Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.

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State Statute Description/Statute Name Statutory language Court/legal body Function
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Virginia Va. Const. art. IV, § 1 Va. Const. art. IV, § 1
The judicial power of the Commonwealth shall be vested in a Supreme Court and in such other courts of original or appellate jurisdiction subordinate to the Supreme Court as the
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General Assembly may from time to time establish.
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California Cal. Con. art. VI, § 2 Supreme Court; justices; time for convening; concurrence required for judgment; acting Chief Justice
The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice ofCalifornia and 6 associate justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court at any time. Concurrence of 4 judges present at
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the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting Chief Justice shall perform all functions of the Chief Justice when the Chief Justice is absent or unable to act. The Chief Justice or, if the Chief Justice fails to do so, the court shall select an associate justice as acting Chief Justice.
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California Cal. Con. art. VI, § 3 Courts of appeal; districts; divisions; power; concurrence required for judgment; acting presiding justice
The Legislature shall divide the State into districts eachcontaining a court of appeal with one or more divisions. Each division consists of a presiding justice and 2 or more associate justices.
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It has the power of a court of appeal and shall conduct itself as a 3-judge court. Concurrence of 2 judges present at the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting presiding justice shall perform all functions of the presiding justice when the presiding justice is absent or unable to act. The presiding justice or, if the presiding justice fails to do so, the Chief Justice shall select an associate justice of that division as acting presiding justice.
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California Cal. Con. Art. VI, Sec. 4 Superior courts; officers and employees; appellate divisions
In each county there is a superior court of one or morejudges. The Legislature shall prescribe the number of judges and provide for the officers and employees of each superior
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court. If the governing body of each affected county concurs, the Legislature may provide that one or more judges serve more than one superior court. In each superior court there is an appellate division. The Chief Justice shall assign judges to the appellate division for specified terms pursuant to rules, not inconsistent with statute, adopted by the Judicial Council to promote the independence of the appellate division.
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Louisiana La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9 District courts - elected judges
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of
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judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
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Louisiana La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20 Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law. Creation of the courts
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Connecticut Conn. Const., art. V, § 1 Creation of lower courts
The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, a superior court, and such lower courts as the general assembly shall, from time to time, ordain
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and establish. The powers and jurisdiction of these courts shall be defined by law.
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 471.1 Authorization of Drug Court Programs
Each district court of this state is authorized to establish a drug court program pursuant to the provisions of this act, subject to availability of funds. Juvenile drug courts may
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be established based upon the provisions of this act; provided, however, juveniles shall not be held, processed, or treated in any manner which violates any provision of Title 10A of the Oklahoma Statutes.
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Oklahoma Okla. Stat. tit. 22, § 472 Anna McBride Act--Mental health courts Any district or municipal court of this state may establish a mental health court program pursuant to the provisions of this section, subject to the availability of funds. Creation of the courts
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Minnesota Minn. Const. Art. 6, § 2 Judiciary; Supreme Court

The supreme court consists of one chief judge and not less than six nor more than eight associate judges as the legislature may establish. It shall have original jurisdiction in

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such remedial cases as are prescribed by law, and appellate jurisdiction in all cases, but there shall be no trial by jury in the supreme court. The legislature may establish a court of appeals and provide by law for the number of its judges, who shall not be judges of any other court, and its organization and for the review of its decisions by the supreme court. The court of appeals shall have appellate jurisdiction over all courts, except the supreme court, and other appellate jurisdiction as prescribed by law. As provided by law judges of the court of appeals or of the district court may be assigned temporarily to act as judges of the supreme court upon its request and judges of the district court may be assigned temporarily by the supreme court to act as judges of the court of appeals. The supreme court shall appoint to serve at its pleasure a clerk, a reporter, a state law librarian and other necessary employees.

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Minnesota Minn. Const. Art. 6, § 1 Judiciary; Judicial power

The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, a court of appeals, if established by the legislature, a district court and such other courts, judicial officers

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and commissioners with jurisdiction inferior to the district court as the legislature may establish.

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Ohio Ohio Const. Art. IV § 1 In whom judicial power vested

The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, courts of appeals, courts of common pleas and divisions thereof, and such other courts inferior to the supreme

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court as may from time to time be established by law.

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Ohio Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 4 Common pleas court

(A) There shall be a court of common pleas and such divisions thereof as may be established by law serving each county of the state. Any judge of a court of

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common pleas or a division thereof may temporarily hold court in any county. In the interests of the fair, impartial, speedy, and sure administration of justice, each county shall have one or more resident judges, or two or more counties may be combined into districts having one or more judges resident in the district and serving the common pleas courts of all counties in the district, as may be provided by law. Judges serving a district shall sit in each county in the district as the business of the court requires. In counties or districts having more than one judge of the court of common pleas, the judges shall select one of their number to act as presiding judge, to serve at their pleasure. If the judges are unable because of equal division of the vote to make such selection, the judge having the longest total service on the court of common pleas shall serve as presiding judge until selection is made by vote. The presiding judge shall have such duties and exercise such powers as are prescribed by rule of the supreme court.

(B) The courts of common pleas and divisions thereof shall have such original jurisdiction over all justiciable matters and such powers of review of proceedings of administrative officers and agencies as may be provided by law.

(C) Unless otherwise provided by law, there shall be a probate division and such other divisions of the courts of common pleas as may be provided by law. Judges shall be elected specifically to such probate division and to such other divisions. The judges of the probate division shall be empowered to employ and control the clerks, employees, deputies, and referees of such probate division of the common pleas courts.

