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Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.
|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Art. 3 Sec. 9||District courts - elected judges||
Section 9. Each circuit shall be divided into at least three districts, and at least one judge shall be elected from each. The circuits and districts and the number of+ See more
judges as elected in each circuit on the effective date of this constitution are retained, subject to change by law enacted by two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature.
|District Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Louisiana||La. Const. Ann. art. V, § 20||Justice of the Peace/Mayor's Court - subject to change by law||Mayors' courts and justice of the peace courts existing on the effective date of this constitution are continued, subject to change by law.||Justice of the Peace Courts/Mayor's Courts||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 2||Supreme Court; justices; time for convening; concurrence required for judgment; acting Chief Justice||
The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice ofCalifornia and 6 associate justices. The Chief Justice may convene the court at any time. Concurrence of 4 judges present at+ See more
the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting Chief Justice shall perform all functions of the Chief Justice when the Chief Justice is absent or unable to act. The Chief Justice or, if the Chief Justice fails to do so, the court shall select an associate justice as acting Chief Justice.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. art. VI, § 3||Courts of appeal; districts; divisions; power; concurrence required for judgment; acting presiding justice||
The Legislature shall divide the State into districts eachcontaining a court of appeal with one or more divisions. Each division consists of a presiding justice and 2 or more associate justices.+ See more
It has the power of a court of appeal and shall conduct itself as a 3-judge court. Concurrence of 2 judges present at the argument is necessary for a judgment. An acting presiding justice shall perform all functions of the presiding justice when the presiding justice is absent or unable to act. The presiding justice or, if the presiding justice fails to do so, the Chief Justice shall select an associate justice of that division as acting presiding justice.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|California||Cal. Con. Art. VI, Sec. 4||Superior courts; officers and employees; appellate divisions||
In each county there is a superior court of one or morejudges. The Legislature shall prescribe the number of judges and provide for the officers and employees of each superior+ See more
court. If the governing body of each affected county concurs, the Legislature may provide that one or more judges serve more than one superior court. In each superior court there is an appellate division. The Chief Justice shall assign judges to the appellate division for specified terms pursuant to rules, not inconsistent with statute, adopted by the Judicial Council to promote the independence of the appellate division.
|Superior Court||Creation of the courts|
|Connecticut||Conn. Const., art. V, § 1||Creation of lower courts||
The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, a superior court, and such lower courts as the general assembly shall, from time to time, ordain+ See more
and establish. The powers and jurisdiction of these courts shall be defined by law.
|Lower courts||Creation of the courts|
|Iowa||Iowa Const. Art. 5 § 10||General assembly||
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[* * *]* The general assembly may reorganize the judicial districts and increase or diminish the number of districts, or the number of judges of the said court, and may
increase the number of judges of the supreme court; but such increase or diminution shall not be more than one district, or one judge of either court, at any one session; and no reorganization of the districts, or diminution of the number of judges, shall have the effect of removing a judge from office. Such reorganization of the districts, or any change in the boundaries thereof, or increase or diminution of the number of judges, shall take place every four years thereafter, if necessary, and at no other time.
At any regular session of the general assembly the state may be divided into the necessary judicial districts for district court purposes, or the said districts may be reorganized and the number of the districts and the judges of said courts increased or diminished; but no reorganization of the districts or diminution of the judges shall have the effect of removing a judge from office.
|Judicial districts||Creation of the courts|
|Iowa||Iowa Const. Art. 5 § 1||Judicial Power||
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The judicial power shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts, and such other courts, inferior to the supreme court, as the general assembly may, from time to time,
|Courts generally||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 421||Establishment||
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The Judicial Department may establish alcohol and drug treatment programs in the Superior Courts and District Courts and may adopt administrative orders and court rules to govern the practice, procedure
and administration of these programs. Alcohol and drug treatment programs must include local judges and must be community based and operated separately from juvenile drug courts.
|Alcohol and drug treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 431||Mental health treatment courts||
The Judicial Department may seek and receive grants to establish mental health treatment courts.
|Mental health treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Maine||Me. Rev. Stat. tit 4 § 433(2)||Veterans treatment courts||
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Chief Justice may establish. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court may establish veterans treatment courts for veterans and members of the United States Armed Forces. The Supreme Judicial
Court may adopt administrative orders and court rules of practice and procedure as necessary.
|Veterans treatment courts||Creation of the courts|
|Mississippi||Miss. Code Ann. § 9-23-3(1)||Purpose of the drug courts||
The Legislature of Mississippi recognizes the critical need for judicial intervention to reduce the incidence of alcohol and drug use, alcohol and drug addiction, and crimes committed as a result+ See more
of alcohol and drug use and alcohol and drug addiction. It is the intent of the Legislature to facilitate local drug court alternative orders adaptable to chancery, circuit, county, youth, municipal and justice courts.
|Drug courts||Creation of the courts|
|Mississippi||Miss. Code Ann. § 9-25-1(2)||Veterans treatment court program||
A circuit court judge may establish a Veterans Treatment Court program. The Veterans Treatment Court may, at the discretion of the circuit court judge, be a separate court program or+ See more
as a component of an existing drug court program. At the discretion of the circuit court judge, the Veterans Treatment Court may be operated in one (1) county within the circuit court district, and allow veteran participants from all counties within the circuit court district to participate.
|Veteran treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|Missouri||Mo. Const. Art. 5, § 1||Judicial Power - Constitutional Courts||
The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, a court of appeals consisting of districts as prescribed by law, and circuit courts.
