish regular sessions of the court. On judicial days, the court must be open for all+ See more
business, civil and criminal. On nonjudicial days, as defined in 3-1-302, the court may transact criminal business only.
|City Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Montana||Mont. Code Ann. § 3-12-103||Creation of court||
A small claims court may be created by a resolution passed by the board of county commissioners after consultation with the district court judges of the judicial district in which+ See more
the county is located or by county initiative as provided in Title 7, chapter 5, part 1. Upon passage of the resolution or initiative, the judge of the appropriate judicial district shall, by court order, establish a small claims court under the provisions of this chapter. When the order is filed with the clerk of the district court of the appropriate county, the clerk of the district court becomes the clerk of the small claims court.
|Small claims court||Creation of the courts|
|Oklahoma||Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 471.1||Authorization of Drug Court Programs||
Each district court of this state is authorized to establish a drug court program pursuant to the provisions of this act, subject to availability of funds. Juvenile drug courts may+ See more
be established based upon the provisions of this act; provided, however, juveniles shall not be held, processed, or treated in any manner which violates any provision of Title 10A of the Oklahoma Statutes.
|District Court||Creation of the courts|
|Oklahoma||Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 472||Anna McBride Act--Mental health courts||Any district or municipal court of this state may establish a mental health court program pursuant to the provisions of this section, subject to the availability of funds.||District Court or Municipal Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Const. art. VIII, § 1||Judicial Power||
Courts not of record shall also be established by statute...Municipalities or counties of the first or second class may create a justice court by filing a written declaration with the+ See more
Judicial Council on or before July 1 at least two years prior to the effective date of the election. Upon demonstration of compliance with operating standards as established by statute and the Judicial Council, the Judicial Council shall certify the creation of the court...(1) Justice courts have jurisdiction over class B and C misdemeanors, violation of ordinances, and infractions committed within their territorial jurisdiction by a person 18 years of age or older.
|Justice Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Code Ann. § 78A-5-201||Creation and expansion of existing drug court programs||
(1) There may be created a drug court program in any judicial district that demonstrates: (a) the need for a drug court program; and (b) the existence of a collaborative+ See more
strategy between the court, prosecutors, defense counsel, corrections, and substance abuse treatment services to reduce substance abuse by offenders.
|Drug Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Code Ann. § 78A-5-301||Creation of a veterans court program||
(1) The Judicial Council may create a veterans court program in any judicial district or geographic region that demonstrates: (a) the need for a veterans court program; and (b) the+ See more
existence of a collaborative strategy between the court, prosecutors, defense counsel, corrections, substance abuse treatment services, and the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Justice Outreach Program to divert veteran offenders.
|Veterans Court||Creation of the courts|
|Utah||Utah Code Ann. § 78A-7-101||Creation of justice court--Not of record||Under Article VIII, Section 1, Utah Constitution, there is created a court not of record known as the justice court. The judges of this court are justice court judges.||Justice Court||Creation of the courts|