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Ohio Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 3 Court of Appeals

(A) The state shall be divided by law into compact appellate districts in each of which there shall be a court of appeals consisting of three judges. Laws may be passed

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increasing the number of judges in any district wherein the volume of business may require such additional judge or judges. In districts having additional judges, three judges shall participate in the hearing and disposition of each case. The court shall hold sessions in each county of the district as the necessity arises. The county commissioners of each county shall provide a proper and convenient place for the court of appeals to hold court.

(B) (1) The courts of appeals shall have original jurisdiction in the following:

(a) Quo warranto;

(b) Mandamus;

(c) Habeas corpus;

(d) Prohibition;

(e) Procedendo;

(f) In any cause on review as may be necessary to its complete determination.

(2) Courts of appeals shall have such jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse judgments or final orders of the courts of record inferior to the court of appeals within the district, except that courts of appeals shall not have jurisdiction to review on direct appeal a judgment that imposes a sentence of death. Courts of appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse final orders or actions of administrative officers or agencies.

(3) A majority of the judges hearing the cause shall be necessary to render a judgment. Judgments of the courts of appeals are final except as provided in section 2(B) (2) of this article. No judgment resulting from a trial by jury shall be reversed on the weight of the evidence except by the concurrence of all three judges hearing the cause.

(4) Whenever the judges of a court of appeals find that a judgment upon which they have agreed is in conflict with a judgment pronounced upon the same question by any other court of appeals of the state, the judges shall certify the record of the case to the supreme court for review and final determination.

(C) Laws may be passed providing for the reporting of cases in the courts of appeals.

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Texas Tex. Const. Art. 5 Sec. 1 Judicial power; courts in which vested

The judicial power of this State shall be vested in one Supreme Court, in one Court of Criminal Appeals, in Courts of Appeals, in District Courts, in County Courts, in

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Commissioners Courts, in Courts of Justices of the Peace, and in such other courts as may be provided by law.

The Legislature may establish such other courts as it may deem necessary and prescribe the jurisdiction and organization thereof, and may conform the jurisdiction of the district and other inferior courts thereto.

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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 3.50.010 Municipal court authorized in cities of four hundred thousand or less

Any city or town with a population of four hundred thousand or less may by ordinance provide for an inferior court to be known and designated as a municipal court,

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which shall be entitled “The Municipal Court of .......... (insert name of city or town)”, hereinafter designated and referred to as “municipal court”, which court shall have jurisdiction and shall exercise all powers by this chapter declared to be vested in the municipal court, together with such other powers and jurisdiction as are generally conferred upon such court in this state either by common law or by express statute.

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Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 2.06.010 Court of appeals established--Definitions

There is hereby established a court of appeals as a court of record. 

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West Virginia W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 2 Supreme court of appeals

The supreme court of appeals shall consist of five justices. A majority of the justices of the court shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

The justices shall be

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elected by the voters of the State for a term of twelve years, unless sooner removed or retired as authorized in this article. The legislature may prescribe by law whether the election of such justices is to be on a partisan or nonpartisan basis.

Provision shall be made by rules of the supreme court of appeals for the selection of a member of the court to serve as chief justice thereof. If the chief justice is temporarily disqualified or unable to serve, one of the justices of the court designated in accordance with the rules of the court shall serve temporarily in his stead.

When any justice is temporarily disqualified or unable to serve, the chief justice may assign a judge of a circuit court or of an intermediate appellate court to serve from time to time in his stead.

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West Virginia W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 1 Judicial power

The judicial power of the State shall be vested solely in a supreme court of appeals and in the circuit courts, and in such intermediate appellate courts and magistrate courts

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as shall be hereafter established by the legislature, and in the justices, judges and magistrates of such courts.

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West Virginia W. Va. Const. art. VIII, § 5 Circuit courts

The judge or judges of each circuit court shall be elected by the voters of the circuit for a term of eight years, unless sooner removed or retired as authorized

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in this article. The legislature may prescribe by law whether the election of such judges is to be on a partisan or nonpartisan basis. Upon the effective date of this article, each statutory court of record of limited jurisdiction existing in the State immediately prior to such effective date shall become part of the circuit court for the circuit in which it presently exists, and each such judge of such statutory court of record of limited jurisdiction shall thereupon become a judge of such circuit court. During his continuance in office, a judge of a circuit court shall reside in the circuit of which he is a judge.

The legislature may increase, or other than during term of office decrease, the number of circuit judges within any circuit. The judicial circuits in existence on the effective date of this article shall remain as so constituted until changed by law, and the legislature, at any session thereof held in the odd-numbered year next preceding the time for the full term election of the judges thereof, may rearrange the circuits and may increase or diminish the number of circuits. A judge of a circuit court in office at the time of any such change shall continue as a judge of the circuit in which he shall continue to reside after such change until his term shall expire, unless sooner removed or retired as authorized in this article.

There shall be at least one judge for each circuit court and as many more as may be necessary to transact the business of such court. If there be two or more judges of a circuit court, provision shall be made by rules of such circuit court for the selection of one of such judges to serve as chief judge thereof. If the chief judge is temporarily disqualified or unable to serve, one of the judges of the circuit court designated in accordance with the rules of such court shall serve temporarily in his stead.

The supreme court of appeals shall provide for dividing the business of those circuits in which there shall be more than one judge between the judges thereof so as to promote and secure the convenient and expeditious transaction of such business.

In every county in the State the circuit court for such county shall sit at least three times in each year. The supreme court of appeals shall designate the times at which each circuit court shall sit, but until this action is taken by the supreme court of appeals, each circuit court shall sit at the times prescribed by law. If there be two or more judges of a circuit court, such judges may hold court in the same county or in different counties within the circuit at the same time or at different times.

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