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Below are all of the laws that govern the structure of courts that match your search criteria.
|State||Statute||Description/Statute Name||Statutory language||Court/legal body||Function|
|Alabama||Ala.Code 1975 § 12-2-7||Supreme court - jurisdiction||
(1) To exercise appellate jurisdiction coextensive with the state, under such restrictions and regulations as are prescribed by law; but, in deciding appeals, no weight shall be given the decision+ See more
of the trial judge upon the facts where the evidence is not taken orally before the judge, but in such cases the Supreme Court shall weigh the evidence and give judgment as it deems just.(2) To exercise original jurisdiction in the issue and determination of writs of quo warranto and mandamus in relation to matters in which no other court has jurisdiction. (3) To issue writs of injunction, habeas corpus, and such other remedial and original writs as are necessary to give to it a general superintendence and control of courts of inferior jurisdiction. (4) To make and promulgate rules governing the administration of all courts and rules governing practice and procedure in all courts; provided, that such rules shall not abridge, enlarge, or modify the substantive right of any party nor affect the jurisdiction of circuit and district courts or venue of actions therein; and provided further, that the right of trial by jury as at common law and declared by Section 11 of the Constitution of Alabama of 1901 shall be preserved to the parties inviolate. (5) To punish for contempts by the infliction of a fine not exceeding $100, and imprisonment not exceeding 10 days or both. (6) To transfer to the Court of Civil Appeals, for determination by that court, any civil case appealed to the Supreme Court and within the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, except the following: a. A case that the Supreme Court determines presents a substantial question of federal or state constitutional law. b. A case that the Supreme Court determines involves a novel legal question, the resolution of which will have significant statewide impact. c. A utility rate case appealed directly to the Supreme Court under the provisions of Section 37-1-140. d. A bond validation proceeding appealed to the Supreme Court under the provisions of Section 6-6-754. e. A bar disciplinary proceeding. (7) To exercise such other powers as are or may be given to the Supreme Court by law.
|Supreme Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Alabama||Ala.Code 1975 § 12-11-30||Circuit court - jurisdiction||
(1) CIVIL. The circuit court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of all civil actions in which the matter in controversy exceeds ten thousand dollars ($10,000), exclusive of interest and costs,+ See more
and shall exercise original jurisdiction concurrent with the district court in all civil actions in which the matter in controversy exceeds six thousand dollars ($6,000), exclusive of interest and costs.(2) CRIMINAL. The circuit court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of all felony prosecutions and of misdemeanor or ordinance violations which are lesser included offenses within a felony charge or which arise from the same incident as a felony charge; except, that the district court shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court to receive pleas of guilty in felony cases not punishable by sentence of death. The circuit court may, on conviction of a defendant, upon a showing of inability to make immediate payment of fine and costs, continue the case from time to time to permit the fine and costs to be paid. (3) APPELLATE. The circuit court shall have appellate jurisdiction of civil, criminal, and juvenile cases in district court and prosecutions for ordinance violations in municipal courts, except in cases in which direct appeal to the Courts of Civil or Criminal Appeals is provided by law or rule. Appeals to the circuit court shall be tried de novo, with or without a jury, as provided by law. (4) SUPERINTENDENCE OF DISTRICT, MUNICIPAL AND PROBATE COURTS. The circuit court shall exercise a general superintendence over all district courts, municipal courts, and probate courts. (5) CONTEMPTS. The circuit court may punish contempts by fines not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100) and by imprisonment not exceeding five days. The power of the circuit court to enforce its orders and judgments by determinations of civil contempt shall be unaffected by this section. (6) GENERAL. The circuit court shall have other powers as provided by law.
|Circuit Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Alabama||Ala.Code 1975 § 12-12-34||Juvenile jurisdiction||Juvenile jurisdiction shall be exercised concurrently by the district court and the circuit court as provided by law.||District/Circuit Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Alabama||Ala.Code 1975 § 12-12-51||District court - jurisdiction over misdemeanor prosecution for traffic violations||The district court shall have exclusive original jurisdiction of misdemeanor prosecutions for traffic infractions, except ordinance infractions prosecuted in municipal courts.||District Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Alabama||Ala.Code 1975 § 12-3-9||Criminal jurisdiction||
+ See more
The Court of Criminal Appeals shall have exclusive appellate jurisdiction of all misdemeanors, including the violation of town and city ordinances, habeas corpus and all felonies, including all post conviction
writs in criminal cases.
|Court of Criminal Appeals||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Alabama||Ala.Code 1975 § 12-12-32||Misdemeanors (District court - jurisdiction)||
+ See more
(a) Misdemeanors. The district court shall have exclusive original trial jurisdiction over prosecutions of all offenses defined by law or ordinance as misdemeanors, except:(1) Prosecutions by municipalities having municipal courts;
(2) Any such prosecution which also involves a felony offense which is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the circuit court, except as the district court is empowered to hold preliminary hearings with respect to felonies and to receive guilty pleas as provided in subsection (b) of this section; and (3) Any misdemeanor for which an indictment has been returned by a grand jury. (b) Felonies. (1) The district court may exercise original jurisdiction concurrent with the circuit court to receive pleas of guilty in prosecutions of offenses defined by law as felonies not punishable by sentence of death. (2) The district court shall have jurisdiction to hold preliminary hearings in prosecutions for felonies as provided for in Title 15 of this code .