|Judicial power generally||Creation of the courts|
|Missouri||Mo. Ann. Stat. § 476.010||Courts of record||
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The supreme court of the state of Missouri, the court of appeals, and the circuit courts shall be courts of record, and shall keep just and faithful records of their
proceedings. Notwithstanding the foregoing, municipal divisions of the circuit courts shall not be considered courts of record, regardless of whether or not a verbatim record of proceedings before the division is kept.
|State courts generally||Creation of the courts|
|Missouri||Mo. Ann. Stat. § 478.001(2)-(3)||Treatment court divisions, definitions, establishment, purpose--referrals to certified treatment programs required, exception--completion of treatment program, effect--adult treatment court--DWI court--family treatment court--juvenile treatment court--vet||
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2. A treatment court division may be established by any circuit court pursuant to sections 478.001 to 478.009 to provide an alternative for the judicial system to dispose of cases which stem
from, or are otherwise impacted by, substance use. The treatment court division may include, but not be limited to, cases assigned to an adult treatment court, DWI court, family treatment court, juvenile treatment court, veterans treatment court, or any combination thereof. A treatment court shall combine judicial supervision, drug or alcohol testing, and treatment of participants. Except for good cause found by the court, a treatment court making a referral for substance use disorder treatment, when such program will receive state or federal funds in connection with such referral, shall refer the person only to a program which is certified by the department of mental health, unless no appropriate certified treatment program is located within the same county as the treatment court. Upon successful completion of the treatment court program, the charges, petition, or penalty against a treatment court participant may be dismissed, reduced, or modified, unless otherwise stated. Any fees received by a court from a defendant as payment for substance treatment programs shall not be considered court costs, charges or fines.
3. An adult treatment court may be established by any circuit court under sections 478.001 to 478.009 to provide an alternative for the judicial system to dispose of cases which stem from substance use.
|Drug treatment court||Creation of the courts|
|Missouri||Mo. Ann. Stat. § 478.073(1)||Circuit realignment plan authorized--judicial conference duties--effective date--minimum number of circuits--publication by the revisor||
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As set forth in this section, the general assembly authorizes the judicial conference of the State of Missouri, as established pursuant to section 476.320, to alter the geographical boundaries and
territorial jurisdiction of the judicial circuits by means of a circuit realignment plan as the administration of justice may require, subject to the requirements set forth in Article V of the Constitution of Missouri.
|Circuit courts||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV § 1||In whom judicial power vested||
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The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, courts of appeals, courts of common pleas and divisions thereof, and such other courts inferior to the supreme
court as may from time to time be established by law.
|Judiciary||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 4||Common pleas court||
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(A) There shall be a court of common pleas and such divisions thereof as may be established by law serving each county of the state. Any judge of a court of
common pleas or a division thereof may temporarily hold court in any county. In the interests of the fair, impartial, speedy, and sure administration of justice, each county shall have one or more resident judges, or two or more counties may be combined into districts having one or more judges resident in the district and serving the common pleas courts of all counties in the district, as may be provided by law. Judges serving a district shall sit in each county in the district as the business of the court requires. In counties or districts having more than one judge of the court of common pleas, the judges shall select one of their number to act as presiding judge, to serve at their pleasure. If the judges are unable because of equal division of the vote to make such selection, the judge having the longest total service on the court of common pleas shall serve as presiding judge until selection is made by vote. The presiding judge shall have such duties and exercise such powers as are prescribed by rule of the supreme court.
(B) The courts of common pleas and divisions thereof shall have such original jurisdiction over all justiciable matters and such powers of review of proceedings of administrative officers and agencies as may be provided by law.
(C) Unless otherwise provided by law, there shall be a probate division and such other divisions of the courts of common pleas as may be provided by law. Judges shall be elected specifically to such probate division and to such other divisions. The judges of the probate division shall be empowered to employ and control the clerks, employees, deputies, and referees of such probate division of the common pleas courts.
|Court of Common Pleas||Creation of the courts|
|Ohio||Ohio Const. Art. IV, § 3||Court of Appeals||
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(A) The state shall be divided by law into compact appellate districts in each of which there shall be a court of appeals consisting of three judges. Laws may be passed
increasing the number of judges in any district wherein the volume of business may require such additional judge or judges. In districts having additional judges, three judges shall participate in the hearing and disposition of each case. The court shall hold sessions in each county of the district as the necessity arises. The county commissioners of each county shall provide a proper and convenient place for the court of appeals to hold court.
(B) (1) The courts of appeals shall have original jurisdiction in the following:
(a) Quo warranto;
(c) Habeas corpus;
(f) In any cause on review as may be necessary to its complete determination.
(2) Courts of appeals shall have such jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse judgments or final orders of the courts of record inferior to the court of appeals within the district, except that courts of appeals shall not have jurisdiction to review on direct appeal a judgment that imposes a sentence of death. Courts of appeals shall have such appellate jurisdiction as may be provided by law to review and affirm, modify, or reverse final orders or actions of administrative officers or agencies.
(3) A majority of the judges hearing the cause shall be necessary to render a judgment. Judgments of the courts of appeals are final except as provided in section 2(B) (2) of this article. No judgment resulting from a trial by jury shall be reversed on the weight of the evidence except by the concurrence of all three judges hearing the cause.
(4) Whenever the judges of a court of appeals find that a judgment upon which they have agreed is in conflict with a judgment pronounced upon the same question by any other court of appeals of the state, the judges shall certify the record of the case to the supreme court for review and final determination.
(C) Laws may be passed providing for the reporting of cases in the courts of appeals.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|