|District Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Alabama||Ala.Code 1975 § 12-23A-4(a)(1)||Drug court - establishment of||
+ See more
The presiding judge of each judicial circuit, with the consent of the district attorney of that judicial circuit, may establish a drug court or courts, under which drug offenders shall
be processed, to appropriately address the identified substance abuse problem of the drug offender as a condition of pretrial release, pretrial diversion, probation, jail, prison, parole, community corrections, or other release or diversion from a correctional facility. The structure, method, and operation of each drug court may differ and should be based upon the specific needs of and resources available to the judicial district or circuit where the drug court is located, but shall be created and operate pursuant to this chapter and in compliance with rules promulgated by the Alabama Supreme Court.
|Drug Court||Creation of the courts|
|Indiana||IN Const. Art. 7, § 1||Judicial power||The judicial power of the State shall be vested in one Supreme Court, one Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, and such other courts as the General Assembly may establish.||Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|Indiana||IN Const. Art. 7, § 2||Supreme Court||
The Supreme Court shall consist of the Chief Justice of the State and not less than four nor more than eight associate justices; a majority of whom shall form a+ See more
quorum. The court may appoint such personnel as may be necessary.
|Supreme Court||Creation of the courts|
|Indiana||IN Const. Art. 7, § 4||Jurisdiction of Supreme Court||
The Supreme Court shall have no original jurisdiction except in admission to the practice of law; discipline or disbarment of those admitted; the unauthorized practice of law; discipline, removal, and+ See more
retirement of justices and judges; supervision of the exercise of jurisdiction by the other courts of the State; and issuance of writs necessary or appropriate in aid of its jurisdiction. The Supreme Court shall exercise appellate jurisdiction under such terms and conditions as specified by rules except that appeals from a judgment imposing a sentence of death shall be taken directly to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have, in all appeals of criminal cases, the power to review all questions of law and to review and revise the sentence imposed.
|Supreme Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Indiana||IN Const. Art. 7, § 5||Court of Appeals||
The Court of Appeals shall consist of as many geographic districts and sit at such locations as the General Assembly shall determine to be necessary. Each geographic district of the+ See more
Court shall consist of three judges. The judges of each geographic district shall appoint such personnel as the General Assembly may provide by law.
|Court of Appeals||Creation of the courts|
|Indiana||IN Const. Art. 7, § 6||Jurisdiction of Court of Appeals||
The Court shall have no original jurisdiction, except that it may be authorized by rules of the Supreme Court to review directly decisions of administrative agencies. In all other cases,+ See more
it shall exercise appellate jurisdiction under such terms and conditions as the Supreme Court shall specify by rules which shall, however, provide in all cases an absolute right to one appeal and to the extent provided by rule, review and revision of sentences for defendants in all criminal cases.
|Court of Appeals||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Indiana||IN Const. Art. 7, § 7||Judicial circuits||
The State shall, from time to time, be divided into judicial circuits; and a Judge for each circuit shall be elected by the voters thereof. He shall reside within the+ See more
circuit and shall have been duly admitted to practice law by the Supreme Court of Indiana; he shall hold his office for the term of six years, if he so long behaves well.
|Circuit Courts||Creation of the courts|
|Indiana||IN Const. Art. 7, § 8||Circuit courts||The Circuit Courts shall have such civil and criminal jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law.||Circuit Courts||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Indiana||Ind. Code § 33-24-1-2||Jurisdiction (Supreme Court)||
(a) The supreme court has jurisdiction in appeals coextensive with the state and has jurisdiction as provided by the Constitution of the State of Indiana.(b) The supreme court has exclusive+ See more
jurisdiction to: (1) admit attorneys to practice law in all courts of the state; and (2) issue restraining orders and injunctions in all cases involving the unauthorized practice of the law; under rules and regulations as the supreme court may prescribe.
|Supreme Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Indiana||Ind. Code § 33-26-3-1||Limited jurisdiction (Tax Court)||
The tax court is a court of limited jurisdiction. The tax court has exclusive jurisdiction over any case that arises under the tax laws of Indiana and that is an+ See more
initial appeal of a final determination made by:(1) the department of state revenue with respect to a listed tax (as defined in Ind. Code § 6-8.1-1-1); or (2) the Indiana board of tax review.
|Tax Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Indiana||Ind. Code § 33-28-1-2||Jurisdiction (Circuit Courts)||
(a) All circuit courts have:(1) original and concurrent jurisdiction in all civil cases and in all criminal cases; (2) de novo appellate jurisdiction of appeals from city and town courts; and (3)+ See more
in Marion County, de novo appellate jurisdiction of appeals from township small claims courts established under Ind. Code § 33-34. (b) The circuit court also has the appellate jurisdiction that may be conferred by law upon it.
|Circuit Courts||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Indiana||Ind. Code § 33-29-1-1.5||Jurisdiction (Superior Courts)||
All standard superior courts have:(1) original and concurrent jurisdiction in all civil cases and in all criminal cases; (2) de novo appellate jurisdiction of appeals from city and town courts; and (3)+ See more
in Marion County, de novo appellate jurisdiction of appeals from township small claims courts established under Ind. Code § 33-34.
|Superior Courts||Jurisdiction of the courts|
|Indiana||Ind. Code § 33-31-1-1||Creation and establishment of court (St. Joseph County Probate Court)||
There is established a probate court in St. Joseph County known as the St. Joseph Probate Court. The court shall be presided over by one (1) judge to be chosen+ See more
as provided in this chapter.
|Probate Court||Creation of the courts|
|Indiana||Ind. Code § 33-31-1-9||Jurisdiction (Probate Courts)||
All probate courts have:(1) original and concurrent jurisdiction in all civil cases and in all criminal cases; (2) de novo appellate jurisdiction of appeals from city and town courts; and (3) in+ See more
Marion County, de novo appellate jurisdiction of appeals from township small claims courts established under Ind. Code § 33-34.
|Probate Court||Jurisdiction of the courts|